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xA 


^(^  Biological 

Serials     ^ 


.    Cbe    . 


Hdricultural  Journal 
of  India 


EDITED    BY 

The  Inspector-General  of  Agriculture  in  India 


ASSISTED    BY 


An  Advisory  Committee  of  the  Staff  of  the 
Aofricultural  Research  Institute 
Push,  Bengal,  India. 


VOL.  V 

(1910) 


\a 


(i  ,      MAR  2  0   I9I1  ' 


fti' 


FUBLI8HKD    FOR  ,^ 

THE  IMPERIAL  DEPARTMENT  OF  AGRICULTURE  IN  INDIA 

BY 

THACKER,  SPINK  k  CO.,  CALCUTTA 
W.  THACKER  &  CO.,  i,  Crbed  Lane,  LONDON 


^^,   11 


CALCUTTA : 
PKINTED   BY   THACKER,   SPINK   AND  CO. 


}j^' 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS. 

VOL.  V.    1910. 


PART  I. 

Page. 

The  Cattle  Conference  at  Lucknow  ...    W,  H.  Moreland,CJ.E,, 

I.C.S.  ...       1 

The    Introduction    of    Improvements   into 

Indian  Agriculture  ...  ...  Harold  H,  Mann,  D.Sc.      6 

Experiments  in  the  Storage  of  Seed  Pota- 
toes ...  ...  ...  JJ.  M  a  .r  tvell-Le/roi/, 

M.A.,F.E.S.,F.Z.S.; 

<5-  G.  Evans,  B.A.  ...     19 

The  Efficiency  of  the  '-  Hadi  Process  "  of 

Sugar  Manufacture  ...  ...  G.   Clarke,    F.I.C. ;    c^- 

5.  a  Banerjee         ...     29 
Agriculture    in   the    Kachin  Hill   Tracts, 

Bhamo  District     ... 
The  Construction  of  Cow-Housrs 
Notes 
Reviews 


E.     Thompstone,    B.Sc.  42 

.Mn    Speir,  Kt.  St.   0.  52 

74 

90 


PART  II. 

The  Furlough  Wanderings  of   a    Director 

OF  Agriculture     ...                ...                ...  -E     MacKenna,  M.A., 

I.r.S.  ...     97 

Agricultural    Improvements    in    Chhattis- 

GARH                          ...                   ...                    ...    D.       Cloiixton,  .\f.A., 

B.Sc.  ...  116 

The  Outbreak  of  Blister-Blight   on  Tea  in 

the  Darjeeling  District  in  1908-09         ...    ir.       McRae,  .\f.A., 

B.Sc.  ...   126 

A  New  Insecticide  ...  ...  ...//.    Ma  .vwell-Lefroy, 

M,A.,  F.E.S..  F.Z.S.  138 


iy  TABLE   OF    CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Cattle-breeding  in  Sind  ...  ...   G.    S.    Render  so  n, 

N.D.A.^N.D.D.    ...  144 

(Competition  ok  Cultivators   for   Chkgking 

THE  Stem-Bokkrof  Sessamum...  ...    Chotahhai  U.  Patel    ...   153 

Notes  •••  •••  •••  ^^^ 

Reviews  ...  •••  •••  ^^^ 

List  of  Agricultural  Publications  in  India 

FROM  1st  August  1909  to  31st  January 

1910  191 

PART  III. 

The  Edible  Mushroom,  Agaricus  Campestris, 

Linn.  ...  ...  ...    W.      McRae,       M.A., 

B.Sc.  ...   197 

Hairy   Caterpillars   in    the  South    Arcot 

District,  Madras  ...  ...  ...    F.  Ramachandra  Rao      205 

School  Gardkms      ..  ...  ...  M.  E.  Couchnan,  I.C.S.  212 

Andropogon  Sorghum  :   Millet  or  Pyaung : 

Its  Cultivation  and  some  of  its  Enemies  L.  Auhert,  B.A.,  B.Sc.    222 
Managkment    of    Experiment  Stations    in 

India  ...  ...  ...  ...J.     MacKenna,     M.A., 

I.C.S.,   aiid    A.    Mc- 
Kerral,  M.A.,  B.Sc.      231 
Aguiculture  at  THii  Lahore  Exhibition    ...  B.     C.      Burt,    B.Sc, 

F.C.S....  ...   235 

Jute  in  Botation  with  Paddy  in  the  same 

ykar  and  its   Efkect    on    Food    Crops...  B.  C.  Basu,  M.R.A.C., 

M.R.A.S.  ...  241 

Bleaching  of  Ginger       ...       ...   G.     B.      Patwardhan, 

B.Sc.    ...       ...  245 

('aravonica  Cotton  ...  ...  ...   G.  A.  Gammie,   F.L.S.  249 

The  Cultivaton  of  Banana  in  Travancore    T.  Ponnamhallam  Pil- 

laij       ...  ...  252 

Experiments  on   thb    Availability   of    Ni- 
trogen   IN    Peat,    Pkat   Moss   and  Ele- 
phant Dung   as   oompared    with    certain 
OTHKR  Manures    ...  ...  ...  H.  E.  Annett,  B.Sc    ...255 

Uhink-Earth  as  a  Manurk      ...  ...  J).      Clouston,       ALA., 

B.Sc.     ...  ...  262 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS. 


SOMK     ASPIDCTS     OF     AGRICULTURAL     WORK     IN 


THE  Chenab  Colony 
Notes     ... 
Reviews... 


..    G.  F.de  Montmorency. 


V 
Page. 

..  264 
..  272 
..  285 


PART  IV. 
"Fata  Morgana  "... 

Rural  Economy  in  thk    Bombay  Deccan  I— 
The  College  of  Agriculturi<!,  Coimbatore... 

A  Problem  in  Agriculture 

The  Shauk-Noo  (Citrus  Hystrix,   D.C.)    ... 

The    Present   Position    and    Prospects    of 

Cotton  Cultivation  in  India — I 
A    Report    of    the    First    Entomological 

Demonstration  made  in  Bahoda  for  the 

Year  1909-10 

The    International    Institute     of     Agri- 
culture 

Cultivation  of  Guinea  Grass 

The    Dhubui    Agricultural    &    Industrial 

Exhibition  of   1910 

Notes 

Reviews 

List  of  Agricultural  Publications 


C.  M.  Hutchinson,   B.A.  299 
G.  F.  Keatinge,  LC.S.      302 
B.    ]V.  B.   Cecil    Wood, 
B.A.     ...  ...  319 

J.  MolUson,  M.R.A.C.     32.5 
A.  M.  Sawyer  ...   331 

G.  A.  Gammie,  F.L.S.      i<35 


C/ihotabhai  U.  Patel    ... 

Bernard  Coventry 

D.  L.  Narayan  Rao    ... 

F.  W.  Strong,  LC.S.... 


352 
3.t7 

3^.7 
373 
395 

400 


Digitized  by  the  Internet  Archive 

in  2008  with  funding  from 

IVIicrosoft  Corporation 


http://www.archive.org/details/agriculturaljour05calcuoft 


INDEX  TO  VOL.  V. 

1910. 


A. 

Page. 

Agricultural    and    Industrial    Exhibition,  Allahabad.     December 

1910                   ...                 ...                 ...                 ...                ...  167 

Agricultural    and   Industrial  Exhibition,    Dhubri,  1910.     F.    VV. 

Strong                  ...                  ...                  ...                  ...                  ...  367 

Agricultural  Improvement.     The  Assistance  of  the  Court  of  Wards 

in-.     W,  H.  Morelnnd          ...                  ...                  ...                  ...  74 

Agricultural   Improvements  in  Chhattisgarh.    D.  Clouston         ...  116 

Agricultural  Machinery           ...                 ...                 ...                ...  179 

Agricultural   Publications    in  Indta— from    1st   August    1909    to 

31st  January  1910.     List  of—                  ...                  ...                  ...  191 

Agricultural    Publications    in  India — from    the    1st   February    to 

31st  July  1910.     Listof— ...                   ...                 ...                 ...  400 

Agricultural  Research           ...                 ...                ...                ...  380 

Agricultural  Station  in  Sind.     A  New—                    ..•.                 ...  284 

Agricultural  work    in  the   Chenab  Colony.     Some   aspects  of — . 

G.  F.  de  Montmorency            ..                  ...                  ...                  ...  '264 

Agriculture.     The  Introduction  of  Improvements  into  Indian.     \V.  H. 

Moreland —         ...                  ...                  ...                  ...                  ...  (I 

Agriculture     in     the     Kacuin     Hill    Tracts.      Bhamo    District. 

E.  Thompstone,  B.Sc.             ...                  ...                  ...                  ...  42 

Agriculture  at  the  Lahore  Exhibition.     B.C.  Burt...                ...  23.") 

Agriculture    in  India.     The    revival  of — by    John  Kenny.     H.    H. 

Mann.     (Review)                     ...                 ...                 ...                  ...  285 

Agriculturk.     The  College  of — .     Coimbatore.     Ix.  (;.  Wood             ...  319 

Agriculture.     A  Problem  in — .     J.  MoUison                   ...                 ...  32.') 

Agriculture.     The  International  Institute  of — .     B.  Coventry          ...  3.57 

Aiyar,  a.  K.  Yegna  Narayan— .     Some  Manurial  Earth<  of  Mysore  ...  76 

Akund  Cotton.     Gr.  A.  Gammie                     ...                 ...                 ...  80 

Allahabad.     Agricultural  and  Industrial  Exhibition,  December  1910...  167 


Viii  INDEX    TO   VOL.    V. 

Page. 

Andropogon  Sorghum  :     Millet  or  Pjaiing  :  Its  Cultivation  and  some 

of  its  Enemies.     L.  Aiibert    ...  ...  ...  ...     '222 

Annett,  H.  E.  Experiments  on  the  availability  of  Nitrogen  in  Peat, 
Peat  Moss  and  Elephant  Dung  as  compared  with  certain  other 
Manures  ...  ...  ...  ...  •••     2.5.) 

Annual  Reports  (Second  and  Third)  of  the  Committee  of  Control 
OF  THE  South  African  Central  Locust  Bureau,  1908-l[i09. 
H.  M.  Lefroy.     (Review)       ...  ...  ...  ...       H) 

Annual    Report    of    the    Sugar    Experiments  in  the    Leeward 

Islands  for  1908-1909.     J.  W.  Leather.     (Review)  ...     395 

AuBBRT,  L.  Andropogon  Sorghum  :  Millet  or  Pyaung  :  Its  Cultiva- 
tion and  some  of  its  Enemies  ...  ...  ...      222 

Australian   Potatoes.     Experiments  with — on  the  Nilgiri  Hills        ...     382 

B. 

IjACTERTA.     Legume  by     Drs.    Edwards    and    Barlow  ;    C.    Bergtheil. 

(Review)  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...        92 

Banana  in  Travancokk.     The  Cultivation  of  the — .     T.  Ponnamballain 

Pilhvy  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     252 

Banerjke,  S.  C.  ;  AND  G.  Clarke.     Efficiency  of  the  "  Hadi  Process  " 

of   Sugar  Manufacture  ...  ...  ...  ...        29 

Bangalore.     Foreign  Fruits  in — .     T.  V.  Subramanium--  ...     274 

P>AUoi)A.     A  Report   of  the  First  Entomological  Demonstration  made 

in— for  the  year  1909-10.     C.   U.  Patel  ...  ...     352 

Basu,   B.   C.     Jute  in    rotation   with  Paddy   in  the  same  year  and    its 

effect  on  Food  Crops  ...  ...  ...  ...      241 

l*KicswAX  IN  India.     Preparation  of  ...  ...  ...     374 

Bkugtheil,    C.     Legume     Bacteria    by    Drs.    Edwards    and    Barlow. 

(Review)  ...  ...  ...  ^^^  t)2 

liLEACHiNG  OF  GiNGKK.     G.  B.  Patwardhan ...  ...  ...     245 

Bi,ister-]5li(;ht  on  Tea  in  the   Darjkeling    District  in  1908-1909. 

The  Outbreak  of— .     W.  McRae  ...  ...  ...      126 

BuKMA,  Uppkk.     Potatoes  in— .     E.  Thompstone  ...  ...        85 

IUjut,   B.  C.     Agriculture  at  the  Lahore  Exhibition         ...  ...     235 

Butler,    E.   J.     The    Ring  Disease  of  Potatoes   by    L.    C.  Coleman. 

(Review)  ...  ,  _  ^^^  ^^  _       -^gg 


C. 

(Jank  .Ski..     .^uU^s  on  the  Cerniiuation  of—.     AV.  Neilson 


Caravonica  Cotton.     G.  A.  (7; 


178 


innnie  ...  ...  ...     249 


,  index  to  vol.  v.  ix 

Page. 
Caterpillars   in   the  South  Argot  Distiuct,  Madras.     Hairy — 

Y.  Ramchandra  Rao              ...                  ...                  ...                  ...  205 

Cattle  Breedinig  in  Sind,     G.  S.  Henderson                    ...                  ...  144 

Cattle  Conferenck;  at  LircKNow.     W.  H.  Moreland      ...                 ...  1 

Chbnab    Colony.     Some   aspects     of    Agricultural    work    in   the — . 

G.  F.  de  Montmorency          ...                  ...                  ...                  ...  264 

Chhattisgarh.     Agricultural  Improvements  in — .     D.  Clouston         ...  116 

Chinch  Bug.     By  F.  M.  Webster.     H.  M.  Lefroy.     (Review)           ...  288 
Clarke,  G.  ;  and  S.  C.  Banerjee.     Efficiency  of  the  "  Hadi  Process  " 

of  Sugar  Manufacture           ...                  ...                  ...                  ...  29 

Clouston,  D.     Agricultural  Improvements  in  Chhattisgarh                 ...  116 

,,               A  Promising  Weed                   ...                   ...                  ...  165 

„               Urine  Earth  as  a  Manure       ...                   ...                   ...  262 

,,               Replanning  a  Farm  for  Profit.     (Review)                    ...  291 

CoiMBATORR.     The  College  of  Agriculture—      R.  C.  Wood                  ...  319 

CoLLKGH]  OF  Agriculture.     Coimbatore — .     R.  C.  Wood                    ...  319 
Competition    of    Cultivators    for  (Checking    the   Strm-Borkr    of 

Sessamum.     C.  U.  Patel      ...                  ...                 ...                 ...  153 

(yONCuRNiNG  Soil  Fertility       ...                  ...                 ...                 ...  383 

Conference  at  Lucknow.     ('attle — .      W.  H.  Moreland...                  ...  1 

Conservation  uf  thk  Fertility  of  the  Soil                   ...                 ...  375 

Construction  of  Cow  Houses.     John  Speir,  Kt.  St.  0.                    ...  52 

CooRG.     Eri  Silk  grown  in — .     R.  D.  Tipping                  ...                  ...  272 

Cotton.     Akund — .     G.  A.  Gammie              ...                  ...                  ...  80 

,,         Caravonica — G.  A.  Gammie             ...                   ...                  ...  249 

,,        Cultivation   in  India — .     I  The   present  position  and  pros- 
pects of — .     G.  A.  Gammie     ...                   ...                  ...  335 

Couchman,  M.  E.     School  Gardens                  ...                   ...                   ...  212 

Court  of  Wards  in  the  Agricultural  improvement.     Assistance  of 

the—.      W.  H.  Moreland       .  .                  ...                  ...                  ...  74 

Coventry,      Bernard.      The      International      Institute      of      Agri- 
culture                ...                  ...                  ...                  ...                  ...  357 

Cow  Houses.     Construction  of — .     John  Speir                 ...                  ...  52 

Cultivation  of  Soy  Beans  in  India              ...                ...                ...  277 

Cultivation  and  Utilisation  of  Soy  Beans                    ...                 ...  375 

Cultivation  of  Guinea  Grass.     D.  L.  Narayan  Rao      ...                 ...  S62 

Cultivation    of     Banana     in     Travancore,      T.      Ponnamballam 

Pillay                    ...                  ...                  ..                   ...                  ...  252 

Curing   Tobacco.     Principles   and    Practical    Methods  of—,     by   W. 

W.  Garner  Bull.     A.  Howard.     (Review)                  ...                  ...  90 


x  index  to  vol.  v,' 

Page. 
D. 

Dakjkeling    District.     The   Outbreak    of  Blister-Blight   on    Tea   in 

1908-1909.     W.  McRae        ...  ...  ...  ...      12G 

Deccan  (Bombay).     Rural  Economy  in  the — .     U.  F.  Keatinge        ...     302 
Dhubri.     Agricultural  and   Industrial  Exhibition  of  1910—.     F.   W. 

Strong  ...  ...  •••  •••  ...      367 

Director  of  Agriculture     The  Furlough  Wanderings  of  a — .    J. 

MacKenna  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...        97 

Drainage  of  Irrigated  Lands.     G.  IS.  Henderson.     (Review)       ...     189 
Dry  Farming  in  the  Transvaal.     G.  S.  Henderson      ...  ...     278 


Eastern  Bengal  and  Assam.     Poultry  Industry  in —  ...     180 

East  Indiks.     Sugar  in  British — .     ( ■.  Soniers  Taylor     ...  ...        82 

Edible  Mushroom,  Agaricus  Campbstris,  Linn.  W.  McRae  ...  197 
Effect  of  Partial  Sterilization  of  Soil  on  the  Phodiction   of 

Plant  Food.     J.  W.  Leather  ...  ...  ...     276 

Efficiency    of    the    "  Hadi    Process"    of    Sugar  Manufacture. 

G.  Clarke  and  S.  0.  Banerjee  ...  ...  ...        29 

Elephant  Dung.     Experiments  on    the   availability    of  Nitrogen    in 

Peat,  Peat  Moss  and — as  compared  with  certain    other    Manures. 

H.  E.  Annett     ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     ^55 

Entomological    Demonstration    made  in    Bauoda    for   the  year 

1909-10.     A  Report  of  the  First—.  C.  U.  Patel       ...  ...     352 

Entomological  Notes,  Eri  Silk.     H.  M.  Lefroy         ...  ..160 

Eri  Silk— Entomological  Notes.     H.  M.  Lefroy         ...  ...     160 

Eri  Silk  grown  in  Coorg.     R.  D.  Tipping  ...  ...     272 

Evans,  G.  ;  and  H.   M.  Lefroy.      Experiments   in    the  Storage    of 

Seed  Potatoes    ...  ...  .,,  ...  ...        19 

K.KHIBITION,  Allahabad,  December   1910.     Agricultural  and  Indus- 
trial— ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     n^-j 

ExHiiuTiuN.     Agriculture  at  the  Lahore— .     B.C.Burt...  ...     235 

E.xuuuTiON.     The     Dhubri     Agricultural     and    Industrial —of     1910. 

F.W.  Strong     ...  ...  ..  ...  ...     ;^67 

E.XPKUlMENrAL    EUROK   IN    FlELD    TrIALS  ...  ...  ...       Ht) 

Experiments  on  the  availability  of  Nitrogen  in  PKAr,  Peat 
Moss  AND  Elephant  Dung  as  compared  with  certain  othkr 
Manikes.     H.  E.  Annett    ...  ...  ...  ...     255 

Expeuimenth  IN  THE  Storage  OF  Seed  Potatoes.  H.  M.  Lefroy 
and  a.  Evnns 


19 


index  to  vol.  v.  xi 

Page. 
Experiment    8rATiONs?    in    India.     Management  of — .    J.  MacKenna 

and  A.  McKerrul                   ...                                     ...                 ...  281 

Experiments  with  Australian  Potatoes  on  the  Nilgirl  Hills  ...  382 

P. 

Farm  for  Profit.     Replanniog  a—.     D.  Clouston.     (Review)        ...  291 

"  Fata  Morgana."     C.M.Hutchinson         ...                 ...                 ...  299 

Fertility"  of  the  Soil.     The  Conservation  of —            ...                ...  375 

Fibre.     Plantain —    ...                  ...                  ...                  ...                  ...  181 

Field  Trials.     The  Experimental  Error  in —                  ...                 ...  176 

Foreign  Fruits  in  Bangalore.     T.  V.  Subramanium  ...                ...  274 

Fruits  in  Bangalore.     Foreign — .     T.  V.  Subramanium                ...  274 

Fruit  Trees  on  Grass  and  Cultivated  Land            ...                ...  373 

Furlough  Wanderings  of  a  Director  of  Agriculture.    J.   Mac- 
Kenna               ...                ...                ...                ...                ...  97 

a. 

Gammie,  G.  a.     Akund  Cotton  ...                 ...                 ...                 ...  80 

Gammie,  G.  a.     Caravonica  Cotton                 ..                  ...                  ...  249 

Gamime,  G.  a.     The  present  Position  and  Prospects  of  Cotton  (cultiva- 
tion in  India.  I    ...                  ...                  ...                  ...                 ...  335 

Germination  of  Cane  Sets.     Notes  on  the — .     W.  Neilson            ...  178 

Ginger.     Bleaching  of — .     G.  B.  Patwardhan                  ...                 ...  245 

Grass  and  Cultivated  Land.     Fruit  Trees  on —          ...                 ...  373 

Guinea    Grass.     Cultivation  of — .     D.  L.  Narayan  Rao...                 ...  362 

H. 

"  Hadi  Process  "  of  Sugar  Manufacture.     The   Efticieucy  of  the — . 

G.  Clarke  and  S.  C.  Banerjee                    ...                  ...                  ...  29 

Hairy   Caterpillars    in    the    South    A  root    District,    Madras. 

Y.  Rama  Chand  ra  Rao         ...                  ...                  ...                  ...  205 

Handbook  of  the  Destructive  Insects  of  Victoria.     By  C.  French. 

H.  M.  Lefroy.     (Review)                          ...                  ...                  ...  182 

Hand-Powkr    Machines.     A    Labour-saving   attachment     for — .     E. 

Thompstonc             ...                  ...                  ...                  ...                  ...  171 

Henderson,  G.  S.     Report  on  "  Kahno  "  Wheat  from  Sind               ...  78 

Do.                   Cattle  Breeding  in  Sind                      ...                  ...  144 

Do.                    Rice  in  Larkana  District  in  Sind      ...                   ...  164 

Do.                   Drainage  of  Irrigated  Lands.     (Review)             ...  189 

Do.                   Drv  Farmins:  in  the  Tran.svaal          ...                  ...  278 


xii  INDEX   TO    VOL.   V, 

Page. 
Howard,  A.     Principles  and  Practical  Methods  of  CxTring  Tobacco  by 

W.  W.  Garner  Bull.     (Review)  ...  ...  ...       90 

Hutchinson,  0.  M.     "  Fata  Morgana "  ...  ...  ...     21^9 

I. 
Improvements    into  Indian  Agriculture.     The  Introduction    of—. 

W.  H.  Moreland  ...  ...  ...  ...  6 

India.     (Cultivation  of  Soy  Beans  in —  ...  ...  ...     5^77 

Do.        Management   of  Experimental  Stations  in — .     J.  MacKenna 

and  A.  McKerral        ..  ...  ...  ...      2HI 

Do.         Pre{)aration  of  Beeswax  in —  ...  ...  ...     374 

Do.        The  Present  Position  and    Prospects  of  Cultivation  in—.     I. 

G.  A.  Gammie  ...  ...  ...  ...     Sa.") 

Do.        The    Revival  of  Agriculture    in — by    John    Kenny.     H.    H. 

Mann.     (Review)  ...  ..  ...  ...      28.5 

Insecticide.     A  New — .     H.  M.  Lefroy        ...  ...  ...     138 

Insects   (Destructive)  of  Victoria  (S.  Australia).     Handbook   of 

the — by  C.  French.     (Review)  ...  ,..  ...      182 

International  Institute   of  i'iGiacuLTURE.     B.  Coventry  ...     357 

Introduction   of   Improvements  into  Indian  Agriculture.     H.  H. 

Mann  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  6 

Irrigated  Lands.     Drainage  of — .     G.  S.  Henderson.     (Review)    ...     189 

J. 

Japan.     The    Silk    Industry      of — by     I.     Hondu.     H.     M.     Lefroy. 

(Review)  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     183 

Java  Sugar  Industry  ...  ...  ...  ...     175 

Jute  in  Rotation  with  Paddy  in  the  same  year  and  its  effect  on 

Food  Crops.     B.  C.  Basu     ...  ...  ...  ...     241 

K. 

Kachin  Hill  Tracts,  Bhamo  District.     Agriculture  in.     E.  Thomp- 

stone  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...       29 

'' Kahno"  Wheat  from  SiNu.     Report  on — .     G.  S.  Henderson     ...       78 
Keatinge,  G.  F.     Rural  Economy  in  the  Bombay  Deccan,  I  ...     302 

L. 

Labour-saving    Attachment    for    Hand    Power    Machines.  E. 

Thompstone        ...                  ...                  ...                  ...  ...     171 

Lahore  ExuuuTiuN.     Agriculture  sit  the— .     B.C.Burt  ...     235 

Larkana  District,  Sind.     Rice  in—.  G.  S.  Henderson...  ...     164 

Lkathkr,  .J.  W.     Annual  Report  on   the    Sugarcane    Experiments  in 

the  Leeward  Islands.     (Review)             ...                  ...  ...     395 


INDEX   TO    VOL.    V.  Xlll 

Page. 
Leather,  J.  W.     Phmt  Food  removed  from  (xrowing  Plants  by  Rain 

or  Dew  by  Le  Clerc  and  Breazeale.     (Review)  ...  ...     290 

LicATHEH,  J.  W.     The    effect    of   Partial  Sterilization    of  Soil    on    the 

Production  of  Plant  Food      ..  ...  ...  ...     276 

Le  HOWARD  Islands.     Annual  Report  on  the  Sugarcane  Experiments  in 

the— for  1908-09.     (Review)  ...  ...  ...     395 

Lefkoy,  H.  M.     a  New  Insecticide  ...  ...  ...      138 

Do.  Entomological  Notes,  Eri  Silk  ...  ...      160 

Lefuoy,  H.  M.  ;  AND  G.  Evans.     Experiments  in  the  Storage  of  Seed 

Potatoes  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...        19 

Lefroy,    H.  M.       Handbook   of  the  Destructive   Insects    of  Victoria 

by  C.  French.     (Review)     ...  ...  ...  ...     182 

Lefroy,  H.  M.     Second  and  Third  Annual  Reports  of  the  Committee 

o£  Control  of  the  South  African  Central  Locust  Bureau,   1908-09. 

(Review)  ...  ...  ...  ...  ..       90 

LEt'KOY,  H.  M.  The  Chinch  Bug  by  F.  M.  Webster.  (Review)  ...  288 
Lkfroy,  H.  M.  The  Silk  Industry  of  Japan  by  1.  Honda.  (Review)  183 
Legume    Bacteria.       Drs.    Edwards    and     Barlow.      C.    Bergtheil. 

(Review)  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...       92 

List  of    Agricultukal    Publications   in    India — from    1st  August 

1^)09  to  31st  January  1910  ...  ...  ...  ...     191 

List  of  Agricultural  Publications  in  India — from  the  1st  February 

to  the  31st  July  1910  ...  ...  ...  ...     400 

LucKNow.     The  Cattle  Conference  at—.     W.  H.  Moreland  ...         1 

M. 

Machinery.     Agricultural —        ...  ...  ...  ...     179 

Machines.     A  labour-saving  attachment  for  hand  power.     E.  Thomp- 

stone  ...  •••  •••  •••  ...     171 

MacKenna,    J.  ;  AND    A.   McKbrral.     Management    of  Experiment 

Stations  in  India  •••  •••  •••  •••     231 

MacKknna,  J.  The  Furlough  Wanderings  of  a  Director  of  Agricul- 
ture... ..•  •••  •••  •••  •••       ^*' 

Management  of    Experiment    Stations    in    India.     J.    McKenna 

and  A.  McKerral  ...  •••  •••  •••     231 

Mann,  H.  H.     Introduction  of  Improvements  into  Indian  Agriculture         H 

Mann,  H.  H.     The  Revival  of  Agriculture  in  India,  by  John  Kenny. 

(Review)  ...  ••■  •••  •••  •••     285 

Mann,  H.  H.     Year  Book  of  the   U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture, 

1908.     (Review)  ...  ...  •••  ...     286 


xiv  INDEX    TO    VOL.    V. 

Pagk. 
Mann,  H.  H.     Year  Book  of  the  United  States  Department    of  Agri- 
culture, 1^09.     (Review)     ...  ...  ...  ...     390 

Manurk.     Urine  Earth  as  a — D.  Clouston    ...  ...  ...     262 

Manurial  Earths  of  Mysore.     iSome — A.  K.  Yegna  Narayau    Iyer       7(» 
Maniirks.      Experiments   on    the  availability    of    Nitrogen    in    Peat, 
Peat  Moss  and  Elephant  Dung  as  compared  with  certain  others — 
H.  E.  Annett    ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     2;').^ 

McKerral,  a.  ;  AND    J.    McKenna.      Management   of    Experiment 

Stations  in  India  ...  ...  ...  ...     2.31 

McRak,  AV.     The  Edible  Mushroom,  Agaricus  Oampestris,  Linn.       ...      197 

McRak,  W.     The  Outbreak  of  Blister-blight  on  Tea  in  the    Darjeeling 

District  in  1908-09  ...  ...  ...  ...      126 

Mehta,  G.  D.     a  Method  of  Seed  Testing  in  use  among    the    Culti- 
vators of  the  Broach  District,  Bombay    ...  ...  ...     274 

Method  of  Seed  Testing  in  use  among  the  Cultivators  of  the 

Broach  District,  Bombay.     G.  D.  Mehta  ...  ...     274 

Millet    or    Pyaung.     Andropogon    Sorghum  :  its    Cultivation    and 

some  of  its  Enemies.     L.  Aubert  ...  ...  ...      222 

Mollison,  J.     A  Problem  in  Agriculture      ...  ...  ...      325 

Montmorency,  G.  F.   de.     Some  aspects  of  Agricultural  work  in    the 

Ohenab  Colony   ...  ..  ...  .  ,  ...      264 

Mohelanu,  W.  H.     Assistance  of  the    Court   of  Wards   in    Agricul- 
tural Improvement  ...  ...  ...  ...       74 

MoRKLAND,  W.  H.     The  Cattle  Conference  at  Lucknow...  ...  1 

Mu-suKooM,  Agauicus  Campestris,  Linn.     The  Edible— W.  McRae        197 
Mysork.     Some  Manurial  Earths  of—.     A.  K.   Yegna  Narayan  Iyer  76 

N. 

Narayan  Rao,   D.  L.     The  Cultivation  of  Guinea  Grass  ...  362 

Neilson,   W.     Notes  on  the  Germination  of  (!ane  Sets    ...  ...  178 

New  Agkiuultural  Station  in  Sind  ...  ...  ...  284 

NiLGiui  Hills.     Experiments  with  Australian  Potatoes  on  the—       ...  382 
Nitrogen  in    Peat,  Peat  Moss  and  Elephant  Dung   as  compared 
WITH  certain  other  Manures.     Experiments  on  the  availability 

of—.     H.  E.  Annett  ...  g^^^ 

Notes,  Entomological.     Eri  Silk— H.  M.  Lefroy  ...  ...  160 

Notes  on  the  Germination  of  Cane  Sets.     W.  Neilson  ...  178 


KJ. 


OuTRUKAK  OF  Blister- Blight  ON   T  ,  ,ik  Dar.teeling    District 

in  1908-09.     W.  McHae       ...  ...  .,.  ,^     126 


index  to  vol.  v.  xv 

Page. 
P. 

Paudy.     Jute  in  rotation   with — in    the    »aine    year,  and  its    etfect   on 

Food  Crops.     B.  0.  Basu      ...  ...  ...  ...     241 

Patel,    ('.    U.     A   Report  of  the    Firs>t  Entomoloifical  Demonstration 

made  in  Baroda  tor  the  year  1909-10       ...  ...  ...     o;")2 

Patbl,  G.  U.     Competition  of  (cultivators  for  checking  the  Stem-Borer 

of   Sessamum      ...  ...  ...  ...  •••     15''> 

Patwardhan,  G.  B.     Bleaching  of  Ginger  ...  ...  -..     24') 

PeMyit...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     -576 

Peat,  Peat  Moss  and  Elephant  Dung.  Experiments  on  the  avail- 
ability  of   Nitrogen    in — as  compared  with  certain  other  Manures. 

H.  E.  Annett.      ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     255 

PiLLAY,    T.    Ponnamballam.      The    Cultivation     of    the     Banana   in 

Travancore  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...      252 

Plant  Food.    The  etfect  of  partial  sterili.sation  of  soil  on  the  production 

of—.     .J.  W.  Leather  ..  ...  ...  ...     276 

Plant  Food  removed  from  growing  Plants  by  Rain  or   Dew,  by 

Le  Clerc  and  Bueazeale.     J.  W.  Leather.     (Review)  ...     290 

Plantain  Fibre        ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     181 

Potatoes.     Experiments  in  the  Storage  of  Seed — .     H.  M.  Lefroy   ...        19 
PoTATOKS.     Experiments  with  Australian — on  the  Nilgiri  Hills  ...     382 

Potatoes  in  Upper  Burma.     E.  Thompstone  ...  ...       85 

Potatoes.     The  Ring  Disease   of — by  L.  C.    Coleman.     E.  J.   Butler. 

(Review)  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     186 

Preparation  of  Bkeswax  in  India  ...  ...  ...     374 

Present  position  and  prospects  of  Cotton  Cultivation  in  India — J. 

G.  A.  Gammie    ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     335 

Principles  and  Practical  Methods  of  Curing  Tobacco.     By  W.  W. 

Garner  Bull.     A.  Howard.      (Review)    ...  ...  ...        9(» 

Problem  in  Agriculture.     .J.  Mollison  ...  ...  ...     325 

Promising  Weed.     D.  (Houston  ...  ...  ...  ...     165 

Poultry  Industry  in  Eastern  Bengal  and  Assam         ...  ...     180 

•    R- 

Rain  or  Dew.     Plant  Food  removed  from  growing  Plants  by — by  Le 

Clerc  and  Breazeale.     J.  W.  Leather.     (Review)      ...  ...     290 

Rama    Chandra    IIao,    Y.     Hairy  Caterpillars   in    the    South    Arcot 

District,  Madras  ...  ...  ...  ...     205 

Heplanning  a  Farm  for  Profit.     D,  (-louston.     (Review)  ...     291 


Xvi  INDEX    TO    vol;.    V. 

Pagr. 
REi'Oia'S.     Second   ami   Tliinl  Annual — of  the  Committee  of  Control 

of  the  South  African   Central   Locust  Bureau,  1908-09.     H.   M. 

Lefroy.     (Review)                 ...                  ...                  ...                  ...  90 

Report  of  thk    First    Entomological    Demonstration    made   in 

Baroda  for  the  year  1909-10.     C.  U.  Patel         ...                 ...  3.Vi 

Rki'OKT  on  "Kahno"  AVheat  from  Sind.  G.S.Henderson  ...  7.S 
Report.     The  Annual — on  the  Sugarcane  Experiments  in  the  Leeward 

Islands  for  1908-09.     J.  W.  Leather.     (Review)       ...                  ...  ,395 

Resicarch.     Agricultural —          ...                  ...                  ...                  ...  380 

Revival  of  Agriculture  in  India.     By  John  Kenny.     H.  H.  Mann. 

(Review)             ...                 ...                  ...                 ...                 ...  285 

Rice  in  Larkana  District  in  Sind.     G.  S.  Henderson  ...                 ...  164 

Ring    Disease    of   Potatoes.     By  L.    C.    Coleman.     E.   J.    Butler. 

(Review)             ...                  ...                 ...                  ...                  ...  186 

Rural  Economy  in  the  Bombay  Deccan — G.  F.  Keatinge                ...  302 

S. 

Sawyer,  A.  M.     The  Shauk-Noo  (Citrus  Hystrix,  D.  C.)                    ...  331 

School  Garui«ns.     M.  E.  Couchman              ...                 ...                 ...  212 

Skeu  Sklection.     T.  Thornton    ...                  ...                  ...                  ...  279 

Seed   Testing   in   use   among    the   Cultivators    of    the    Broach 

District,  Bombay.  A  Method  of—.  G.  D.  Mehta  274 
Sessamum.     Competition  of  Cultivators  for  checking  the  Stem-Borer 

of—.     C.U.  Patel                  ...                  ...                  ...                  ...  153 

Shauk-Noo  (Citrus  Hystrix,  D.  C.)     A.  M.  Sawyer      ...                ...  331 

Silk  Industry  OF  Japan.     By  I.  Honda.     H.  M.  Lefroy.     (Review)...  183 

Sind.     A  New  Agricultural  Station  in—        ...                  ...                  ...  284 

.     „        Cattle  Breeding  in— G.  S.  Henderson                      ...                   ...  144 

„         Report  on  "  Kahno  "  Wheat  from— .     G.S.Henderson           ..  78 

„         Rice  ill  Larkana  District  in —              ...                  ...                  ...  164 

Soil.     The  Conservation  of  the  Fertility  of  the  —              ...                   ...  375 

Fertility.     Concerning—                   ...                 ...                 ...  383 

„       Tbe  effect  of  partial  Sterilization  of— on  the  Production  of  Plant 

Food.     J.  W.  Leather           ...                  ...                  ...                  ...  276 

Some  aspects   of   Agricultural   work   in    the    Chenab    Colony. 

G.  F.  de  Montmorency            ..                   ...                   ...                   ...  264 

Some  Manurial  Earths  of  Mysoke.     A.  K.  Yegna  Narayan  Aiyer  76 

SoMEKS  Taylor,  C.     Sugar  in  British  East  Indies            ...                 ...  82 

SoRUUUM.     Andropogon— Millet  or  Pyaung  :  Its   Cultivation  and  some 

of  its  Enemies.     L.  Aubort  ...                ...                ...                ...  222 


INDKX    TO    VOL.    V.  Xvil 

Pagk. 

Soy  Beans,     (/ultivation  and  utilization  of — ...                 ...                 ,,.  375 

Soy  Beans  in  India.     Cultivation  of —          ...                 ...                 ...  277 

Spbir,  John.     Construction  of  Oow-Houses  ...                 ...                 ...  52 

Stem-Boher  of   Skssamum.     Competition  of  Cultivators  for  checking 

the-.     C.  U.  Patel               ...                 ...                 ...                 ...  153 

Sterilization  of  Soil.     The  effect  of  partial — on  the  Production  of 

Plant  Food.     J.  W.  Leather...                 ...                 ...                 ...  276 

Storage  of  Seed  Potatoes.     Experiments  in  the — .     H.  M.  Lefroy 

and  G.  Evans      ...                 ...                 ...                 ...                 ...  ]9 

Strong,    F.  W.     The  Dhuhri  Agricultural  and  Industrial  Exhibition 

of  1910                ...                  ...                  ...                  ...                  ...  367 

Subkamanium,  T.  V.     Foreign  Fruits  in  Bangalore           ...                  ...  274 

Sugar  IN  British  East  Indies.     C.  Somers  Taylor         ...                 ...  82 

Sugarcane   Experiments   in   the   Leeward  Islands   for   11)08-09. 

The  Annual  Report  of  the — .     J.  W.  Leather.     (Review)          ...  395 

Sugar  Industry.     The  Java —    ...                 ...                 ...                 ...  17,5 

Sugar   Manufacture.     Efficiency  of  the  "  Hadi  Process  "   of~.     G. 

Clarke  and  S.  C.  Banerjee     ...                  ...                  ...                  ...  29 

T. 

Tea    in   the    Darjkeling    District   in   1908-09.     The  Outbreak  of 

Biister-Blight  on— .     W.  McRae  ...  ...  ...     126 

Thompstone,  E,  a  labour-saving  attachment  for  Hand-power  Mnchines  171 
Thompstonk,    E.     Agriculture    in    the    Kachin    Hill    Tracts,   Bhamo 

District  ...  ...  ...  ,..  ,^,       42 

Thompstone,  E.     Potatoes  in  Uf)per  Burma  ...  ...  ...       85 

Thornton,  T.     Seed  Selection      ...  ...  ...  ...     279 

Tipping,  R.  D.     Eri  Silk  grov^n  in  C/oorg       ...  ...  ...     272 

Tobacco.     Principles   and    Practical   Methods  of  Curing — by  W.   W. 

Garner  Bull.     A.  Howard.     (Review)     ...  ...  ...       90 

Transvaal.     Dry  Farming  in  the — .     G.  S.  Henderson  ...  ...     278 

Travancore.     The   Cultivation  of  the  Banana  in — .     T.  Ponnambal- 

1am  Pillay  ..  ...  ...  ...  ...     252 

U. 

United    States     Department     of    Agriculture. 

the—.  1908.  H.  H.  Mann.  (Review) 
Unitkd    States    Department    of    Agriculture. 

the—.  1909.  H.  H.  Mann.  (Review) 
Urine-earth  as  a  Manure.     D.  Clouston     ... 


Year 

Book  of 

... 

...  286 

Year 

Book  of 

... 

...  396 

. . . 

...  262 

Xvhi  INDEX    TO    VOL.    V. 

w. 

Weed.     A  promising — .     D.  Olouston  ...  ...  ...     165 

Wood,  R.  W.  B.  C.    The  College  of  Agriculture,  Coimbatore  ...     319 

Y. 

Year  Book  of  the  Unitkd  States  Dbpaktment  of  Agriccjltuke, 

1908.  H.  H.  Maun.     (Review)  ...  ...  ...     286 

Year  Book  of  the  Unitkd  States  Department  of  Agriculture, 

1909.  H.  H.  Maun.     (Review)  ...  ...  ...     iidG 


THE  CATTLE  CONFERENCE   AT  LUCKNOW. 

By  W.  H.  MORELAND,  c.i.e.,  i.c.8., 
Director  of  Land  Records  and  Agricidture,  United  Provinces  of  Ayra  and  Oiidh, 

I  HAVE  been  asked  by  the  Editor  to  give  a  short  account 
of  the  proceeihngs  of  the  Cattle  Conference  which  was  held  last 
August  at  Lucknow,  and  which  excited  a  quite  exceptional 
amount  of  attention  in  the  United  Provinces.  The  idea  of  the 
conference  was  not  a  novelty,  since  it  had  been  preceded  by  the 
Industrial  Conference  of  1907  and  the  Sanitary  Conference  of 
1908,  the  object  in  each  case  being  to  ascertain  through  free 
discussion  the  views  of  representatives  of  the  public,  and  to 
formulate  the  main  lines  of  a  policy  to  be  pursued  by  Govern- 
ment on  the  subject  under  consideration. 

The  Cattle  Conference  had  its  origin  partly  in  the  general 
feeling  of  dissatisfaction  caused  by  the  high  prices  of  cattle  and 
of  dairy  produce,  and  partly  in  the  desire  of  the  departments 
most  directly  concerned  to  obtain  an  authoritative  expression  of 
opinion  on  subjects  where  the  religious  and  social  sentiments  of 
the  people  can  never  be  left  out  of  account.  Membership  was 
limited  to  representatives  of  the  province,  but  among  the  visitors 
were  the  Inspector-General  of  the  Civil  Veterinary  Department 
and  two  representatives  of  the  Military  Department.  The 
members  fall  naturally  into  three  groups,  the  divisional  repre- 
sentatives, the  Government  nominees,  and  the  official  element. 
The  divisional  representatives  were  chosen  on  the  nomination  of 
Commissioners  from  among  Indian  landholders  who  were  most 
likely  to  represent  the  feelings  of  the  agricultural  population ; 
the  Government  nominees  were  for  the  most  part  representative 
of  special  interests,  and  included  besides  European  planters  and 
landholders  and  representatives    of  the  Upper  India  Chamber  of 


2  AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   1. 

Commerce,  such  authorities  as  Mr.  Abbott  of  Jhansi,  the  pioneer 
of  the  Central  Indian  haj^-trade,  and  Mr.  Keventer  of  Aligarh, 
the  leadino-  dairyman  in  Northern  India  ;  the  official  element 
consisted  of  representatives  of  the  general  administration  and  of 
the  Public  Works,  Forest,  Agricultural,  and  Veterinaiy  depart- 
ments. In  all  about  forty  members  met  under  the  presidenc}'^ 
of  the  Hon'ble  Mr.  D.  C.  Baillie,  a  Member  of  the  United 
Provinces  Board  of  Revenue  ;  and  it  must  be  said  that  a  more 
competent  and  authoritative  Conference  could  scarcely  have  been 
brouofht  too^ether. 

The  proceedings  opened  on  the  4th  of  August  when  the 
Lieutenant-Governor  welcomed  the  members  and  the  president 
delivered  his  address.  The  Conference  then  divided  into  com- 
mittees which  sat  for  the  next  three  days,  discussing  the  agenda 
with  an  entire  absence  of  formality,  set  speeches  being  pi'actically 
ruled  out,  and  the  tone  of  the  discussions  being  throughout 
friendly  and  conversational.  The  recommendations  of  the  com- 
mittees were  then  discussed  by  the  full  Conference,  and  trans- 
muted into  a  series  of  Resolutions  which  form  the  final  record  of 
the  results  of  the  deliberations.  The  discussions  were  for  the 
most  part  conducted  in  the  vernacular,  and  the  papers  circulated 
daily  were  accompanied  by  translations,  so  that  no  difficulty  was 
caused  by  the  presence  of  members  unacquainted  with  English. 

Turning  to  the  Resolutions  that  were  passed,  the  first  group 
recorded  the  actual  position.  It  was  held  that  though  prices 
have  increased,  especially  for  the  better  class  animals,  there  was 
no  actual  insufficiency  of  working  cattle  ;  but  there  were  differ- 
ences of  opinion  on  the  question  whether  the  class  of  animals  had 
deteriorated.  It  was  recognised  that  the  decrease  in  cows  dis- 
closed by  the  cattle-census  was  probably  temporary,  being  due  to 
recent  famines,  and  that  there  is  a  tendency  to  substitute  buffaloes 
for  cows  iimoncr  dealers  in  milk.  The  general  feeling  was  that  the 
fully-cultivated  districts  of  the  province  must  continue  to  depend 
for  the  supply  of  cattle  on  the  grazing-districts  which  lie  on  the 
North,  South  and  West,  and  that  the  protection  of  the  grazing- 
grouiuls  was  a  matter  of  great  importance. 


THE    CATTLE    CONFERENCE    AT    LUCKNOW  :    MORELAND.  6 

When,  however,  the  question  of  legislation  to  protect  grazing- 
grounds  came  under  discussion,  there  was  a  marked  divergence  of 
opinion  :  the  representatives  of  the  cultivated  districts  desired  to 
have  the  large  grazing-grounds  protected  by  law,  but  this  was 
strenuously  opposed  by  the  representatives  of  those  interests, 
who  in  turn  recommended  the  reservation  of  orrazing  areas  in 
the  cultivated  districts,  a  proposal  that  was  opposed  by  some 
of  the  representatives  of  the  cultivated  districts.  Eventually 
no  agreement  could  be  come  to  on  this  question,  and  the 
present  position  is  likely  to  be  maintained  :  the  larger  land- 
holders voluntarily  preserving  the  existing  grazing-grounds, 
though  objecting  strongly  to  being  compelled  to  do  so,  and 
the  smaller  men  breaking  up  the  land  for  cultivation  until 
the  necessary  adjustment  in  prices  ensures  its  retention  for 
o^razino-. 

Leaving  the  recognised  grazing-grounds,  the  Conference  then 
turned  to  consider  the  question  of  preserving  and  improving 
waste  land  of  other  kinds.  Recommendations  were  made  for 
administrative  action  tending  to  increase  the  number  of  the  groves 
which  are  such  prominent  features  in  the  landscape  of  the 
province;  co-operation  was  offered  in  the  efforts  of  Government 
to  increase  the  productivity  of  the  ravine  area  ;  and  a  request 
was  made  for  experiments  to  be  instituted  to  show  whether  fuel 
and  fodder  reserves  can  be  made  a  commercial  success  on  land 
which  is  on  the  maro-in  of  cultivation. 

The  Conference  then  considered  the  fodder-supply,  and  an 
interesting  discussion  took  place  on  the  contention  which  has  been 
frequently  advanced  in  the  past  that  the  provision  of  more  fodder 
merely  leads  to  the  survival  of  useless  cattle,  and  that  cattle  will 
always  multiply  up  to  the  limit  of  subsistence  in  years  of  plenty 
and  die  off  in  years  of  dearth.  It  was  conclusively  shown  that 
this  contention  no  longer  applies  to  the  circumstances  of  the  prov- 
ince, as  animals  past  work  are  now  speedily  eliminated  in  almost 
all  districts.  Thus,  the  main  argument  that  has  been  used  in  the 
past  in  support  of  a  policy  of  inaction  is  no  longer  available,  but 
few  definite   recommendations   for   increasing    the    fodder-supply 


4  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   I. 

could  be  made,  as  it  was  recognised  that  this  must  be  governed 
mainly  by  economic  conditions. 

The  next  discussion  of  special  importance  related  to  the 
suppl}"  of  bulls.  So  far  as  the  valuable  breeds  in  the  north  of 
Oudh  are  concerned,  it  was  recognised  that  the  bull-depot 
now  being  established  by  Government  should  meet  the  needs  of 
the  case;  but  there  was  a  general  feeling  that  Government 
should  provide  a  supply  of  ordinar}^  bulls,  which  landholders 
could  purchase  in  order  "  to  supplement,  and  it  is  expected  in 
time  to  supplant  "  the  present  system  under  which  the  village 
cows  are  ordinarily  covered  by  sacred  bulls.  The  recognition  by 
such  a  body  of  landholders  that  the  time-honoured  system  of 
providing  bulls  as  a  religious  act  is  wearing  out  and  requires  to 
be  supplemented,  and  eventual)}'  supplanted  is  a  matter  of  the 
greatest  interest,  both  socially  and  economically,  and  raises  a 
problem  of  much  practical  importance  in  the  supply  of  sound 
bulls  at  reasonable  prices. 

The  question  of  introducing  improved  breeds  either  for 
work  or  for  daily  purposes  produced  another  interesting  discus- 
.sion,  in  the  course  of  which  it  was  clearly  recognised  that 
organised  action  is  necessar^^  one  or  more  bulls  and  a  suitable 
number  of  cows  being  introduced  simultaneously  into  a  definite 
area.  It  was  thought  that  large  landholders  might  undertake 
this  on  their  estates,  and  that  it  is  a  most  suitable  function  for 
local  agricultural  associations,  Government  assisting  in  the  work 
of  purchasing  the  stock,  and  where  necessary  granting  advances 
towards  its  cost. 

Turning  to  the  prevention  of  disease,  the  increased  popularity 
uf  the  Civil  Veterinary  Department  in  recent  years  was  shown 
in  a  most  gi-atifying  manner  by  the  general  demand  for  more 
veterinary  assistants  and  for  ijicreased  attention  to  the  treatment 
of  cattle  ;  and  the  Conference  was  able  to  recognise  that  the 
prejudice.s  against  inoculation  are  disappearing  and  that  the  in- 
riupuce  of  landholders  is  the  most  important  factor  in  this  matter. 

The  supply  of  dairy  products  was  the  next  topic,  and  the 
Conference  declared   that  there  was  no  disproportionate  rise  in 


THE    CATTLE    CONFERENCE    AT    LUCKNOW  :    MORELAND.  5 

price,  but  that  adulteration  was  greatly  on  the  increase,  and  they 
recommended  legislation,  applicable  only  to  towns,  providing 
that  nothing  should  be  sold  as  milk,  butter,  or  fjlii,  which  is 
adulterated.  A  similar  recommendation  had  previously  been 
made  by  the  Sanitary  Conference,  and  it  is  understood  that 
legislation  is  in  prospect.  Recommendations  were  also  made  to 
municij^alities  for  the  encouragement  of  sanitary  dairies  in  their 
vicinity,  and  to  the  railway  systems  for  developing  the  supply  of 
milk  by  rail. 

Finally  a  recommendation  was  made  for  an  enquiry  into  the 
sources  of  cattle- supply  to  the  various  districts,  and  for  the 
collection  of  information  on  various  points  which  had  come  up 
during  the  discussions  ;  and  the  Conference  broke  up  with  mutual 
expressions  of  cordial  good-will  between  the  official  and  the 
non-official  members.  Perhaps  the  final  result  can  best  be 
summarized  in  the  following  words,  with  which  the  Chairman 
submitted  its  proceedings  to  Government  : — 

*'  It  cannot  be  claimed  for  the  Conference  that  it  has 
suggested  any  fresh  or  original  measures  to  help  towards  the 
solution  of  the  problems  considered  by  it,  but  the  meeting  was 
certainly  not  without  value.  It  has  led  to  the  discussion  from 
all  points  of  view  of  the  questions  raised  by  a  considerable  body 
of  landholders,  and  it  has  given  evidence  of  a  general  desire  to 
give  personal  assistance  in  future  measures  and  assurance  that 
there  is  no  general  tendency  to  look  at  these  questions  from 
a  narrow  or  sectarian  point  ot  view.  The  general  agreement 
of  the  members  of  the  Conference  gives  good  reason  to  believe 
that  so  far  economic  changes  have  not  produced  acute  difficulties 
in  connection  with  the  production  of  plough  and  milk  cattle, 
and  affords  indications  that  further  developments  will  be  on 
natural  lines," 


THE    INTRODUCTION    OF    IMPROVEMENTS    INTO 
INDIAN  AGRICULTURE. 

By  HAROLD  H.   MANN,  d.sc, 
Principal,   Agriculhiral    College,   Poona,   Bombay. 

The  introduction  of  improvements  into  Indian  Agriculture 
is  surrounded  by  peculiar  difficulties.  The  fact  that,  generally 
speaking,  the  agriculture  of  the  country  is  in  the  hands  of  ver}^ 
small  holders,  who  form  a  naturally  non-progr^^ssive  class,  is  the 
first  of  these.  Perhaps  of  equal  importance  with  this  is  the 
rigid  separation,  which  has  long  existed  and  still  exists,  between 
the  different  classes  of  society  throughout  the  larger  part  of  the 
country,  for  as  a  result  of  this,  the  educational  movements  of  the 
past  few  years  have  hardly  touched  the  cultivator  of  the  land. 
He,  in  fact,  still  remains  largely  out  of  contact  not  only  with 
progress,  but  also  with  the  knowledge  of  progress.  And,  if  you 
add  to  these  reasons  the  fact  that  the  Indian  farmers  are  usually 
men  whose  capital  is  little  more  than  the  ownership  of  their  very 
small  area  of  land,  who  work  almost  entirely  on  borrowed 
money,  there  results  a  condition  of  things  which  is  eminently 
unfavourable  to  progress. 

This  condition  of  things  places  India  in  the  opposite  extreme 
to  those  countries  where  the  application  of  modern  scientific  dis- 
covery to  agricultural  practice  has  been  most  marked.  Take,  for 
instance,  the  United  States  of  America.  There  your  farmers  are 
men  of  energy,  of,  at  least,  a  little  capital,  and  who  are  intensely 
alive  to  all  that  is  passing  in  the  groat  world  :  here,  on  the  other 
hand,  they  are  isolated,  they  are  poor,  they  are  usually  content  to 
go  on  in  the  way  of  their  fathers.  There,  the  existence  of  a 
large  and  well-organised  agricultural  department,  of  agricultural 
societies,  of  rural    banks    is   the    result    of  initiative  amon^  the 


Introduction  op  improvements  :  mann.  7 

farmers  themselves  :  here,  that  initiative  is  all  but  entirely  absent. 
There,  as  a  result,  experiment  and  discovery  are  followed  closely 
by  a  large  and  intimately-interested  community  :  here,  the  results 
of  any  experiment  or  any  discovery  have  to  be  forced  on  the  atten- 
tion of  the  people,  and  its  adoption  in  practice  has  to  face  an 
amount  of  inertia,  and  a  lack  of  available  capital  that  would  seem 
inconceivable  in  most  other  countries. 

And  yet,  it  must  not  be  understood  that  the  Indian  cultivators 
are  themselves  hopelessly  conservative  and  prejudiced.  The 
difficulty  seems  rather  to  be,  first,  to  get  information  actually 
into  their  hands  from  a  source  in  which  they  have  confidence, 
then  to  convince  them  of  the  utility  of  the  suggestion  which  is 
made,  and  finally  to  show  them  that  it  will  pay  them  to  adopt  it. 
When  this  has  been  done,  the  increasing  experience  is  that  the 
Indian  cultivators  are  by  no  means  over-conservative.  They  are 
quick,  in  fact,  to  see  any  advantage.  But,  owing  to  their 
economic  position,  they  must  be  sure  of  the  disinterestedness  of 
the  information,  they  must  be  fully  convinced  of  the  value  of  the 
improvement,  and  they  must  be  sure  it  will  pay. 

And  what  will  pay  under  Indian  conditions  is  quite  a    differ- 
ent  thing   from  what  will  pay  in  many  western   countries.      It  is 
impossible  to  estimate  the  value  of  any  method  or  of  any  change, 
unless  the  financial  conditions  under  which  a  cultivator  works   are 
fully    realised.     As   already  stated,  it    is    probable   that  over  the 
greater  part  of  India  a  cultivator  does  not  have  any  ready  capital. 
He  has  to  borrow  every  year,  either  in  money  or  in  kind,    for   the 
purpose    of  meeting    the    expenses  of  cultivation,  and  the  rate  of 
interest    which    he    has    to  pay  often,  if  not  usuall}^  amounts  to 
from    25   to  75  per  cent,  per  annum.      It  is,  therefore,    not   suffi- 
cient that  an  expert  in  agriculture  can  prove  to  himself  that  a  new 
method    will    give    a   return    of  10  or  20  per  cent,  over  existing 
practice.     Account    must   also    be    taken   of  the  extra  capital  in- 
volved, and  the  rate  of  interest  which  will  have  to  be  paid  for  it. 
As   the    cultivators    have    no    capital    they    can    take    no    risks. 
Unless    the}^    can    be    shown  that  the  new  method  is  a  certainty, 
the    cultivators    will    not,    and    rightly    will   not,  take  it  up.     A 


g  AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,    I. 

certainty  will  mean,  as  a  rule,  to  a  ryot,  something  which  will  give 
him  a  return  of  over  25  per  cent,  on  any  extra  capital  invested, 
and  this  fact  must  be  continually  in  the  minds  of  all  those  who 
propose  innovations  in  Indian  agriculture.  This  means,  in  other 
words,  that  until  cheaper  money  can  be  made  generally  available, 
any  improvement  which  can  be  brought  into  practice,  if  it  in- 
volves any  outlay,  must  be  of  a  very  marked  character.  It 
means,  further,  that  the  connection  of  eftort  for  cheapening  of 
credit  by  means  of  co-operation  or  otherwise,  and  that  for 
agricultural  improvement  is  very  close, — closer  perhaps  than  is 
generally  realised. 

But  apart  entirely  f»om  these  questions,  the  mtroduction  of 
improvements  into  Indian  agriculture  is  no  easy  matter.  But  a 
considerable  amount  of  experience  has  been  gained  in  the  last 
few  years.  Many  failures  have  occurred  :  some  successes  have 
been  obtained,  and  with  a  view  to  brino'  tog-ether  the  results  of 
these  experiences  for  future  use  a  committee  was  appointed  at  the 
meetinor  of  the  Board  of  Aoriculture  in  1908  to  consider  and  dis- 
CUSS  them,  and  express  an  opinion  as  to  their  applicability  in  the 
future.  A  second  committee  was  appointed  in  1909,  and  the 
results  of  its  deliberations,  modified  as  they  have  been  hj  careful 
local  examination  of  the  statements,  will  be  issued  very  shorth\ 
It  seemed,  however,  that  there  was  room  for  a  general  statement 
of  the  methods  which  had  been  found  to  be  most  effective  in  the 
present  article. 

To  introduce  anything  which  ma}'  be  considered  an 
improvement  in  the  special  conditions  of  Indian  agriculture,  the 
first  necessity  is  that  you  should  be  absolutely  certain  that  your 
process  or  implement  is  actually  an  improvement  under  the 
conditions  existing  in  any  particular  spot.  This  would,  at  first 
sight,  seem  a  truism,  and  and  so  it  is.  And  yet,  its  neglect 
has  led  in  the  past  to  the  greatest  failures,  to  the  loss  of  confidence 
l)y  the  rijois,  and  to  sets-back  to  progress  whose  seriousness 
it  is  difficult  to  estimate.  In  the  older  days,  for  instance, 
American  cotton  was  hitroduced  into  India  in  very  large  quantities. 
No   experiments  were    made  as  to    its  suitability  in  many  of  the 


INTRODUCTION    OF    IMPROVEMENTS  :    MANN.  9 

areas,  where  it  was  planted,  either  agriculturally  or  economically. 
What  was  the  result  {  The  cotton  tailed  in  many  areas,  of 
course.  This  would  not  have  mattered  so  much,  perhaps, 
in  itself,  but  confidence  was  lost,  the  department  introducing 
the  cotton  was  thought  by  the  cultivators  to  be  unpractical, 
and  they  hesitated,  to  say  the  least,  to  adopt  any  other 
suggestion.  The  same  story  has  been  repeated  elsewhere  ;  new 
implements,  new  crop.-',  new  methods,  excellent  in  themselves, 
have  occasionally  been  introduced  without  adequate  knowledge  of 
local  conditions,  and  without  sufficient  testing.  The  result  has 
too  often  been  failure,  loss  of  confidence,  and  general  distrust. 
It  cannot  be  too  strongly  insisted  on,  that  nothing  can  justify 
the  recommendation  of  any  supposed  improvement,  unless  it  has 
been  preceded  by  careful  experiment,  and  by  the  most  careful 
local  study. 

But  what  does  this  careful  local  study  mean  i  Does  it  simply 
mean  that  tlie  method  has  been  carried  out  successfully  on  an 
experimental  farm  in  the  same  neighbourhood  ?  So  far  as  it 
goes,  such  experimental  testing  is  excellent,  but  it  is  by  no  means 
all.  Anyone  who  has  dealt  with  this  subject  in  practice  must 
know  that  the  difficulties  which  occur  to  an  experimental  farm 
manager  are  a  ver^^  different  thing  from  those  w^hich  occur  to  a 
ryot.  For  instance,  on  an  experimental  farm  a  particular  import- 
ed iron  plough  does  excellent  work,  it  is  more  economical  in 
every  way,  and  the  crops  are  better.  You  take  it  out,  and  are 
met  at  once  by  a  villager  who  acknowledges  its  value,  but  at  once 
asks  how  he  is  to  get  it  repaired  if  he  adopts  it.  No  country 
mistri  can  deal  with  it,  spare  parts  cannot  be  stocked  either  by 
the  cultvator  himself  or  in  the  village  shop,  and  the  plough, 
however  good,  has  to  wait  until  this  difficulty  is  overcome,  Or 
again,  you  find  a  particular  manure  for  sugar-cane.  It  gives 
excellent  results  in  growth,  and  yield  of  ;/>'/.  You  recommend 
it,  and  are  at  once  met  by  the  statement  that  this  manure  always 
lowers  the  value  of  the  gn/.  The  lowering  is  relativelj''  small, 
but  there  it  is.  It  is  probable  that  among  the  mass  of  samples 
on  your  experimental  farm  the  difference  has  never  been   noticed, 


10  AGRICULTtJRAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   I. 

especially  as  it  is  a  commercial  difference  not  capable  (so  far  as 
I  know)  of  being  detected  by  chemical  anal^^sis.  But  you  must 
answer  the  difficulty  or  your  manure  will  have  to  wait.  And  so 
on.  Instances  might  be  multiplied,  but  the  above  must  suffice  to 
show  the  absolute  necessity  of  local  study  as  well  as  experiment 
before  it  is  attempted  to  introduce  an  improvement.  The  whole 
resolves  itself  into  being  absolutely  certain  that  your  novelty  is 
good  and  is  applicable  under  the  special  local  conditions. 

But  this  being  ensured,  the  next  step  is  to  secure  the  con- 
fidence of  the  people.  And  here  is  perhaps  the  greatest  difficulty 
of  all.  Indian  ryots  have  from  time  to  time  been  exploited  b}' 
people  of  the  most  various  kinds,  sometimes  with,  sometnnes 
without,  intention,  so  that  they  are  rightly  suspicious.  If  any- 
thing is  suggested,  they  at  once  look  for  the  motive.  What  has 
the  man  to  gain  by  it  ?  What  has  the  Government  he  may 
represent  to  gain  by  it  ?  Is  he  the  agent  of  someone  else  ? 
Such  are  the  questions  which  at  once  rise  in  his  mind,  and  have 
to  be  met. 

The  winning  of  confidence  has  been  accomplished  in  various 
ways  ;  but  whatever  the  method,  it  is  of  the  first  and  most  vital 
importance  to  the  whole  success  of  the  work  attempted  to  be 
done.  In  many  parts  of  India  the  attempt  has  been  made  by  the 
formation  of  local  associations  of  agriculturists  and  those  interested 
in  agriculture  among  whom  the  improvements  suggested  can  be 
discussed,  by  whom  they  can  be  tried,  and,  through  whom,  when 
successful,  they  can  be  extended  among  the  surrounding  people. 
Perhaps  the  greatest  success  in  this  direction  has  been  achieved 
in  the  Central  Provinces.  There  the  members  are  nominated  by 
the  local  authorities,  they  have  as  their  chairman  the  District 
Officer,  whenever  they  meet  one  of  the  senior  officers  of  the  agri- 
cultural department  is  present,  and  membership  involves  readiness 
to  try  .some  novel  method  on  the  member's  own  land.  All  pro- 
ceedings are  in  the  Vernacular,  discussions  are  free,  and  enthu- 
siasm is  often  aroused,  and  these  associations  have  succeeded  in 
bringing  the  agricultural  department  into  touch  with  the  cultiva- 
tors,  and  ill  giving  them  confidence  in  one  another.     As  a  result 


liSITRODUCTION    OF    IMPROVEMENTS:    MANN.  H 

numerous  improvements  have  been  made.  Improved  varieties 
of  Jowar,  sugar-cane  and  other  crops  have  been  introduced,  the 
fighting  of  smut  in  Joivr.tr  b}^  pickling  the  seed  has  been  large!}' 
adopted,  in  some  of  the  backward  tracts  great  improvement  in 
rice  cultivation  has  taken  place,  and  new,  improved  implements 
are  now  in  some  districts  regularly  used.  I  have  quoted  the 
Central  Provinces  because  the  idea  of  agricultural  associations 
has  been  more  developed  there  than  elsewhere,  but  they  have 
been  formed  in  other  provinces,  sometimes  as  more  independent, 
sometimes  as  more  official  bodies,  with  varying  success.  The 
movement  is  in  its  infancy,  but  enough  has  been  seen  to  indicate 
the  general  lines  in  which  they  are  likely  to  be  most  valuable. 
In  the  opinion  of  the  Committee  (whose  work  1  am  summarising), 
it  may  be  said  that  "  their  utility  seems  largely  to  depend  on  the 
presence  of  a  body  of  men  directly  interested  in  cultivation,  on 
the  personal  touch  of  the  higher  staff  of  the  agricultural  depart- 
ment with  the  members,  on  the  definite  engagement  by  the 
members   to    do   definite    pieces  of  work,  and  on  the  regularity  of 

meetings,    inspections,  and  reports   No  association, 

large  or  small,  should  be  formed  till  there  is  something  of  the 
nature  of  a  spontaneous  demand  on  the  part  of  the  people  them- 
selves or  until  the  agricultural  department  is  in  a  position  to 
advise  and  guide  them  in  their  work.  Where  the  agricultural 
department  has  failed  to  create  such  interest  the  association  is 
bound  to  fail  in  its  object." 

The  next  method  which  has  been  used,  is  that  of  demon- 
stration of  the  value  of  improvements  on  the  spot,  usually  by 
instituting  a  demonstration  farm  for  the  purpose,  or  by  tempo- 
rarily hiring  some  land  from  an  actual  cultivator.  In  either 
case,  if  it  is  to  do  any  good,  the  confidence  of  the  people 
must  be  won  either  before  or  during  the  demonstration  itself. 
Nothing  is  more  common  than  to  find  that  the  cultivators 
have  a  haughty  disdain  of  what  is  done  on  a  Government 
farm, — it  is  considered  that,  however  good  the  results  may 
be,  they  can  only  be  done  under  conditions  of  money  and  per- 
sonnel that    only    Government   can    secure.     Hence,    except   in 


12 


AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V, 


exceptional  cases,  it  is  probably  not  wise  to  institute  a  special 
permanent  farm  for  demonstration  purposes  ;  by  far  the  better 
way,  so  experience  shows,  is  to  engage  a  temporaiy  plot  or 
utilise  a  private  farm.  It  is  essential  that  everything  be  done 
as  a  cultivator  can  do  it,  and  that  the  man  in  charge  should 
be  a  cultivator  himself,  or  at  any  rate  one  with  whom  they  can 
o-et  into  perfect  intimacy.  Supervision  there  must  be,  but  it 
is  essential  that  the  man  actuall}^  in  charge  should  be  of  the 
same  type  as  the  people  he  is  working  among.  He  has  then  two 
things  to  do,  to  gain  their  respect  and  confidence,  and  to  show 
that  his  method  is  better  than  that  which  is  adopted  round  about 
him.  He  must  understand,  too,  that  the  success  of  the  demon- 
stration will  be  judged  by  the  extent  to  which  it  is  adopted,  and 
that  this  is  the  only  test. 

Working  on  these  lines  it  has  been  possible  to  make  consider- 
able progress  in  Madras,  in  the  Central  Provinces,  and  in  several 
other  parts  of  India, — new  varieties  of  crops  have  been  introduced, 
new  methods  have  been  largely  adopted,  and  it  seems  likely  that 
this  will  form  one  of  the  most  effective  means  of  introducinof  new 
matters  into  the  practice  of  cultivators. 

These  methods  are  not  limited  to  matters  of  cultivation. 
New  machinery  can  be  equally  well  shown  by  men  of  a  similar 
type.  A  gang  of  men  has  for  instance  been  employed  for  years 
in  Bombay,  demonstrating  from  place  to  place,  the  best  methods 
of  l>oiling  ijar  (crude  sugar)  :  the  use  of  reaping  machines  has 
been  brought  to  the  notice  and  into  the  practice  of  agriculturists 
in  the  Punjab  similarly,  and  many  other  cases  might  be  cited. 
The  essential  point  in  it  all,  is  that  everything  should  be  shown 
under  cultivators'  conditions,  by  men  who  are  themselves  inti- 
mately in  touch  with  the  people  and  their  problems. 

Other  methods  have  been  utilised  for  gaining  the  confidence 
ol  the  people,  the  essential  preliminary  to  doing  very  much  for 
the  introduction  of  improvements.  In  the  United  Provinces  and 
in  the  Central  Provinces,  advantage  has  been  taken  of  the  period 
of  stress  following  severe  famine  to  help  the  cultivators  with  large 
quantities   of  good   seed,    and  the  like,  and  the    confidence    thus 


INTRODUCTION    OF    IMPROVEMENTS  :    MANN.  13 

gained  has  been  very  great.  Again  travelling  agents  have  been 
eniplo^^ed  in  going  from  place  to  place,  generally  on  some  special 
quest,  and  getting  into  touch  with  villagers  and  cultivators  in 
Bombay.  In  this  case  the  men  employed  should  be  of  consider- 
able experience,  be  thoroughly  imbued  with  the  fact  that  they  are 
the  servants  of  the  people,  and  be,  if  possible,  cultivators  them- 
selves. And  so  on.  But  confidence  must  be  oained,  I  would 
again  insist  on  the  matter,  before  anything  material  can  be    done. 

When  the  confidence  of  the  actual  cultivators  has  been  se- 
cured, the  greater  part  of  the  difiiculty  is  over.  It  is  then  only 
a  matter  of  showing,  of  clearly  proving,  that  what  }■  ou  recommend 
is  good  and  will  pay,  and  the  chief  trouble  is  to  ensure  that  j'Our 
information  actually  reaches  the  cultivators  themselves. 

The  number  of  methods  which  can  be  adopted  for  this  pur- 
pose is  very  great.  The  most  certain  in  effect  have  been  already 
referred  to,  the  formation  of  local  associations  of  agriculturists 
wliere  matters  can  be  freely  discussed,  and  in  connection  with 
which  members  will  make  trials  for  themselves  and  for  their 
neighbours  to  see,  and  the  institution  of  demonstrations  by  the 
agricultural  department  either  on  cultivators'  land  specially  hired 
for  the  purpose,  or  by  special  demonstration  farms.  Where 
applicable,  both  these  methods  are  effective,  in  almost  all  cases. 
The  spreading  of  demonstrations  over  larger  areas  under  the  con- 
trol of  the  agricultural  department,  however,  involves  a  very 
large  stafi',  and  a  ver}^  w^ell-trained  staff.  This  is  not  likel}^  to  be 
available  for  many  years  to  come,  if  ever,  but  so  far  as  it  is 
available,  wdienever  there  is  anything  definite  to  be  shown,  the 
method  of  local  demonstration  has  proved  itself  extreme^ 
effective.  As  already  stated,  the  Committee  feel  that  experience 
has  shown  that  plots  taken  from  cultivators  for  a  short  period,  and 
placed  under  a  man  who  is  himself  a  cultivator  well  trained  for 
the  particular  demonstration  in  hand,  are  more  effective  than 
actual  demonstration  farms.  Such  plots  should  be  small,  should 
limit  themselves  to  special  and  definite  demonstrations,  should 
show  nothino-  which  is  not  certain  to  be  a  success,  and  should  be 
accessible  to  surrounding  cultivators  at  all  times. 


14  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   I. 

But  beyond  the  relatively  small  area  which  even  a  very  large 
extension  of  such  demonstration  areas  would  cover,  we  must  rely 
on  ao-ricultural  associations  to  meet  the  need  to  a  larare  extent. 
As  already  described,  they  enable  us  to  carry  the  ocular  demon- 
stration of  our  improvements  to  a  very  much  larger  area,  but 
their  number  is  circumscribed  by  that  which  can  be  covered  by 
the  senior  staff  of  the  agricultural  department,  who  must  act  as 
inspiring  and  suggesting  influences  to  everyone.  However 
enthusiastic  local  men  may  be,  they  expect  and  require  constant 
touch  with  the  experts  of  the  agricultural  department,  and  the 
extension  of  associations  is  limited  by  the  possibility  of  giving 
that  touch.  It  is  no  use  sending  inferior  men  to  thein,  those 
employed  to  guide  and  assist  associations  must  be  of  considerable 
experience,  u.sually  well -skilled  in  the  vernacular,  capable  of 
inspiring  work,  and  with  a  stock  of  suggestions  for  improve- 
ment which  are  proved  successes,  and  which  will  meet  the 
cultivators'  needs. 

The  last  point  perhaps  merits  a  short  digression.  It  is  im- 
po-ssible  to  insist  too  strongly  on  the  necessity  for  finding  out  what 
are  the  cultivators'  difficulties  and  needs,  before  any  attempt  to 
introduce  improvements  is  made.  It  is  a  slow  business  to 
attempt  to  bring  into  use  anything  for  which  a  need  has  not 
arisen.  It  is  useless  to  talk  of  artificial  manures  to  a  man  whose 
crops  are  failing  for  want  of  water,  and  yet  this  has  often  been 
done  in  the  past.  It  should  always  be  remembered  that  the 
finding  out  of  the  cultivators'  wishes  and  needs  is  the  first 
Fiecessity,  and  the  devising  of  means  to  meet  them  the  second, 
and  their  presentment  to  him  in  one  way  or  another  then  follows 
and  is  welcomed. 

To  enable  improvements  to  be  carried  out  over  a  wider  area, 
we  must  return  to  those  methods  which  have  been  successes  in 
other  lands, — such  as  exhibitions,  shows,  publications  and  so  on. 
They  will  be  successes  if  you  already  have  the  confidence  of  the 
p.ople,  otherwise  they  may  cause  much  talk,  but  will  lead  to  little 
i-eal  effect.  Hence  the  value,  so  far  as  ultimate  results  are  concern- 
ed, of  these  methods  has  been  very  various.     But  if  the  essential 


INTRODUCTION    OF    IMPROVEMENTS  :    MANN.  15 

condition  is  obtained,  then  a  great  deal  depends  on  the  manner  in 
which  these  methods  are  adopted.  A  large  amount  of  energy 
has  been  spent  in  recent  years  in  organising  large  exhibitions  in 
several  Indian  Provinces  in  which  a  vast  amount  of  work  has 
been  put  into  the  agricultural  section.  These  have  been  held  in 
Bombay,  at  Calcutta,  and  the  culmination  was  reached  in  that 
recently  held  at  Nagpur.  In  each  of  these  cases,  and  particu- 
larly at  Bomba}''  and  Nagpur,  very  great  efforts  were  made 
to  secure  the  attendance  of  large  numbers  of  actual  cultivators, 
and  to  show  them  everything  which  was  to  be  seen.  These 
exhibitions  have  certainly  been  effective  in  inspiring  very  great 
interest,  have  made  the  agricultural  departments  more  widely 
known,  have  spread  the  knowledge  of  advanced  methods  into 
corners  where  this  had  never  before  penetrated,  and  have 
directly  led,  in  the  hands  of  the  more  substantial  cultivators,  to 
the  introduction  of  seed  and  implements. 

Such  large  exhibitions  can  only,  however,  be  organised  on 
special  occasions  and  under  special  circumstances.  Local  smaller 
shows  can  be  held  at  more  frequent  intervals,  and  range  in  size 
from  institutions  like  the  Lyallpur  fair  in  the  Punjab,  annuall}- 
attended  by  one  hundred  thousand  people,  to  small  taluka  shows 
in  parts  of  the  Bombay  Presidency,  or  to  the  demonstrations 
which  are  made  in  connection  with  sm-aller  cattle  fairs  and  festi- 
vals in  Madras.  On  the  whole,  the  Committee  have  felt  that  if 
such  shows  are  to  lead  to  real  effective  improvement,  their  organ- 
isation should  be  ver}^  carefully  done.  While  local  effort  may 
and  should  arrange  the  show,  the  part  which  the  agricultural 
department  takes  in  it  should  be  very  carefully  organised  and 
attended  to  by  one  of  the  superior  staff  of  the  agricultural 
department.  Agricultural  products  which  are  not  and  cannot 
be  produced  on  the  cultivators'  own  lands  should  be  excluded. 
As  many  things  as  possible  should  be  shown  in  action  ;  as 
these  are  always  centres  of  attraction.  Popular  lectures  should 
be  combined  with  practical  demonstrations.  Farm  produce 
should  be  arranged  in  sufficiently  large  quantities  to  allow  of 
being  handled  by  those    interested  in  them.     If  these   conditions 


16  AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   I. 

can  be  attained,  it  is  probable  that  a  larger  number  of 
smaller  shows  are  more  useful  than  fewer  shows  on  a  larger 
scale. 

It  may  be  well  to  consider  the  whole  question  of  agricultural 
publication  together,  so  far  as  it  is  made  for  the  purpose  of  in- 
troducing improvements  into  practice.  In  some  parts  of  India, 
vernacular  ao-ricultural  iournals  are  issued,  in  some  information 
which  it  is  desired  to  spread  is  sent  out  in  leaflets,  in  others 
acrain  the  general  press  is  considered  sufficient,  and  in  Madras, 
an  agricultural  almanac  in  the  various  vernaculars  is  published. 
It  is  t-atural  that  in  a  matter  like  this  the  methods  should  differ, 
in  each  part  of  India,  as  the  habits  of  the  people  vary.  But 
whatever  is  done  must  be  done  well,  and  must  be  written  simph^ 
and  in  such  language  as  ths  cultivators  know.  This  latter  point 
is  of  importance,  for  there  is  a  danger  that  if  a  translation  into 
the  vernacular  be  made  by  a  non-agriculturist,  it  will  abound  in 
phrases  and  words  totally  unintelligible  to  the  ordinary  cultiva- 
tors. Again,  any  article,  any  leaflet,  should  be  short,  perhaps 
not  exceeding  a  couple  of  pages,  and  should  contain  one  definite 
fact  or  the  description  of  a  single  process  which  it  is  desirable 
that  the  ryot  should  know  and  adopt,  with  illustrations 
whenever  possible.  The  circulation  of  such  material  is  a  difficult 
point.  A  vernacular  journal,  which  has  to  be  paid  for,  is  excel- 
lent if  it  only  has  a  large  enough  circulation  among  actual 
cultivators.  Such  a  circulation  is  not  very  easy  to  work  up, — 
and  the  agricultural  department  in  the  Central  Provinces  is 
the  only  (jue  in  India  by  which  this  has  been  really  accom- 
plished. Leaflets,  being  distributed  free,  can  be  spread  more 
widely,  but  much  of  the  distribution  is  useless.  To  avoid  this 
they  are,  in  Bombay,  generally  used  (1)  in  connection  with  demon - 
sti-ations  of  implements  and  methods,  as  for  mstance  at  shows  ; 
(2)  in  a  limited  area  where  special  need  has  arisen.  They  are  rarely 
(hstributed  without  at  the  same  time  arranging  for  the  presence  of 
an  officer  who  can  explain  the  nature  of  the  improvement. 
Kven  with  all  these  precautions,  the  extent  to  which  such  leaflets 
are  really  useful  is  still  problematical. 


INTRODUCTION'    OF    IMPROVEMENTS  :    MANN.  17 

Of  course,  it  is  possible  to  use  the  general  vernacular  press 
t'oY  publication  of  agricultural  information.  This  is  now  very 
widely  read,  in  by  far  the  greatest  amount,  however,  among  the 
non-agricultural  classes.  Articles  and  material  are  however 
freely  taken,  and  with  a  properly  organised  system  of  contri- 
bution, a  considerable  result  might  be  expected  to  flow  from  its 
utilisation.  If  material  is  sent  to  the  press  for  this  purpose,  no 
efforts  should  be  spared  to  give  the  contributions  a  popular 
readable  form,  such  as  likely  to  command  attention. 

We  have  now  considered  most  of  the  methods  which  have 
been  adopted  to  ensure  a  wide  extension  of  the  knowledge  of 
agricultural  improvements.  But  there  is  one  other  to  which  I 
would  like  briefly  to  refer,  namely,  the  training  of  the  sons  of 
cultivators  in  practical  agriculture  either  on  the  farms  of  the 
agricultural  department,  or  in  special  institutions.  This  has  been 
carried  on  to  a  certain  extent  at  Nagpur,  and  also  in  Bombay. 
The  whole  matter  is,  however,  as  yet  in  an  experimental  stage. 
Difficulty  has  been  found  in  attracting  the  right  class  of  student 
and  those  who  come  do  not  by  any  means  always  wish  to  go  back 
to  improve  their  own  land.  Where  the  right  type  of  boys  have 
been  attracted,  and  where  the  course  has  been  short  and  practical 
throughout,  there  have,  however,  been  a  good  number  of  cases 
uf  success.  But  the  whole  question  of  the  large  applicability  of 
such  training  is  at  present  doubtful,  and  a  very  considerable 
amount  of  experiment  will  be  required,  and  that  under  diflereiit 
conditions,  before  the  best  method  is  ascertained. 

I  might  refer  to  many  other  methods  which  are  of  narrower 
application,  but  have  been  of  service  on  particular  cases.  In 
certain  cases  lands  have  been  colonised  with  good  cultivators 
with  very  great  eflect  on  the  character  of  the  agi-iculture  round 
about  them  ;  in  others,  individual  cultivators  have  been  sent  to 
new  areas  to  teach  the  people  round  about  them,  their  own 
methods,  and  so  on.      But  ao-ain  it  must  be  recoo-nised  that  there 

o  o 

is  no  general  method  ;  the  conditions  differ  so  much  from  place 
to  place,  and  from  province  to  province,  that  it  is  absolutely  im- 
possible   tf)    lay    down    an3'thing  more  than    indications   of  such 

2 


18  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   I. 

methods  as   have,  in  particular  places,  given  successful  results  in 
the  past. 

In  conclusion,  there  is  sufficient  information  in  hand  now  to 
indicate  that,  in  spite  of  its  peculiar  difficulties,  agricultural  im- 
provement is  not  impossible  in  any  part  of  India.  There  is, 
however,  no  royal  road, — the  progress  is,  and  must  be  for  a  long- 
time to  come,  very  slow.  But,  whatever  methods  be  adopted, 
the  actual  process  must  be  the  same.  To  find  the  cultivators' 
real  difficulties,  to  discover  a  practical  and  certain  method  of 
meeting  those  difficulties,  to  gain  the  confidence  of  the  people  : 
these  all  must  precede  an}^  definite  attempt  at  a  propaganda  If 
the  attempt  is  made  to  introduce  so-called  improvements  without 
these  necessary  preliminaries,  then  not  only  will  failure  result, 
but  what  confidence  there  may  be  will  be  undermined,  and 
progress  in  the  future  will  be  made  harder.  Recognise  the 
necessary  order  of  events,  try  to  satisfy  the  cultivator's  needs 
and  not  something  you  imagine  he  ought  to  need,  let  your 
experiment  be  based  on  the  requirements  of  the  ryot,  and  success, 
though  slow,  will,  if  past  experience  be  any  guide,  be  sure. 


Proidispiece. 


A.  .1.  I. 


THE  POTATO  MOTH. 


.!.««<»   rit>p*v«d  * 


PHTHOHIMAEA    OPERCTTLELLA. 

(LlTA     SoLANELLA.) 

Potato  Moth. 

Fig.     1.     A  putato  plant  showing  injury  caused  b)'  the  larvae. 
'2.      Moth  resting  on  plant. 

3.  Potato  tuber  showing  evidences  of  caterpillar  attack  in  the  masses 
oi(  excrement  at  the  eyes.      A  cocoon  on  the  tuber. 

4.  Potato  tuber  cut  open  to  show  damage  caused  by  caterpillar. 
0.      Potato  tuber  showing  the  track  of  the  caterpillar  and  the  pupa, 

6.  Young  Larva. 

7.  Imago,  male. 
b. 
9. 

10.     Pupa. 

i  1.      Adult  larva. 

12.      ngg**  deposited  at  the  eye  of  a  potato  tuber. 


>        ,,        female. 


EXPERIMENTS  IN  THE  STORAGE  OF  SEED- 
POTATOES. 

By  H.  MAXWELL-LEFROY,    m.a.,  f.k.s.,  f.z.s., 

Imperial  Entomologist,  Ptisa, 

AND 

G.   EVANS,  B.A.  (Cantab.), 
Deputy  Director  of  Agriculture,  Northern  Circle,  Central  Provinces. 

In  almost  all  parts  of  India  where  potatoes  are  grown,  the 
tubers  for  seed  have  to  be  kept  for  a  period  of  several  months, 
usuall}?'  during  the  rains,  and  during  this  time  they  are  extensive- 
ly attacked  by  disease  and  are  consequently  difficult  to  keep. 
There  has  been  for  years  past  a  very  large  import  of  seed-potatoes 
from  Italy,  and  there  is  little  doubt  that  with  these  potatoes  has 
come  the  potato-moth  which  is  well  established  in  Italy,  Algeria, 
and  other  countries  on  the  Mediterranean  and  which  has  been 
spread  from  there  to  Australia  and  other  countries.  The  impor- 
tation of  the  potato-moth  not  only  let  loose  an  insect  attacking 
the  growing  plant,  but  also  one  which  immensely  increased  the 
difficulties  of  the  potato-grower  who  stored  his  own  seed  ;  the 
pest  attacks  the  stored  potato  freely,  and  has  become  well  estab- 
lished in  India  where  potatoes  are  grown. 

To  meet  this  pest  it  was  necessary  to  devise  a  new  method 
of  storage  ;  there  must  be  no  access  of  the  moth  to  the  potato  in 
the  first  place,  that  is,  the  potato  must  be  covered  ;  it  was  soon 
found  that  storing  the  potatoes  in  a  closed  space  or  in  bags  was 
impossible  owing  to  the  enormous  loss  from  disease  and  a  long 
series  of  experiments  was  undertaken  to  determine  exactly  how 
the  potato  could  be  stored,  so  that  it  would  not  l)e  attacked  by 
potato-moth.     These  experiments  were   made    at   Pusa    in    1908 


20  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  I. 

and  the  results  were  applied  in  the  Central  Provinces  as  described 
below. 

The  potato-moth  is  shown  in  all  its  stages  in  Plate  I  ;  the 
moth  is  a  small  brown  insect,  which  can  be  seen  in  hundreds 
Hying  about  potato  fields,  and  is  abundant  in  houses  in  which 
potatoes  are  stored  ;  the  eggs  are  laid  on  the  tuber,  usually  in  an 
eye  or  on  the  under  surface  of  the  leaf  of  the  growing  plant 
usually  at  the  angle  of  two  veins  ;  in  the  plant  the  caterpillar 
becomes  a  miner,  making  a  blotch  mine  in  the  leaf  (Plate  I,  fig.  1) 
or  it  bores  in  the  shoots  or  leaf  petioles,  causing  the  shoot  or  leaf 
to  wither  ;  in  the  tuber  the  caterpillar  tunnels  in  the  potato 
entering  at  the  eye  and  the  presence  of  the  caterpillar  is  shown  by 
the  black  excrement  grains  on  the  outside  of  the  tuber  (Plate  I, 
fig.  3).  The  full-fed  caterpillar  pupates  in  tlie  tuber  (Plate  I, 
fig.  5)  or  if  on  the  plant,  in  any  convenient  shelter  on  the  leaves, 
stems  or  sfround,  in  a  lioht  cocoon. 

The  whole  life-history  occupies  about  one  month  ;  a  single 
cycle  in  March  is  as  follows  : — 

Egg  laid                   ...                  ...                  ...  ...     Ist  Marcli. 

Egg  hatclied            ...                  ...                  ...  ...     Ttli       „ 

Caterpillar  full-fed  Hiid  pii|)ute(l                 ...  ...  22iid       ,, 

Moths  emerged      ...                 ...                 ...  ...  29tl)  Marcli  to  3rd  April. 

One  moth  that  emerged  on  1st  April   laid  25  eggs  on  3r<l  April. 

7     „  „  7th      „ 

2     „  „  9th      „ 

and  died  „  1 1th       ,, 

A  generation  then  takes  from  four  to  five  weeks  onl^^  and 
the  increase  is  rapid.  The  number  of  eggs  laid  varies,  as  many 
as  86  beinof  laid  in  one  case. 

The  pest  is  an  introduced  one  and  evidently  if  it  could  be 
prevented  from  breeding  in  the  seed  potatoes,  it  would  be  very 
much,  if  not  entirely,  checked,  as  it  apparently  has  no  other  food- 
plants  in  India  but  potato. 

The  Pusa   Experiments. 
The  experiments  at  Pusa  were  done  with  a    view    of   testing 
the    ways    in  which   seed-potatoes  could   be  stored  absolutely  out 


sTi)K.\(iK    OF    SEED-POTATOKS  :    MAXWELL-LEFROY    AND    EVANS.  21 

of  reach  of  the  pest.  If  the  inoth  cannot  get  access  to  the  tuber, 
eggs  cannot  be  laid,  and  if  at  the  time  of  storing  the  tubers  are 
freed  of  eggs,  there  can  be  no  attack  nor  can  the  pest  breed. 

Lots  of  25  seers  each  of  seed-potatoes  were  taken,  picked 
over  to  see  they  were  sound  and  stored  ;  one  series  was  in 
baskets,  another  on  mats  or  bamboo  machans  ;  for  each  series,  a  lot 
was  stored  in  lime,  lime  and  kerosene,  lime  and  naphthaline,  ashes, 
charcoal,  sand,  sand  and  kerosene,  sand  and  naphthaline,  sand  and 
crude  oil  emulsion,  neem  leaves  ;  for  each  of  these  again,  one  lot 
of  tubers  was  untreated,  others  were  dipped  in  crude  oil  emulsion 
(one  pint  in  four  gallons  of  water),  rosin  compound  (stock  solu- 
tion), copper  sulphate  (cold  saturated  solution),  lime  water, 
lead  arseniate  ( I  lb.  in  4  gallons  of  water).  There  were  check 
lots  untreated,  and  three  lots  were  treated  with  formalin  at  the 
suggestion  of  the  Imperial  Mycologist.  The  potatoes  w'ere  exam- 
ined at  intervals  and  the  rotten  ones  weighed  and  destroyed  ; 
they  were  stored  at  the  end  of  May,  the  sound  ones  remaining 
on  the  15th  October  sown.  As  some  of  the  lots  had  wholly  rot- 
ted, only  those  giving  a  definite  percentage  were  sown  ;  of  these 
an  equal  quantity  (five  seers)  of  each  was  sown  with  the  ordinary 
potatoes  in  the  farm  and  the  yield  of  each  lot  was  obtained.  The 
experiment  showed  certain  general  conclusions  before  the  actual 
yields  of  potatoes  were  obtained  and  these  were  acted  on  in 
the  Central  Provinces.  The  tubers  keep  better  on  mats  or  on 
the  Hoor  than  in  a  basket,  bag  or  heaped  up.  The  best  medium 
is  sand,  or  sand  and  naphthaline,  the  next  best  charcoal  ;  lime  was 
good  but  the  actual  yield  of  potatoes  from  seed  stored  in  lime 
was  small  ;  (this  may  have  been  simply  experimental  error).  For 
dipping,  lead  arseniate,  crude  oil  emulsion  and  copper  sulphate 
are  all  good.  Potatoes  stored  in  ashes  dry  up  at  once  and  all 
perish  in  a  short  time. 

The  following  table  gives  the  results  of  those  in  which  five 
seers  out  of  twenty-five  were  available  at  the  end  of  the  storage 
jjeriod  :  in  this  table,  the  method  of  stoiage  is  shown,  then  the 
amount  rejected  Ijetween  June  1st  and  October  1 5th,  the  amount 
left    on    that    date  (the    difi'erence   being    evaporation    from    the 


•79 


AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA. 


[V 


potatoes),  the  yield  per  acre  based  on  the  actual  yield  of  the 
plot,  and  the  total  yield  that  would  have  been  obtained  from 
the  whole  amount  of  seed  left  from  the  25  seers  stored  : 


Method  of  Stobaob. 

Amount 
rejected. 

Amount 
left  on 
15-X. 

Yield  per 
acre. 

Yield  from 
amount  left. 

S.  Ch. 

S.  Ch. 

iVIds.  S. 

Mds. 

s. 

Ch. 

1. 

In  lime  in  basket 

9    8 

10    4 

51  .32 

1 

.38 

0 

3. 

Do.     (19),  Kerosene  (1)  in  basket 

10  12 

9    7 

44  12 

1 

24 

0 

f). 

In  H«e»n  leaves  in  basket 

10    5 

9  11 

53    5 

1 

20 

0 

8. 

In  sand  in  basket 

13  10 

7  12 

24  31 

0 

21 

0 

9. 

Do.      20,  Najjhthaline  1,  in  basket 

15    7 

6    4 

4  17 

0 

3 

4 

12. 

Dipped  in  C.O.E.  (1-32),  in  basket 

10    3 

7  11 

33    8 

0 

37 

0 

13. 

Ditto             in  lime  in  basket 

8  13 

11  12 

58  17 

2 

27 

8 

15. 

Ditto              in  sand  in  basket 

9    5 

11    6 

81    0 

3 

18 

0 

•20. 

Dipped  in  Cu  S  O4,  in  basket 

12    1 

6    5 

68  16 

1 

24 

0 

21. 

Ditto                     in  lime  in  basket 

8    8 

10  10 

72  15 

2 

35 

0 

23. 

Ditto                    in  sand  in  basket 

9    3 

10    6 

63  16 

2 

18 

0 

24. 

Dipped  in  lime  sol.,  in  basket 

13    7 

5  13 

51  32 

1 

3 

0 

•26. 

Ditto                 in  sand  in  basket 

12    8 

7  10 

79  27 

1 

27 

0 

27. 

Dipped  in  load  ars.,  1-32,  in  basket 

6    1 

12    3 

85    0 

3 

0 

0 

28. 

Ditto                  1-32,  in  lime  in  basket 

7    6 

11  15 

33  21 

2 

28 

0 

30. 

Ditto                  1-32.  in  sand  in  basket 

9    3 

10  11 

85    0 

2 

20 

0 

31. 

Untreated  in  basket 

9    0 

8    2 

65    3 

•> 

0 

0 

32. 

Ditto        on  mat 

5    3 

14    1 

96  20 

3 

24 

0 

33. 

Ditto           do.      in  sand 

5    8 

15     5 

108    0 

4 

20 

0 

.34. 

Ditto            do.      in  sand  and  Napbth.     ... 

3    2 

15    8 

831  19 

5 

22 

0 

37. 

Ditto            do.      in  charcoal     ... 

3    2 

13  12 

102  28 

3 

36 

0 

39. 

Dipped  in  lime  sol.,  in  sand 

5    2 

12    2 

84    4 

3 

20 

0 

42. 

Ditto       formol,  \%,  1  hour 

7    0 

10    8 

49    5 

1 

0 

0 

43. 

Ditto       formol,  '//.,,  h  hour 

7    2 

11    8 

48  28 

1 

23 

0 

44. 

Ditto      formol,  3%,  10  minutes 

6    4 

11    0 

32  30 

1 

2 

0 

Trials  in  the  Central  Provinces. 

Occurrence  : — The  pest  has  been  reported  from  a  large 
number  of  different  places  in  the  Central  Provinces. 

The  crop  is  an  important  garden  crop,  and  in  certain  areas 
where  the  conditions  of  climate,  water  and  manure  supply  are 
all  favourable,  it  assumes  considerable  importance  in  the  local 
economy  of  that  tract.  For  several  years  it  had  been  stated  that 
the  potato  crop  at  Chhindwara  had  been  steadily  and  rapidly 
decreasing  in  area  and  importance,  and  the  cultivation  of  this 
particular  crop  formerly  so  profitable  seemed  threatened  with  ex- 
tinction. It  was  decided  to  make  an  enquiry  into  the  cause  of 
this  reported  decrease  in  area  in  1908,  and  in  the  spring  of  that 
year  visits  were  made  to  Chhindwara  and  several  other  important 
potato-growing  centres  for  this  purpose.  The  damage  was  speedi- 
ly  found  to  be  due  to  the  ravages  of  the  potato-moth  (Phthorimcea 


STORAGE    OF    SEED-POTATOES  :     MAXWELL-LEFROY    AND    EVANS,         23 

023erculella)  a  pest  which  attacks  the  tubers  in  store,  eating  awaj^  the 
eyes  of  the  potatoes  and  rendering  them  useless  for  seed  purposes. 

Enquiry  showed  that  the  pest  was  widely  distributed  through- 
out the  north  of  the  province  as  it  was  reported  from  such  widely 
separated  places  as  Marwara  in  the  extreme  north-east  corner 
of  the  Province,  Khamla  in  the  south-west  on  the  Berar  border, 
Snugor  in  the  Vindhyan  tract,  and  in  fact  from  nearly  every  place 
where  potatoes  are  habitually  grown.  It  occurs  also  in  the 
Nilgiris,  Dharwar,  Belgaum,  Poona  and  in  Patna  ;  it  has  not 
been  found  in  Naini  Tal  or  other  places  in  the  Himalayas,  nor  in 
any  place  north  of  the  Ganges. 

The  pest  seems  to  have  been  introduced  quite  recently.  In 
Chhindwara,  cultivators  have  been  accustomed  to  store  their 
seed  so  long  as  can  be  remembered,  and  as  the  place  was  very 
isolated  before  the  railway  was  opened  five  years  ago,  no  fresh 
seed  was,  as  a  rule,  introduced.  The  arrival  of  the  pest  seems 
to  coincide  so  far  as  can  be  ascertained  with  the  introduction  of 
the  round  white  Italian  variety  from  Poona  owing  to  the  well- 
intentioned  efforts  of  one  of  the  District  Officers  a  few  years 
ago,  who  hoped  thereby  to  raise  the  quality  of  this  crop,  as  the 
local  "  moolki  "  variety  had  much  deteriorated  and  fresh  seed 
was  needed.  Within  the  last  three  or  four  years,  cultivators 
state  that  they  have  been  unable  to  keep  their  seed,  as  it  all  goes 
rotten  in  May  and  June,  whereas  for  merlj^  only  25  percent,  of  the 
seed  stored  was  lost,  and  it  mostly  went  rotten  during  the  rains 
from  the  attacks  of  moulds  and  similar  funo'i. 

In  Saugor,  growers  say  that  the  moth  first  appeared  about 
eight  years  ago.  Before  this,  however,  when  a  change  of  seed 
was  required,  one  or  two  potato-cultivators  were  commissioned 
to  purchase  seed  for  all  from  Poona.  Thej^  found,  however,  that 
the  crop  from  Poona  seed  was  of  inferior  quality  and  suffered 
from  a  disease  which  seems  from  all  accounts  to  have  been  the 
ring  disease  {Bacillus  solanacearum)  which  is  still  fairly 
prevalent  there.  As  a  result  about  eight  or  nine  years  ago,  they 
decided  to  purchase  their  seed-potatoes  direct  from  the  ship  in 
Bombay,  and  the  moth  .seems  to  have   been  introduced    with    the 


24 


AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V, 


freshly  imported  seed  which  comes  from  Ital}^  and  tlie  South 
Mediterranean.  Saugor  potatoes  are  imported  to  many  parts  of 
the  province,  and  the  pest  was  probably  spread  by  this  means  to 
other  important  potato-growing  centres. 

Remedial  measures  were  accordingly  decided  on  last  year. 
The  preliminary  experiments  described  above  had  indicated 
that  the  only  possible  means  of  combating  the  pest  was  to 
destroy  the  eggs  on  the  tubers  before  storing  them  for  seed,  by 
steeping  them  in  some  solution  which  would  kill  the  eggs  without 
injuring  the  germinating  power  of  the  seed  and  then  to  store  the 
seed  so  treated  in  baskets  covering  them  completely  with  sand  or 
lime  to  prevent  a  fresh  generation  of  moths  from  depositing  more 
eggs  on  the  seed  tubers. 

The  three  solutions,  which  had  given  the  best  results  in 
these  preliminary  trials,  were  crude  oil  emulsion,  copper 
sulphate  and  lead  arseniate  paste.  The  last  was  discarded  at 
once  as  being  impracticable.  In  addition  to  being  difficult  to 
obtain  in  outlying  villages,  it  is  a  virulent  poison  and  accidents 
were  very  likely  to  occur  if  it  had  been  distributed,  as  villagers 
are  not  particularly  careful  in  carrying  out  the  details  of  experi- 
ments and  do  not  fully  study  the  most  careful  instructions. 

Copper  sulphate  is  now  sold  in  many  countr}'  bazaars  in 
certain  districts  as  a  remed}^  for  smut  in  juar,  but  it  often  contains 
ferrous  sulphate  as  an  impurity  which  is  likely  to  injure  the  seed, 
and  the  crystals  have  also  to  be  pounded  and  dissolved  to  make 
the  solution,  an  operation  requiring  .some  time. 

Crude  oil  emulsion  therefore  was  finally  fixed  on  as  the  most 
suitable  remedy.  The  enmlsion  is  sim})ly  poured  into  the 
requisite  proportion  of  water  and  stirred  with  a  stick  and  the 
solution  is  ready  for  treating  the  seed. 

In  the  trials  made  last  year,  crude  oil  emulsion  was  used  at 
Saugor,  Chhindwara,Pachmarhi  and  Hoshangabad,  and  the  copper 
sulphate  was  tried  at  Hoshangabad  alone  and  only  on  a  small 
scale. 

An  account  of  tho  operations  undertaken  at  these  })laces 
will  prove  of  interest. 


STORAGE    OF    SEED-POTATOliS  :    MAXWELL-LEFROV    AND    EVANS. 


25 


At  Saiigor  the  spring  crop  ripens  at  the  end  of  April  or 
beginning  of  May.  As  man}'-  of  the  cultivators,  who  are  chiefly 
Kact/tis  by  caste,  as  possible  were  assembled  and  the  mixture 
made  before  them  and  its  ingredients  and  action  explained.  One 
and  a  quarter  pounds  (equal  to  one  pint)  of  crude  oil  emulsion, 
was  weighed  into  a  shallow  tub  containg  4  gallons  of  water  and 
the  contents  stirred  with  a  stick.  Sand  was  found  by  the 
assembled  community  in  a  nullah  close  by.  The  cultivators 
stated  that  they  had  given  up  their  old  custom  of  storing 
potatoes  for  seed  as  they  had  found  in  the  last  few  years  that  it 
was  always  completely  destroyed  in  the  early  rains,  whereas 
before  the  moth  came,  the  loss  in  storage  was  approximately  a 
quarter.  Fifty  cultivators,  however,  volunteered  to  try  the  ex- 
periment with  quantities  of  seed  varjnng  from  175  to  10  lbs. 
The  seed  was  carefully  hand-picked,  steeped  for  five  minutes  in 
the  solution,  dried  and  stored  in  sand  in  baskets  of  two  sizes, 
holding  25  and  50  seers  respectively.  The  baskets  were  marked 
with  a  ticket  giving  the  name  of  the  tenant  and  weight  of  seed 
stored  and  each  man  was  requested  to  keep  a  note  of  the  date  on 
which  the  tubers  so  stored  were  examined  during  the  rains,  as  it 
was  explained  that  the  stored  tubers  should  be  examined  at 
reo-ular  intervals  and  the  rotten  ones  thrown  out. 

These    last    details    as   to    examination     durino-  the   storao-e 

o  o 

period  were  not  in  every  case  properly  carried  out,  but  where 
regular  examinations  had  been  made  the  results  were  excellent. 
The  tubers  were  stored  on  the  22nd  and  2  4th  May,  and  finally 
opened  on  the  4th  to  Gth  September. 

The  results  are  shown  below  : — 


Number  of 
ton.-ints. 

1                                 ' 
Weifihtat      '        Weight  at 
storage  in              opening  in                   Lo.-s. 
May.           1      September. 

Rkmakks. 

42 

8 

lbs.            .             lbs. 
1,782            i           1,167.^ 
490                         15li 

Per  cent. 
69 

Examined  at  least  twice  durinj; 

storage. 
Not  examined  after  storage  or 

lost  from  unavoidable  causes. 

26 


iiGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA. 


[V.I. 


In  Chhindwara  the  potato  crop  ripens  in  March  and  potatoes 
were  stored  on  the  7th  of  April  1909.  The  experiment  was 
carried  out  by  a  large  mali  cultivator  who  is  the  head  of  all  the 
malis  in  the  neighbourhood,  who  besides  cultivating  a  large  area 
of  garden  land  is  also  a  member  of  the  local  Agricultural  Asso- 
ciation. He  was  also  very  sceptical  of  the  efficacy  of  the  treat- 
ment recommended,  but  when  he  understood  that  the  cost  of  the 
treatment  only  came  about  one  anna  per  maund  and  the  tubers 
so  treated  remained  good  for  culinary  purposes  he  consented  to 
a  trial,  and  treatment  and  storage  was  undertaken  before  a  large 
assembly  of  cultivators  interested  in  the  matter.  The  method 
employed  was  practically  the  same  as  at  Saugor,  but  to  simplify 
matters  the  solution  was  made  a  little  weaker,  one  (whisky) 
bottle  of  crude  oil  emulsion  being  mixed  with  forty  bottles  of 
water  in  a  galvanised  iron  tub  and  dried  and  stored  as  before. 
The  mali  examined  his  tubers  three  times  during  storage,  reject- 
ing the  rotten  ones.  After  the  last  examination  in  the  middle 
of  August,  he  kept  the  seed  uncovered  as  he  said  that  there  was 
then  no  fear  of  the  pest  attacking  the  tubers. 

The  results  at  the  time  of  planting  on  the  20th  of  September. 
i.e.,  after  4J  months  storage  are  stated  below  : — 


Weight  at  storage  in 
April. 

Weight  at  planting  in 
September. 

Loss. 

lbs. 
300 

lbs. 
150 

Per  cent. 
50 

No  signs  of  the  pest  were  seen  in  the  tubers  that  remained 
in  September.  Before  this  pest  was  introduced  cultivators 
always  counted  on  a  loss  of  about  40  per  cent,  on  storage  due  to 
attacks  of  fnngi,  etc.,  during  the  rains  as  the  period  of  storage 
is  longer  here  than  at  Saugor.  These  results  have  met  with  the 
greatest  satisfaction  in  Chhindwara,  and  the  mali  has  applied  for 
sufficient  crude  oil  emulsion  to  treat  the  whole  of  the  seed 
potatoes  for  the  neighbourhood  next  year,  while  neighbouring 
villages  have  asked  to  have  the  method  demonstrated.     The  cost 


STORAGE    OF    SEED- POTATOES  :    MAXWELL-LEFKOY    AND    EVANS. 


•27 


of  potatoes  in  Chhindwara  after  the  crop  comes  into  the  market 
is  thirty  seers  to  the  rupee,  while  the  cost  of  seed  potatoes  in 
September-October  at  the  time  of  planting  is  no  less  than  ten 
seers  per  rupee  from  wliich  it  will  be  understood  that  this  remedy, 
if  widely  adopted,  will  effect  very  considerable  saving. 

In  Pachmarhi,  cultivators  could  not  be  persuaded  to  carry 
out  trials,  but  demonstrations  were  made  in  the  public  garden 
where  it  was  necessary  to  store  the  seed  from  a  crop  of  English 
potatoes  which  it  was  desired  to  propagate.  The  methods 
emploj^ed  were  similar  to  the  above-mentioned  instances,  the 
strength  of  the  crude  oil  emulsion  being  1  pint  in  4  gallons  of 
water.  Tubers  were  stored  for  nine  weeks  only  and  were  opened 
out  for  planting  in  the  first  week  of  July. 

Results  are  tabulated  below  : — 


Weight  of  storage  in 
April. 

Weight  left  in  July. 

Loss. 

Remarks. 

lbs. 

464 
70 

lbs. 

425 

50 

Per  cent. 

8-5 
28-5 

Tieatod  and  stored. 

Check  experiment. 

Tubers  not  treated  or  stored. 

When  the  potato-moth  pest  is  absent,  little  loss  occurs  in 
Pachmarhi  during  the  hot  weather  months,  and  the  main  loss  is 
caused  by  fungi  and  moulds  in  the  rainy  season  months.  The 
godow^n  in  which  the  experiment  was  carried  out  was  cleaner  and 
aftorded  less  refuge  for  moth  than  the  ordinary  cultivator's  shelter 
and  the  loss  from  moth  during  the  hot  weather  is  probablj^  more 
than  30  per  cent. 

On  the  Hoshangabad  Farm  last  season  trials  on  a  small 
scale  were  made  to  ascertain  the  most  convenient  method  of 
treating  seed-potatoes.  So  far  as  they  went,  the  trials  indicated 
that  the  loss  when  copper  sulphate  is  used  as  the  steeping 
solution  was  comparatively  greater  than  when  crude  oil  emulsion 
was  used.  On  the  other  hand,  lime  gave  slight!}^  better  results 
than  sand  as  a  coverinor  material,  but  takino^  into  consideration 
the  cost  of  lime  in  most  parts  of  these  Provinces  and  its  inferior 
and    uncertain    quality,    there  seems  little  doubt  that  sand  is  the 


28 


AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL   OF    INDIA. 


[V,.. 


most  convenient  and  practicable  material  with  which  to  cover  the 
seed  tubers  after  treatment. 

For  storing  small  quantities  of  seed- potatoes  ordinary  bamboo 
baskets  are  very  convenient,  but  when  large  quantities  of  seed 
have  to  be  handled  the  preliminary  cost  is  rather  excessive  and 
the  space  required  is  great.  These  and  other  littJe  difficulties 
connected  with  the  use  of  baskets  were  pointed  out  by  big 
growers  at  Saugor  and  Chhindwara.  At  Saugor  two  gons 
(1  gon  =  3|-  mds.)  were  steeped  in  crude  oil  emulsion  in  the 
ordinary  way.  A  bamboo  mat  was  placed  on  the  floor  of  the 
godown  and  covered  with  sand,  a  layer  of  potatoes  was  then  laid 
down  and  covered  with  sand  and  another  layer  on  the  top,  the 
whole  being  finally  covered  with  sand.  These  tubers  w^ere  stored 
for  3j  months,  but  unfortunately  were  not  looked  at  regularly 
and  the  upper  tubers  also  got  uncovered  as  care  w^as  not  taken 
to  keep  the  sand  properly  over  them. 

The  results  are,  however,  encouraging  as  a  considerable 
saving  of  seed  was  effected  and  with  a  little  experience  a  modifi- 
cation of  this  method  should  prove  successful. 


Weight  at  storing  in              Weight  remaining  in 
May.                                   September. 

Loss.                        Remarks. 

lbs. 
560 

lbs. 
180 

Per  cent. 

67                Stored  on  bamboo    mat- 
ting in  sand. 

The  natural  wastage  on  storage  in  Saugor  is  about  25  per 
cent.,  and  in  this  case  the  top  layer  of  tubers  sufifered  from 
attacks  of  the  potato-moth  caterpillar,  as  the  protecting  layer  of 
sand  was  in  places  removed  through  carelessness. 

In  conclusion,  it  may  be  asserted  that  the  results  obtained 
are  distinctly  encouraging  for  one  year's  demonstration.  The 
remedy  is  simple,  cheap  and  efficacious  and  when  potato-growers 
l)egin  to  realise  the  necessity  for  completely  covering  their  seed 
with  sand  and  regularly  going  over  their  stock  in  the  rains  in  order 
to  reject  rotten  tubers  and  prevent  the  spread  of  fungi,  there  seems 
little  doubt  that  they  will  be  able  to  combat  this  pest  successfully. 


THE  EFFICIENCY  OF  THE  "  HADl  PROCESS 
OF  SUGAR  MANUFACTURE. 

By  G.  CLARKE,   f.i.c, 
Agriculttiral  Chemist  to  thf  Government  of  the  United  Provinces, 

AND 

S.  C.   BANERJEE. 

The  experiments  recorded  in  this  article  were  undertaken 
to  test  the  efficiency  of  the  method  of  sugar  boihng  introduced 
some  years  ago  by  S.  M.  Hadi,  Khan  Bahadur,  Assistant  Direc- 
tor of  Agriculture,  United  Provinces,  and  known  as  the  "  Hadi 
Process."  Certain  technical  improvements  on  the  old  methods 
have  made  it  very  popular  among  land-holders,  and  others  desir- 
ing to  produce  sugar  directly  from  juice  in  an  area  with  a  limited 
supply  of  cane. 

The  process  is  too  well  known  to  need  a  detailed  description 
in  these  pages,  and  has  been  fully  described  in  Bulletin  19  of  the 
Depai  tment  of  Agriculture,  United  Provinces.  For  the  benefit 
of  those  who  are  not  able  to  obtain  the  original  memoii",  it  maj^ 
be  mentioned  that  it  consists  essentially  in  boiling  the  juice  in  a 
series  of  three  open  pans,  arranged  to  work  continuously  over  a 
furnace,  in  such  a  manner  as  to  facilitate  economy  of  fuel,  and  to 
produce  the  gradual  heating  necessary  for  the  modified  methods 
of  clarification  introduced  b}?"  the  inventor. 

These  modifications  consist  in  adding  small  quantities  of 
dilute  Sodium  Carbonate  solution  and  the  juice  of  Hibiscus 
esculentus  to  the  gradually  warming  juice,  and  removing  the 
scum  by  hand.  It  is  an  essential  feature  of  the  process,  as  at 
present  practised,  that  lime  is  not  used  during  the  clarification. 
The  use  of  lime  has  been  advocated  by  many  as  likely  to  reduce 
the  loss  of  sugar,  and  comparative  trials  on  a  large  scale  with  limed 
and  unlimed  juices  will  shortly  be  undertaken  by  this  Department. 


30  AQRICULTDRAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,    I. 

The  first  thing  to  determine  is  the  actual  efficiency  of  the 
process  as  at  present  worked,  viz.  :  How  much  of  the  sucrose 
that  o-oes  into  the  factory  in  the  juice  is  obtained  in  a  merchant- 
able form  in  the  first  and  second  sugar,  how  much  of  it  goes  into 
the  molasses  and  scum,  and  how  much  of  it  is  inverted  and  des- 
troyed during  the  process  of  the  manufacture.  The  work  of  the 
department  this  year  was  confined  to  attempts  to  obtain  satisfac- 
tory and  reliable  answers  to  these  questions. 

The  factory  selected  by  the  Assistant  Director  of  Agri- 
culture for  the  test  was  situated  at  Baraon  in  the  Karchana 
Tahsil  of  the  Allahabad  district.  It  belonged  to  Kai  Ragho 
Prasad  Narain  Singh  Bahadur,  Thakur  of  Baraon,  and  to  this 
gentleman  we  desire  to  offer  our  most  heart}^  thanks.  Without 
his  help  and  co-operation  the  work  could  not  have  been  carried  out. 

The  factory  was  provided  with  a  3  roller  mill  by  Messrs, 
Harris  &  Co,  of  the  Napier  Iron  Works,  Madras,  driven  by  a 
9-horse-power  Hornsby  oil  engine,  and  capable  of  crushing  20 
maunds  of  cane  an  hour.  The  rollers  were  12  inches  in  diameter 
and  18  inches  long.  A  steam  driven  centrifugal  was  in  the 
course  of  erection,  but  it  was  not  used  for  the  experimental  work. 
The  latter  was  carried  out  with  hand-driven  machines,  18  inches 
in  diameter,  described  in  Bulletin  19  of  the  United  Provinces 
Department  of  Agriculture, 

The  efficiency  of  factories  using  the  process  will  vary  within 
certain  limits ;  the  skill  of  the  sugar  boilers  in  this  as  in  other 
processes  of  sugar  manufacture  is  the  important  factor.  There  is 
every  reason  to  believe  that  this  factory  is  a  typical  one  and  that 
the  figures  obtained  indicate  an  efficiency  that  can  usually  be 
expected. 

The  details  of  the  actual  working  of  the  process  were  not 
interfered  with,  and  were  precisely  what  they  would  have  been, 
if  the  experimental  control  had  not  been  in  progress. 

The  juice  as  it  came  from  the  mill  was  weighed,  and  sampled. 
In  each  sample  the  amount  of  sucrose,  the  amount  of  glucose,* 
and  the  specific  gravity  was  determined  by  the  methods,  described 

*  The  term  "  glucose  "  used  in  this  article  includes  all  reducing  sugars. 


EFFICIENCY    OF    THE    "  HADI    PROCESS":    CLARKE    AND    BANERJEE.       31 

by  the  authors  in    Bulletin  13    of  the    Imperial   Department    of 
Agriculture. 

The  juice  was  then  taken  into  the  evaporators  and  boiled 
into  '  rab  '  (massecuite).  The  scum,  removed  during  purification, 
was,  after  draining,  weighed,  sampled,  and  analj^sed  at  the  end  of 
each  day's  work. 

The  warm  massecuite  from  the  evaporators  was  stored  in 
ghurras  (bottle-shaped  earthen  vessels  holding  about  60lbs.  of  rab) 
until  it  was  ready  for  centrifugating.  The  length  of  time  that 
should  elapse  before  massecuite  produced  by  this  process  deposits 
a  maximum  amount  of  crystals  varies,  but  it  is  considered  b}^ 
those  experienced  in  the  work  not  to  be  under  10  days. 

The  experimental  boiling  began  on  January  16th  and  ended 
on  January  26th.  The  centrifugation  of  the  first  samples  of 
massecuite  commenced  on  January  28th,  and  continued  until 
February  5th,  approximately  SOOlbs.  being  worked  up  daily. 
Each  day's  yield  of  1st  sugars  was  air-dried,  weighed,  and 
a  representative  sample  sent  to  the  central  laboratory  for  analysis. 
The  molasses  from  the  1st  sugars  were  boiled  into  second 
massecuite,  stored  in  ghurras,  and  allowed  to  stand  3  weeks 
before  centrifugating.  Finall}^,  the  second  sugar  and  the  molasses 
from  the  second  massecuite  were  weighed,  sampled,  and  analysed. 
When  massecuite  is  worked  up  into  sugar,  the  ghurras  in 
which  it  is  stored  are  broken,  and  the  massecuite  scraped  from 
the  broken  pieces.  The  scraping  is,  however,  never  complete. 
The  small  loss  from  this  source  was  determined  by  weighing  the 
broken  ghurras,  taking  a  representative  sample,  and  estimating 
the  glucose  and  the  sucrose  in  it. 

The  operations  recorded  above  afford    the  necessarj^  data  for 
determining  the  efficiency  factor  of  the  boiling  process. 

The  investigation  of  the  efficiency  of  the  mill  as  indicated  by 
the  percentage  extraction  was  not  undertaken.  It  was  deemed 
inadvisable  to  impose  more  quantitative  experimental  work  on  the 
staff  than  could  reasonably  be  carried  out.  The  efficiency  of  the 
mill  is  of  course  a  most  important  point  in  the  economical  work- 
ng  of  the  factory  and  should  be  determined  whenever  a  new   mill 


32 


AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL   OF    INDIA. 


[V,.. 


is  erected,  but  it  does    not    affect  the  question  of  establishing  an 
accurate  control  of  the  boiling  process. 

The  composition  of  the  raw  juices  used  during  the    LO    days 
experimental  boiling  is  given  in  Table  I. 

Table  I. 
Composition  of  the  Raw  Juice. 


No. 

Weight. 

Sucrose. 

Sucrose. 

Invert 
Sugar. 

Invert 
Sugar, 

Glucose 
Ratio. 

Specific 
Graviti'. 

Total 
Solids. 

Purity 
co- 
efficient. 

lbs. 

Per 

cent. 

lbs. 

Per 
cent. 

lbs. 

Per 

cent. 

1 

689  0 

15-51 

106-8 

1-35 

9-3 

8-7 

1-0814 

19-6 

79-1 

2 

712-0 

14-59 

103-8 

1-43 

10-2 

9-8 

1-0780 

18-8 

77-6 

3 

7220 

13-63 

98-4 

1-.56 

11  2 

U-4 

1-0733 

17-8 

76-5 

4 

781-0 

13-81 

107-8 

1-59 

12-4 

11-5 

10747 

18-1 

76-3 

5 

724  2 

15'00 

108-6 

1-50 

10-8 

100 

1-0797 

19-2 

78-1 

6 

691-0 

14-82 

102-4 

1-40 

9-7 

94 

1-0788 

19  0 

78-0 

7 

631-5 

15-20 

95-9 

1  .33 

8-4 

8-7 

1  -0794 

19-1 

79-5 

8 

665-0 

14-91 

99-1 

1-27 

8-4 

8-5 

1  -0790 

19-0 

78-4 

9 

648-2 

1473 

95-4 

1.33 

s-6 

9  0 

1-0783 

18-9 

77-9 

10 

6.-^9-5 

15-51 

99-1 

1-21 

7-7 

7-8 

l-(i811 

19-5 

79-5 

11 

1,1(16-5 

16  45 

182  0 

1-13 

125 

6-8 

1-08-26 

19-8 

830 

12 

1,483-7 

13-40 

198-8 

1-23 

18-2 

9-1 

1-0685 

16-7 

80-0 

13 

709  2 

14-00 

99-2 

0-73 

5-2 

5-2 

10676 

16-5 

84-8 

14 

740-0 

14-69 

108-7 

0-65 

4-8 

4-4 

1-0710 

17-3 

84-9 

15 

967-0 

14-31 

1.38-3 

0-78 

7-5 

5-4 

1-0697 

16-9 

84-6 

16 

7-24-7 

14-50 

105-0 

0-81 

5-9 

5-5 

1  -0705 

17-1 

84-7 

17 

976-5 

14-62 

142-7 

0-94 

9-2 

6-4 

1-07-24 

17-5 

83  5 

18 

896-0 

15-19 

136-1 

1-10 

9-8 

7-2 

1-0763 

18-4 

82-5 

19 

7-23 -0 

14-89 

107-6 

0-78 

5-6 

5  2 

1-0739 

17-9 

83  1 

20 

742-0 

15-20 

112-7 

0-82 

6-1 

5-3 

1-0756 

18-3 

83-0 

21 

7.53-5 

14-46 

108-9 

0-82 

6-2 

5-6 

1-0729 

17-7 

81-6 

22 

744-0 

15-61 

116-1 

0-89 

6-6 

5-7 

1-0773 

18-7 

83-4 

23 

1,391-5 

14-84 

206-5 

f-76 

10-6 

5-1 

1-0739 

17-9 

82-9 

24 

495-7 

14-75 

73-1 

0  82 

4-0 

5-5 

1  0732 

17-8 

82-8 

25 

7-26-0 

14-88 

108-0 

0-75 

5-4 

50 

1-0744 

18-0 

82-6 

26 

986-5 

11-83 

146  3 

0-76 

7-5 

5  1 

1-0744 

18-0 

S2-3 

27 

736-0 

16-07 

118-3 

0-81 

5-9 

5-0 

1-0705 

19-2 

83-7 

28 

740-0 

16-21 

119-9 

0-82 

6-0 

5-0 

1-0796 

19-2 

84-4 

29 

747-0 

15-91 

118-8 

115 

8-6 

•     7-2 

1-0801 

193 

82-4 

30 

745  0 

15-.58 

116-1 

1-29 

9-6 

8  2 

10800 

19-3 

807 

31 

742-0 

15-43 

114-5 

145 

10-7 

9-3 

1  -0800 

19  3 

79-9 

32 

743  5 

16-69 

124-1 

0-70 

52 

4-1 

1  -0827 

19-9 

83-8 

.33 

752-2 

16-25 

122-2 

0-70 

5-2 

4-3 

1  0803 

19-4 

83-7 

34 

753-5 

17-13 

1-29-1 

0-87 

6-5 

5-0 

10857 

20-5 

83-5 

35 

985-5 

16-83 

165-6 

0-87 

1-02 

8-6 

5-1 

1-08-28 
1-0765 

19-9 

84-5 

28.013-9 

15  12 

1235-9 

288-1 

6-6 

18-5 

J 

81-7 

The  sucrose  varies  from  13*40%  to  17-13%  and  glucose  from 
0-65%  to  1-59%. 

It  is  a  well-known  fact  that  the  amount  of  crystallisable 
sugar  obtainable  from  massecuite  is  very  considerably  influenced 
by  the  quality  of  the  juice  from  which  it  is  made.  A  com- 
paratively  small   increase   in    the   amount  of  glucose  in  the  juice 


EFFICIENCY    OF    THE    "  HADI    PROCESS "  :    CLARKE    AND    BANERJEE.       33 

causing  a  considerable  diminution  in  the  quantity  of  crystalline 
sugar,  obtained  from  the  massecuite,  and  a  proportionate  increase 
in  the  amount  of  sucrose  lost  in  the  molasses. 

The  experiments  this  year  afforded  an  opportunity  of  prac- 
tically demonstrating  this  important  point.  The  examination  of 
the  raw  juices  (Table  I)  showed  that  the  earlier  samples  were 
poorer  in  quality  as  sugar  producers  than  those  examined  towards 
the  end.  The  actual  percentage  of  sucrose  was  not  much  less,  but 
they  contained  larger  amounts  of  glucose  and  other  solids  in 
solution,  which  prevent  sucrose  from  crystallising  ;  that  is  to  say, 
they  had  high  glucose  ratios  and  low  purity  co-efficients. 

The  method  of  storing  rab  in  small  ghurras  enabled  us  to 
centrifugate  separately  the  massecuite  from  the  different  samples 
of  juice,  and  to  correlate  the  yield  of  sugar  and  molasses  with 
the  composition  of  the  juices. 

Table  II. 


Date  of 
boiling. 


Date  of 

centri- 
fugating. 


16-1-09 
16-1-09  I 
17-109  f 
17-1-09  1 
18-1-09/ 
19-1-09 

20-1-09 

21-1-09 
•22-1-09 
24-1-09 
25-1-09  1 
26-1-09  f 


28-1-09 
29-1-09 

30-1-09 

31-1-09 

J  31-1-09 

t    1-2-09 

2-2-09 

3-2-09 

4-2-09 

5-2-09 


Per  cent. 

air-dried 

Sugar  in 

massecuite. 

Percent. 

Molasses  in 

massecuite 

by  difference. 

21-0 

79-0 

28-7 

71-3 

30-9 

69-1 

33-2 

66-8 

36-9 

63-1 

36-7 
.36-8 
37-1 

63-3 
63-2 
62-9 

36-2 

63-8 

Average  % 

of  Sucrose 

in  Juice. 


14-55 
14-67 

15-55 

13-40 

14-56 

1504 
14-83 
15-83 

16-72 


Average 
%  of  glu- 
cose in 
.luice. 


1-44 
1-46 

1-21 
1-23 

0-86 

0-82 
0-76 
1-10 

0-78 


Glucose 
Hatio. 


9-9 
9-9 

7-7 

9-1 

5-1 

5-4 
5-1 
6-9 

4-6 


Average 
Purity  co- 
efficient. 


77-8 
78-0 

800 

80-0 

84-1 

83-0 
82-8 

82-4 

84-0 


Table  II  shows  the  percentage  of  1st  sugar  and  molasses  in 
the  massecuite,  and  the  average  composition  of  the  juice  from 
which  it  was  made.  Low  yields  of  crystalline  sugar  always 
accompany  high  glucose  ratios  and  low  purity  co-efficients. 

To  take  two  examples,  the  juice  boiled  on  the  16th  &  17th 
January  contained  1-46  %  of  glucose.  Its  glucose  ratio  was  very 
high,  viz.,  9-9  and  its  purity  co-efficient  low,  viz.,  78.  The 
massecuite     yielded    2877    %  of    sugar    crystals    when    it   was 

3 


34 


AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA. 


[V,i. 


centrifugated.  The  sugar  was  badly  grained  and  difficult  to 
handle.  The  juice  boiled  on  22nd  January  contained  076  % 
glucose,  the  glucose  ratio  was  much  lower  ol,  and  its  purity 
co-efficient  high,  viz.,  82'8.  The  massecuite  j'ielded  36*8  %  of 
crystalline  sugar,  nearly  8  per  cent,  more  than  that  obtained  from 
the  poorer  quality  juice.  The  percentage  of  sucrose  in  both 
juices  was  almost  the  same=  14"G7  in  one,  and  14*83  in  the  other. 
This  may  make  all  the  difference  between  profit  and  loss  in 
working  a  factory. 

The  canes  of  Northern  India  contain  a  higher  percentage 
of  glucose  and  impurities  in  solution  than  those  of  other  countries, 
and  the  results  contained  in  Table  II  bear  out  the  author's 
contention  in  a  previous  publication,  that  the  first  efforts  to 
improve  the  cane  of  these  provinces,  from  a  sugar  manufacturer's 
point  of  view,  should  take  the  form  of  selecting  and  cultivating 
varieties,  which  ripen  uniformly  and  at  the  required  time,  and 
which  yield  a  pure  juice,  viz.,  one  with  a  high  purity  co-efficient, 
and  a  low  glucose  ratio.  This  is  just  as  important  when  sugar  is 
made  indirectly  from  gur,  as  when  it  is  made  directly  from 
cane. 

The  weight  and  composition  of  the  products  :—  1st  and  2nd 
.sugars — final  molasses — 1st  and  2nd  massecuite — and  the  ghurra 
waste  are  given  in  Table  III.  The  weight  and  composition  of  the 
scum  in  Table  IV. 

Table  III. 
Composition  of  1st  Sugar. 


No. 

Weight. 

Sucrose. 

Invert  Sugar. 

Sucrose. 

Invert  Sujjar. 

IbH. 

Per  cent. 

Per  cent. 

lbs. 

lbs. 

1 

{JS-.-j 

9-2-76 

4-16 

19-62 

2-22 

2 

152-5 

96-44 

rio 

147-07 

1-67 

3 

77-0 

1)1-18 

3-43 

70-20 

2-64 

4 

164  5 

94-24 

2-08 

1.55-02 

3-42 

5 

96-5 

03 -.lO 

2-38 

90-22 

2-29 

6 

905 

93-64 

3-06 

84-74 

2-76 

7 

162-0 

96-54 

1-41 

156-39 

2-28 

8 

2()0-5 

96-70 

1-16 

193-88 

2-.S2 

9 

2-25-0 

95-01 

1-59 

213-77 

3-57 

10 

1-25-0 

!)4-85 

2-.32 

118-56 

2-90 

11  Sc  12 

431-0 

95-93 

1-34 

413-45 

5-77 

1778-0 

95-16 

1-79 

1092-92 

31-84 

EPPICIENCr    OF    THE    "  HADI    PROCESS  "  :    CLARKE    AND    BANERJEE.       35 

Composition  of  2nd  Sugar. 


1 

7.J3Tj                       8689        '               642        ;             G547 

1                             1                             1 

48-4 

Composition  of  Final  Molasses. 

■ 

2312-5 

35-92 

•20-30                     830-6 

469-4 

Composition  of  \st    Massecuite  (\st  Rah.) 

1 

5205-5                       67-86                     JO-4                     3532-4 

541-4 

Composition  of  2nd  Massecuite  (2nd  Rah.) 

1 

2539-5                       56-68 

19-89 

1439-4        1 

505-1 

Corn-position  of  Ghurra  Waste. 

1 

802-75 

6-03 

1-91                       48-4 

15-3 

Table  IV. 

Composition  of  Scum. 


No. 

Weight. 

Sucrose. 

Glucose. 

Sucrose. 

Glucose. 

lbs. 

Per  cent. 

Per  cent. 

lbs. 

lbs. 

1 

28-2 

14-60 

41 

2 

64-5 

16-80 

10-8 

3 

39-8 

12  08 

. 

4-8 

... 

4 

61-5 

13-76 

2-20 

8-4 

1-35 

5 

49-7 

24-52 

4  92 

121 

2-44 

6 

105-0 

14-74 

1-56 

15-5 

1-63 

7 

45-0 

14-82 

1-74 

6-6 

0-78 

8 

81-0 

l,5-4-^ 

111 

12-5 

0-89 

9 

129  0 

16-46 

1-28 

21-2 

1-65 

10 

112-5 

19-92 

1-98 

22-4 

.>o.> 

11 

175-0 

•23-20 

2 -'23 

40-6 

3-90 

12 

147-0 

16-,50 

1-60 

24-3 

2-35 

13 

44-0 

13-48 

1-04 

5-9 

0-45 

14 

52-5 

1414 

169 

7-4 

0-88 

11.347 

17-32 

196-6        , 

28014  lbs.  of  juice  yielded  1778  lbs.  of  air  dried  1st  sugar. 

753*5  lbs.         ,,  2nd  sugar. 

23 12 "5  lbs.  of  molasses. 

This  expressed  as  percentage  of  the  juice  is — 

Air  dried  1st  suo-ar  ...  6*3  %  of  total  juice. 

Air  dried  2nd  sugar  ...  27  %  ,, 

Final  molasses  ...  8 '2  7  ,, 


36 


AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA. 


[V, 


The  percentage  of  juice  extracted  by  the  mill  used  at  Baraon 
was  not  determined  at  the  time  of  the  control  of  the  boiling 
process  for  reasons  already  stated.  Experiments  have  indicated 
that  not  more  than  60—65  per  cent,  of  juice  can  be  extracted. 
The  yield  of  sugars  and  molasses  expressed  as  percentage  of 
cane,  on  the  assumption  that  the  juice  represents  65  per  cent, 
of  the  cane  worked,  is  as  follows  : — 


Air-dried  1st  sugar  ...   4'10  per  cent,  of  the  total  weight  of  cane. 
Air-dried  2nd  sugar .. .   176         ,,  ,,  „ 

Molasses  ...   5*35         ,,  „  ,, 


The  total  amount  of  merchantable  sugar  is  slightly  less  than 
6  per  cent,  of  the  total  weight  of  cane. 

A  resume  of  the  yields  and  losses  of  sucrose  is  given  in 
Table  V. 


Table  V. 


-a 

o 

o 

<D 

S  -^ 

a) 

o  C 

«>  .;,  tx) 

(0 

o 

o 

O 

o  % 

o 

o  <ii  5 

.a 

3 

o 

3 

CO   3 

=  1 

03     rt 

(«-^ 

.-M 

te-  i^ 

tal  lbs. 
vested 
oyed 
anufac 

¥ 

£  S 

£    3 

_  a 

a  a 

tal  lb 
st  in 
aste. 

o  S 

o.S 

0.5 

o.S 

o  o 

^o^ 

o  S  i  a 

tH 

JH 

H 

6h  " 

&^-" 

H" 

H 

28014 

4235-9 

1692-9 

654-7 

830-6 

196-6 

48-4 

812-7 

The  yields  and  losses  of  sucrose  calculated  as  percentages  of 
the  total  sucrose  (4235*9  lbs.)  that  passed  into  the  evaporators  in 
the  juice  are  as  follows  : — 

Per  cent,  of  total  sucrose  in  1st  sugar              ...  39*9 

„               ,,               ,,          2nd  sugar              ...  15 '5 

„               ,,               ,,         Final  molasses     ...  19*6 

„               „               ,,          Scum                     ...  47 

„               „               „         Ghurra  Waste     ...  I'l 

Per  cent,  total  sucrose  inverted  and  destroyed ...  19*2 


Manufacture 


100-0 


EFFICIENCY    OF    THE    '' HADI    PROCESS  "  :    CLARKE    AND    BANERJEE.       37 

The  yields  and    losses  of  sucrose   calculated  as  percentage  on 
the    total    weight   of  juice    worked    up    are  given  below  :  — 

Sucrose  in  1st  sugar  per  cent,  juice 

,,  2nd  sugar  ,, 

„  Molasses  ,, 

„  Scum  „ 

,,  Ghurra  Waste  ,, 

Sucrose   in   inverted   and    destroyed    in    the 

process  of  manufacture  per  cent,  juice    ;..      290 


...     605 

...     2-35 

...     2-96 

•60 

•17 

Total  Sucrose  per  cent,  juice         ...    15 "12 

For  every  100  lbs.  of  sucrose  that  goes  into  the  factory  in 
the  juice,  55*4  lbs.  is  obtained  in  merchantable  form  in  the  final 
sugars,  39"9  in  the  1st  sugar  and  15*5  in  the  2nd  sugar.  The 
efficiency  factor  of  the  boiling  process  is  therefore  55*4. 

The  principal  loss  is  by  inversion  and  destruction  of  sucrose 
during  the  boiling  of  the  juice  into  1st  massecuite,  and  the  1st 
molasses  into  2nd  massecuite.  This  loss  cannot  be  determined 
directly,  because  not  only  is  the  sucrose  inverted,  but  a  consider- 
able portion  of  the  invert  sugar  is  caramelised  and  charred,  and 
cannot  be  traced  analytically.  The  best  way  to  estimate 
the  loss  by  inversion  and  destruction  is  to  determine,  with  the 
greatest  accuracy  possible,  every  other  loss,  and  to  take  the 
difference  figure.  This  is  comparatively  easy  in  a  plant  handling 
small  quantities  of  juice,  where  losses  of  any  magnitude  such  as 
spilling  the  juice  on  the  way  to  the  pans,  can  be  prevented. 
The  figure  19*2  representing  percentage  of  total  sucrose  lost  by 
inversion  and  destruction  durino-  boilincj  includes  the  small 
mechanical  losses,  which  occur  during  the  carriage  of  the  juice 
from  the  mills,  and  the  removal  of  the  finished  sugar  from  the 
centrifugating  machines.  These  are  very  small,  and  certainly  do 
not  exceed  1  or  1^  per  cent. 

The  amount  of  inversion  and  loss  during  evaporation  is  large, 
and  is,  to  a  certain  extent,  the  result  of  using  raw  and  acid  juices. 
The  efficiency  of  the  process  would  be  increased,  if  some    suitable 


38  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  I 

method  of  neutralising  the  acids  of  the  juice  could  be  devised, 
although  boiling  sucrose  in  open  pans  would  always  give  rise  to 
considerable  decomposition. 

Good  results  have  not  been  obtained  by  workers  in  these 
provinces  by  neutralising  the  juice  with  quick  lime  ;  dark  inasse- 
cuite  and  low  quality  sugar  are  said  to  be  produced.  It  is  possible 
that  this  is  due  to  using  very  much  more  lime  than  is  necessary 
for  neutralisation.  Further  experiments  are,  however,  desirable 
before  a  final  decision  is  given  on  the  merits  of  liming. 

Sodium  carbonate,  which  is  employed  at  present,  to  partly 
neutralise  the  acids  is  unsuitable,  because  the  sodium  salts  of  the 
neutralised  acids  are  left  in  solution,  hinder  the  crystallisation  of 
the  sugar,  and  increase  the  amount  of  molasses. 

It  is  suggested  that  finely  ground  carbonate  of  lime  would 
be  a  suitable  neutralising  medium,  because  it  would  not  form  the 
objectionable  compounds  with  sucrose,  that  cause  the  dark-coloured 
massecuite,  when  a  slight  excess  of  lime  is  used.  There  would, 
moreover,  be  no  danger  in  using  excess  of  it,  as  it  is  insoluble  in 
water.  The  only  disadvantage  would  be  the  filtering  through 
cloth,  necessary  as  the  juice  passes  from  the  clarifier  to  the 
evaporator. 

The  sucrose  lost  in  the  scum  amounts  to  nearly  5  per  cent. 
This  loss  is  avoidable,  and  could  be  reduced  to  certainly  not  more 
than  one  per  cent,  by  the  use  of  suitable  filtering  apparatus. 

It  is  difficult  to  obtain  figures  of  the  efficiency  of  other 
processes^  to  compare  with  those  given  in  this  bulletin.  These 
are  not  generally  published  by  such  factories  as  obtain  them. 
As  far  as  the  authors  are  aware,  none  have  been  published  in 
India. 

The  authors  have  been  able  to  refer  to  comparative  results 
of  efficiency  published  in  the  West  India  Bulletin,*  and  to  the 
factory  results  of  10  seasons'  work  in  Java.f 


Central  Factories  for  tlie  West  Indies  by  William  Douglas,  F.I.C.,  F.c.s.  West  Indian 
Bulletin,  Vol.  I,  jiajre  43  (The  authors  are  indebted  to  Mr.  B.  C.  Rurt,  b.sc,  l.A.s.,  for  the 
loan  of  this  literature). 

t  StatiBticsof  Factory   results  on   a   number   of  Java   Sugar  Estates   by   H.    0.  I'rinsen 
Ceerlegs.     International  Sugar  Journal,   No.  127;  Vol.  II  (July,  l!K)i»),  324. 


EFFICIENCY    OF    THE    "  HADI    PROCESS      :    CLARKE    AND    BANERJEE.       39 

These  indicate  the  results  achieved  by    other   processes,  and 
are  compared  with  those  obtained  at  Baraon  in  Table  VI. 

Table  VI. 

Comparison  of  the  efficiencies  oj  different  processes  of  boiling  and 

clarification. 


c,                             1               Hadi  Process 
Sucrose  recovered  per 

100  Sucrose  in                    l^■^^,^^ 

West  Indian 

Muscavado 

Process 

Hawaun 

Factory   Triple 

effect  vacuum 

evaporaiion 

West  Indian 
Central 

Factory 
Evaporation 

in  Oacus. 

Results  of 

95  factories 

in  Java, 

(Allahabad). 

(open  pans). 

and  carbona- 
tion. 

1907. 

First  Sugar 

S9-9 

I         67-75 

<^          89-91 

72-4 

{         89-91 

Second  Sugar 

15-5 

J 

I 

9-9 

I 

Molasses 

19-6 

17-70 

5-36 

11-9 

{           9-25 

Inverted  and  destroyed 

19-2 

) 

3-55 

4-6 

I 

in  manufacture. 

V         14*50 

Scum  and  waste 

5-8 

) 

1-18 

1-2 

0-84 

KIQ-G 

100-0 

100-0 

100-0 

100-0 

Efficiency      factor    (per 

55-4 

67-75 

89-91 

82-3 

89-91 

cent,      total     Sucrose 

recovered). 

Fii'st     Sugar   recovei-ed 

4-10 

7-15 

10-40 

8-60 

10-09 

per  cent.  cane. 

(Pol.  95-1) 

(Pol.  90-0) 

(Pol.  96-5) 

(Pol.  96-5) 

(Pol.  97-8) 

Second  Sugar  recovered 

1-76 

3-19 

1-26 

per  cent.  cane. 

(Pol.  86-9) 

(Pol.  90-0) 

(Pol.  90-0) 

Total  Sugar     ... 

5-86 

7-15 

13-59 

9-86 

10-09 

These  figures  are  not  brought  forward  to  minimise  in  any 
way  the  important  part  played  by  the  process  under  review  in 
the  revival  of  sugar-making  in  India.  They  indicate,  however, 
the  kind  of  competitors  that  have  to  be  faced  in  developing  the 
industry  in  this  country.  The  efficiency  of  open  pan  boiling 
employed  in  the  Hadi  process  cannot  hope  to  approach  that 
obtained  w^ith  modern  plant  employing  vacuum  evaporation, 
but  it  should  not  be  criticised^  too  severely  from  this  point  of 
view  alone.  It  must  be  remembered  that  it  enables  sugar  to 
be  manufactured  in  places  with  a   limited   supply   of  cane   where 


40  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   I. 

without  it  none  would  be  made.  The  point  to  be  careful  about 
is  to  see  that  it  is  confined  to  its  proper  sphere,  that  is,  working 
up  small  quantities  of  juice  ;  and  not  employed  in  large  factories 
where  other  forms  of  plant  would  be  more  efficient. 

It  will  be  seen  from  Table  VI  that  factories  in  other 
countries  with  the  most  improved  and  up-to-date  methods  of 
manufacture  are  stated  to  be  able  to  recover  more  than  80  per  cent, 
of  the  sucrose  in  the  juice  as  a  merchantable  commodity.  In 
the  Java  results  for  the  10  years  1899 — 1908,  already  referred 
to,  the  average  was  89*2  with  a  juice  of  purity  varying  from 
83-3— 88-66. 

These  factories  have  the  advantages  of  experienced  and  skilled 
management,  and  the  latest  machinery ;  and  they  work  on 
juice  of  somewhat  higher  purity  than  are  produced  in  this 
country.  It  is  not  likely  that  factories  established  in  India 
would  show  such  a  high  efficiency  continuously,  at  least  not 
until  considerable  improvements  have  been  made  in  the  purity 
of  the  juice,  and  its  glucose  content  lowered.  An  efficiency  of 
70 — 75  per  cent,  could,  however,  reasonably  be  expected  with  the 
juice  at  present  available. 

It  is  generally  conceded  that  large  central  factories,  of  the 
type  erected  in  Java  and  Hawaii,  to  work  directly  from  juice, 
have  little  chance  of  success  in  Upper  India  ;  one  of  the  reasons 
being  the  scattered  distribution  of  the  cane  crop. 

There  is,  however,  no  reason  as  to  why  a  small  and  efficient 
plant  working  from  100 — 200  acres  of  cane  season,  and  employ- 
ing vacuum  evaporation  and  improved  methods  of  clarification, 
should  not  be  a  success.  The  difficulty  at  present  seems  to 
be  as  such  a  plant  has  not  hitherto  been  required.  None  are 
on  the  market,  and  consequently  the  initial  cost  of  designing 
and  erecting  it  would  be  somewhat  prohibitive  ;  moreover,  there 
are  no  trained  men  available  at  reasonable  wages  to   work  it. 

One  of  the  most  useful  lines  of  work  that  could  be  taken 
up  by  the  Agricultural  Department  would  be  the  experimental 
working  of  a  plant  of  the  type  indicated  above,  and,  if  successful, 
training  men  to  manage  it. 


EFFICIENCY    OF    THE    "  HADI    PROCESS      :    CLARKE    AND    BANERJEE.       41 

The  authors  desire  to  take  this  opportunity  of  thanking 
their  colleagues,  Khan  Bahadur  S.  M.  Hadi  and  Syed  Zamin 
Husain,  for  the  valuable  assistance  afforded  in  obtaining  the 
results  recorded  in  this  article. 


AGRICULTURE  IN  THE  KACHIN   HILL  TRACTS, 
BHAMO  DISTRICT. 

By  E.  THOMPSTONE,  b.sc  , 
Principal,  Agrictdtural  College,  Burma. 

I.  Area,  Situation  and  Elevations. — The  Kachin  Hill 
Tracts  of  the  Bhamo  District  comprise  an  area  of  about  2,000 
square  miles,  bordering  upon  the  Chinese  frontier,  to  the  north 
of  the  Shan  States — between  the  degrees  of  latitude  24'45  and 
25-30,  and  of  longitude  97°  to  98°.  The  whole  of  the  tract  is  verj^ 
hilly — apart  from  the  terraces,  the  areas  of  level  or  nearly  level 
land  being  very  small  indeed  and  confined  to  very  small  patches 
scattered  here  and  there  in  the  deep  valleys  throughout  the  hills  ; 
or  to  somewhat  larger  areas  bordering  upon  the  large  streams  or 
rivers  ;  which,  for  a  great  part  of  their  course,  however,  flow 
rapidly  between  high  banks  or  through  deep  gorges. 

The  elevation  above  sea-level  runs  from  about  500  feet  to 
G,o00  or  7,000  feet  ;  some  of  the  highest  points  rising  somewhat 
abruptly  to  as  much  as  8,000  feet. 

II.  Climatic  Conditions. —The  rainfall  varies  from  about 
130  "  to  197  ".  The  variation  of  temperature  from  place  to  place 
according  to  the  elevation,  is  very  considerable.  Even  in  the 
lower  elevations  the  winter  temperature  is  low,  whilst  frost  and 
strong  winds  are  very  common  in  the  higher  regions.  In  shel- 
tered valleys,  frost  often  occurs  as  low  as  2,500  feet  elevation. 

III.  Soils. — The  surface  is  frequently  covered  with  rocks 
and  l)roccia,  and  the  soil  for  the  most  part  is  of  a  poor  light, 
sandy  nature,  containing  little  or  no  organic  matter  and  of  a 
reddish  colour.  The  slopes  are  generally  very  steep,  though  they 
vary  considerably,  and  in  the  absence  of  vegetation  the  surface 
soil  with  any  small  amount  of  organic  matter  it    may    contain,    is 


KACHIN    HILL    TRACTS  :    TIIOMFSTONP].  43 

easily  washed  away.  These  steep  slopes  (often  rising  at  an  angle 
of  80  degrees  or  even  90  degrees  from  the  horizontal),  as  well  as 
the  more  gentle  ones,  are  largely  under  "  Taungya  "  cultivation, 
which  is  carried  out  under  what  appear  to  be  almost  impossible 
conditions.  One  kind  of  soil  apparently  differing  from  the  above 
onty  in  being  of  a  much  brighter,  rusty  red  colour  appears  to 
possess  exceptional  fertility,  being  capable  of  producing  8  or  9 
crops  of  paddy  in  successive  years  :  after  which  it  is  left  fallow 
for  another  period  of  8  or  9  years  ;  not  on  account  of  any  great 
exhaustion  of  the  soil,  but  because,  after  8  or  9  crops,  the  padd}" 
is  said  by  the  cultivators  to  develop  a  bitter  taste.  This  kind  of 
soil  exists  on  what  is  known  as  the  Palaung  ridge,  and  on  man}^ 
of  the  similar  less  elevated  ridges  and  slopes  towards  the  east  of 
tract  near  the  Chinese  frontier. 

The  soil  in  some  of  the  valleys  is  very  rich,  of  a  dark  brown 
colour  and  easily  worked,  but  these  vallej^s  are  nowhere  very 
wide  and  the  area  of  such  soil  is  strictly  limited. 

IV.  The  People  and  their  Habits  of  Living. — (Information 
obtained  largely  from  D.  W.  Rae,  Esq.,  e.a.c.  Assistant 
Superintendent,  Kachin  Hill  Tracts).  There  are  many  different 
tribes  of  "  Kachins  "  or  "  Chinpaws  "  as  they  call  themselves, 
but  their  habits  of  living  and  systems  of  agriculture  are  much 
alike  and  may  be  described  as  one.  There  are,  however,  living 
in  the  same  district,  other  tribes  who  practise  somewhat  different 
methods.  These  latter  live  in  villages  apart  from  the  Kachins  ; 
but  from  our  point  of  view,  only  one  of  them  is  of  any  great 
interest,  namely,  the  '*  Yawyin  "  or  "  Lishaw  "  tribe,  a  moun- 
tainous race,  inhabiting  for  the  most  part  the  highest  ridges  and 
practising  a  most  destructive  system  of  taung3^a  cultivation. 

The  Kachins  are  supposed  to  have  been  in  possession  of 
these  hills  for  a  period  of  less  than  100  years,  but  previous  to  that 
time  the  "  Palaungs,"  a  less  warlike  race  driven  out  by  the 
Kachins,  obtained  a  livelihood  largely  by  taungya  cultivation,  in 
much  the  same  way  as  the  latter  race  does  at  the  present  da3\  It 
is  not  known  for  what  period  the  Palaungs  held  possession  of  the 
country,  hence  it  is  impossible  to  say  how  long  this  sj'stem  of 


44  AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  I. 

agriculture  has  here  been  carried  out,  but  it  seems  probable  from 
the  appearance  of  the  country  and  the  growth  of  vegetation  that 
it  has  been  continued  for  several  centuries.  The  Kachin  builds 
liimself  a  comparatively  large  house  with  a  low  grass- thatched 
roof,  the  eaves  of  which  almost  touch  the  ground.  The  roof 
generally  projects  at  both  ends  beyond  the  living  room  or  rooms 
of  the  house,  and  under  the  shelter  so  formed  his  cattle,  fowls 
and  pigs  are  enclosed  or  find  protection  from  the  elements. 
These  permanent  houses  built  on  Hat  or  levelled  pieces  of  ground 
are  roughly  grouped  together  in  small  villages  in  suitable, 
sheltered,  accessible  places,  where  there  is  a  good  water-supply  on 
the  sides  of  the  hills,  and  a  village  or  house  is  rarely  removed. 

The  bread-winner  of  the  family,  however,  does  not  usually 
Hve  here  throughout  the  year.  At  the  time  of  cutting  and 
burning  his  taungya  (always  within  the  jurisdiction  of  his  village 
but  often  at  a  long  distance  from  it),  he  builds  for  himself  a  small 
hut  in  which  he  lives  until  his  crop  has  been  harvested,  after 
which  he  returns  to  his  village  for  the  remainder  of  the  year. 

Methods  of   Cultivation. 

I.  Taungya  Cultivation  is  practised  by  all  the  hill  tribes 
and  is  the  chief  means  of  subsistence,  but  the  Kachin  alone 
appears  to  carry  out  his  cultivation  in  a  systematic  manner.  The 
area  at  the  disposal  of  any  Kachin  village  is  often  roughly  divided 
into  the  requisite  number  of  blocks  according  to  the  length  of  the 
rotation — each  block  being  cultivated  in  turn. 

Taungya  cutting  takes  place  during  the  dry  weather  about 
the  month  of  March.  The  cultivator,  after  cutting  down  the 
trees,  shrubs  and  other  growth,  clears  a  strip  all  around  the  area 
to  act  as  a  fire-guard  to  the  adjacent  areas  and  sets  fire  to  the 
dried  brushwood.  The  trees  are  not,  as  a  rule,  cut  off  quite  near 
the  surface  of  the  ground,  but  stumps  projecting  2  or  3  feet  above 
ground  are  left.  Very  little  actual  cultivation  is  carried  out  and 
cattle  are  seldom  used  for  this  purpose,  though  on  the  more 
accessible  slopes  a  rough  harrow  drawn  by  buffaloes  or  bullocks  is 
made  use  of     The  seed  is  usually  sown  during  the  early  rains  by 


KACHIN    HILL    TRACTS  :    THOMPSTONE.  45 

dibbling  into  small  *'  pockets  "  of  soil  loosened  by  the  aid  of  a  hoe 
or  mamootie — the  distances  apart  of  the  pockets  and  the  number 
of  seeds  varj^ing  with  the  different  crops  sown.  The  after- 
cultivation  is  also  very  slight  and  consists  of  rough  weeding  and 
loosening  of  the  surface  soil  by  means  of  the  hoe  or  mamootie. 
In  reaping  a  good  deal  of  the  straw  is  left  as  stubble  on  the  ground. 

Rotations  in  Taungya  Cultivation. — No  definite  rules  of 
rotations  are  followed,  but  it  is  very  seldom  that  more  than  two 
crops  are  taken  off  a  piece  of  land  before  it  is  again  allowed  to  lie 
fallow.  A  common  practice  at  elevations  below  2,500  feet  is  to 
grow  the  first  year  a  crop  of  cotton  and  the  second  year  a  crop  of 
paddy.  The  land  is  then  allowed  to  return  to  its  jungle  state 
during  a  period  varying  from  7  to  1 2  years.  At  elevations  above 
2,500  feet,  one  crop  only  is  taken,  usually  paddy  or  maize, 
though  in  favourable  aspects  two  crops  may  be  taken.  When 
left  fallow,  the  taungyas  in  some  places  rapidly  become  clothed 
with  small  trees  and  shrubs,  but  in  other  parts,  especially  at  the 
higher  elevations,  this  does  not  take  place  ;  but  there  arises 
instead,  a  dense  growth  of  bracken  and  coarse  grass,  which  not 
only  prevents  the  seedlings  of  trees  from  becoming  established, 
but,  as  it  dies  off  each  year  and  becomes  very  dry,  causes  enor- 
mous areas  to  be  annually  burnt  over.  This  state  of  things 
exists  over  large  areas  on  many  of  the  higher  hills,  especially 
those  formerly  occupied  by  the  Yawyins.  As  a  means  of  prevent- 
ing this  a  few  villages  in  the  more  densely  populated  parts  of 
the  district  have  adopted  the  plan  of  sowing  the  seeds  of  trees 
or  shrubs  along  with  their  crops  of  23addy.  The  seed  selected  is 
that  of  quick-growing  species  of  Alder  (Alniis  nepalensis), 
called  by  them  "Maibao,"  w^hich  reproduces  very  rapidly  indeed 
and  will  grow  specially  well  at  these  high  elevations.  This  plan 
not  only  ensures  a  rapid  covering  of  the  ground  but  tends  to 
shorten  the  rotation,  which  to  the  Kachins  is  of  no  small  import- 
ance as  the  population  becomes  more  dense. 

One  other  rotation  previously  remarked  upon  should  be  here 
noted,  namely,  the  IG  to  18-year  rotation  carried  out  on  the 
Palaung  ridge  and  other  places  near  Lweje,     This  is  believed  to 


46  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  I. 

be  rendered  possible  by  the  particularly  fertile  soil  which,  though 
it  differs  very  little  in  appearance  from  most  other  soil  of  the 
region,  is  said  to  be  capable  of  producing  8  or  9  crops  of  paddy 
in  succession,  after  which  the  grain  becomes  bitter  and  unfit  for 
food.  After  a  rest  of  8  or  9  years  during  which  only  tall,  coarse 
o-rasses  seem  to  flourish,  the  land  becomes  aojain  suitable  for 
cropping.  If  the  cultivators'  statements  are  correct,  this  will  be 
an  interesting  problem  for  investigation.  Most  of  the  Eastern 
slopes  on  which  this  occurs  are  absolutely  devoid  of  trees  or 
shrubs,  but  are  burnt  off  and  cultivated  in  the  same  way 
as  ordinary  taungyas,  except  that  a  plough  is  usually  made 
use  of  Cultivation  is  begun  in  good  time  and  is  well  carried 
out. 

With  the  Yawyins  or  Lishaws  the  method  is  somewhat 
different.  Taungyas  are  often  burnt  without  ^^revious  cutting, 
I.e.,  with  the  trees  standing  upright,  and  no  fire-belt  is  made 
for  the  protection  of  surrounding  areas.  They  do  not  adopt 
any  method  in  their  cultivation,  but  each  man  appears  to  burn 
his  taungya  when  and  where  he  feels  inclined.  The  result  of 
this  is,  that  enormous  areas  not  required  for  sowing  are  often 
carelessly  burnt  down,  and  to  this  system  is  generally  attributed 
the  great  damage  to  forests  done  within  the  region  occupied  by 
this  tribe.  Enormous  areas  are  now  covered  with  bracken  and 
coarse  grasses  as  aheady  described.  Though  the  area  occupied 
is  large,  the  tribe  is  a  small  one  and  consists  of  some  18  small 
villages,  and  a  total  of  62  families.  As  they  generally  occup}^ 
only  the  highest  and  steepest  parts  of  the  hills,  they  do  not,  as  a 
rule,  grow  any  cotton  or  much  paddy,  but  confine  themselves 
largely  to  the  cultivation  of  maize  and  a  kind  of  small  grained 
buck  wheat  called   "  Shari  Mam." 

In  the  Lapye  Kha  valley  the  following  rotation  is  often 
practised,  viz.,  the  first  ^^ear  after  burning  a  "Ya,"  maize  is  sown, 
the  second  and  third  years  "  Shari  Mam,"  the  fourth  year  opium, 
after  which  it  is  left  fallow  at  least  10  years.  If  the  soil  happens 
to  be  good,  the  rotation  may  be  lengthened  by  growing  opium  for 
3  or  even  4  years  in  succession  before  the  land  is  left  fallow. 


KACHIN    HILL    TRACTS  :    THOMPSTONE.  47 

II.  Terrace  Cultivation  — In  some  parts  the  area  under 
terraces  is  considerable,  and  this  system  of  cultivation,  which  is 
being  encouraged,  seems  to  be  growing  in  favour  among  the  villages 
possessing  land  which  is  not  too  steep.  Some  of  the  finest  vallej'^s 
are  now  terraced  almost  throughout,  and  in  many  places  along 
the  border  they  are  cultivated  by  the  transfrontier  tribes  or  by 
the  Chinese.  In  the  lowest  parts  of  the  valleys  the  soil  on  these 
terraces  is  often  extremely  fertile  ;  but  in  this  region  such  soil  is 
very  limited  and  by  terracing  the  steeper  hill-sides,  where  the 
surface  soil  is  extremely  thin,  the  subsoil  is  exposed  with  the 
result  that  for  a  long  time  very  poor  crops  only  are  obtainable. 
The  labour  is  also  very  great  and  consequently  the  lazy  Kachin 
seldom  undertakes  the  work  unless  forced  by  necessity  to  do  so. 
Moreover,  "the  Taungya"  is  necessary  for  certain  "Nat"  festivals 
or  ceremonies  ;  hence  terrace  cultivation  is  unlikely  to  entirely 
replace  this    method. 

Paddy  is  the  only  crop  grown  on  terraces  to  any  great  extent. 
The  cultivation  is  generally  done  by  cattle,  though  on  narrow 
terraces  it  often  has  to  be  done  by  hand.  It  is  often  irrio-ated 
from  some  small  stream  or  freshet  running  near  by.  The 
yield — except  in  the  bottom  of  the  valleys — is  generally  very 
poor — often  on  the  newly-formed  terraces  not  more  than  the 
yield  from  a  taungya.  In  several  places  the  figures  obtained 
were  5  to  6  baskets  of  coarse  paddy  per  acre.  The  paddy  called 
"  Tagu"  grown  on  the  terraces  is  generally  of  poor  quality  but 
slightly  superior  to  the  taungya  paddy  called  "  Shay  Shang.  " 
The  terraced  land  is,  as  a  rule,  cropped  every  year  and  never  left 
fallow.  The  Yawyins  and  other  inhabitants  of  the  more  elevated 
regions  do  not  adopt  this  method  of  cultivation. 

III.  Garden  Cultivation. — Almost  every  permanent  Kachin 
household  has  its  small  patch  of  garden,  from  a  few  square  yards 
to  half  an  acre  in  extent,  adjacent  to  the  house.  It  is  surrounded 
by  a  strong  fence  and  is  very  frequently  situated  on  the  lower 
side  of  the  house,  so  that  the  cattle  manure  is  readily  swept  from 
the  shed,  through  a  hole  in  the  fence,  into  the  garden.  In  fact,  it 
frequently  happens  that  the  urine  and  liquid  part  of   the    manure 


48  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA,  [V,   I. 

flow  from  the  hardened  floor  into  the  garden.  This  manure  is 
butrout^hly  spread,  the  greater  part  of  it  remaining  near  the 
house,  but  the  garden  soil  soon  becomes  very  rich.  Cultivation 
is  carefully  carried  out  by  hand  and  good  garden  crops  are 
obtained. 

Crops  Grown. — The  chief  crops  are  as  follows  :— 

I.  Paddy  is  the  chief  crop  grown  on  taungyas  and  on  the 
terraces,  but  unless  the  aspect  is  very  favourable  it  does  not  grow 
well  at  altitudes  over  5,000  feet.  The  cultivator  says  that  it  is  too 
cold.  The  varieties  grown  are  very  coarse.  On  taungya  it  is 
dibbled  in,  and  on  terraces  it  is  either  sown  broadcast  or  trans- 
planted— generally  the  latter.  The  yield  is  small,  the  markets 
are  local  and  the  price  low.  The  difficulties  of  transport  prevent 
exportation  to  better  markets.  It  is  one  of  the  chief  food  crops, 
but  is  also  used  by  the  Kachins  for  making  Kachin  beer  ("  Cha 
krat  cherru  "),  which  is  flavoured  with  ragi. 

II.  Maize  is  grown  for  local  consumption — largely  by 
the  Yawyins  at  the  higher  altitudes  ;  but  also  by  the  Kachins. 
It  is  dibbled  on  taungya  land. 

III.  Buck  Wheat  (called  "  Shari  Mam")  is  grown  on  taun- 
gyas by  the  Yawyins  in  the  highest  regions  only.  The  grain  is 
very  small — not  more  than  half  the  size  of  the  European 
variety.  It  is  used  as  a  food  crop  for  making  cakes,  but  also 
largely  for  making  liquor. 

IV.  Ragi  is  grown  by  the  Kachins  in  small  quantities  for 
flavouring  their  liquor  ("  Cha  krat  cherru  ")  and  Setaria  italica  is 
also  sometimes  grown  for  the  same  purpose.  They  are  sown  on 
taungya  lands. 

V.  Beans  and  Peas  are  grown  throughout  these  hills,  but 
not  in  very  large  quantities.  They  are  dibbled  on  taungya 
lands  generally  with  some  other  crop,  such  as  maize,  which  acts 
as  a  support  for  the  bean  plants.  They  are  often  sown  alongside 
fences  or  tree  stumps,  which  also  act  as  supports.  The  market 
for  these  is  also  mostly  local,  though  some  of  them  are  frequently 
to  be  brought  in  the  Bhamo  bazaar  under  the  name  of  "  Kachin 


KACHIN    HILL   TRACTS  :    THOMPSTONE.  49 

pe."  Here  again  the  export  is  prevented  by  the  difficulties  of 
transport.  The  following  are  a  few  of  the  chief  varieties  found 
ofrowino"  here  :  — 

(a)  Dolichos  lahlah  (  "  Praing  lep  "  (Kachin). 

(/>)  Phaseolus  calcaratus  (  "  Ning-Krung-Shapre  "  ). 

(c)  Phaseo  vulgaris  (  ''  H'  Krain-u-Shapre  "  ). 

(d)  Faha  vulgaris  (  "  San  du-Si  "  ),  very  probably  introduced 

lately. 

(e)  Glycine  hispida  (  '*  Lazi-Shapre  Turn  or  Nga-si  "  ). 
{f)  Pisum  sativum  (  "  San-too-si ). 

VI.  Cotton  is  grown  in  the  foot  hills  up  to  about  2,500  feet 
high.  The  first  crop  after  burning  a  taungya  is  generally  cotton, 
which  is  followed  by  paddy  the  next  year.  It  is  dibbled  in  the 
same  way  as  for  the  other  crops.  The  fibre  is  short  in  staple 
and  somewhat  coarse.  The  seed  cotton  before  ofinninof  sells  at 
about  15  lbs.  per  rupee  and  any  not  required  for  local  consump- 
tion appears  to  be  carried  across  the  frontier  into  China,  but  the 
total  produce  is  at  no  time  very  large. 

VII.  Poj)py  Cultivation  is  carried  out  in  small  patches. 
The  seed  is  sown  broadcast,  either  on  taungya  land  or  on  a  patch 
of  permanently  cultivated  ground  near  the  village. 

On  taungyas  it  is  generally  an  additional  crop  in  the  rota- 
tion, being  sown  the  year  after  the  main  crop  (or  the  second 
main  crop  as  the  case  may  be),  has  been  taken  off.  It  grows 
well,  but  as  the  export  of  opium  is  prohibited,  sufficient  for  home 
consumption  only  is  grown. 

VIII.  Tobacco  is  cultivated  on  the  \\^\\i  soils  of  some  of 
the  vallej^s,  especially  the  Lweje  valley,  where  it  is  said  to  grow 
luxuriantly  on  the  red  soils  without  manure.  It  is  sown  and 
planted  out  on  drills  in  the  ordinar}^  way. 

IX.  Mustard,  Yams,  Sweet  Potatoes,  and  a  variety  of 
cucurbitaceous  fruits  are  also  gfrown  on  taunofvas — usually  mixed 
with  the  main  crop — and  at  low  elevations  chillies  are  sometimes 
cultivated  as  a  separate  crop. 

X.  Potatoes  grow  well  as  a  garden  crop,  and  fruit  trees, 
especially  peaches,  are  to    be    found    around    most    villages — the 

4 


50  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   I. 

result  of  their  distribution  by  the  Assistant  Superintendent. 
They,  however,  receive  scant  attention  and  the  produce  is,  as  a 
rule,  very  poor. 

XI.  Wheat  and  Barley  are  newly  introduced  crops,  which 
have  been  sown  under  the  direction  of  the  Assistant  Superin- 
tendent— in  school  gardens  or  by  a  few  selected  cultivators,  in 
several  of  the  chief  villages.  With  wheat,  and  in  one  place  with 
barley,  considerable  success  has  been  attained. 

Oats  were  also  tried  in  the  same  way,  but  with  ver}^  in- 
different success. 

The  Impleme7its  used  are  of  the  simplest  kind  and  differ 
(jnly  very  slightly  from  those  used  in  Burma  proper.  On  the 
lower  levels,  the  terraces  and  the  gentler  slojDes,  either  the  single- 
buffalo  plough  or  the  double-buffalo  plough  may  be  used  ;  but 
in  many  places  all  the  cultivation  is  carried  out  by  hand  with  the 
aid  of  a  kind  of  hoe  or  maraootie.  As  in  the  case  of  most  other 
hill  tribes,  every  Kachin  carries  his  "dah"  or  large,  heavy-bladed 
knife  in  a  kind  of  sheath  slung  over  the  shoulder.  The  blade 
is  usually  about  18  inches  long  and  broader  and  heavier  at  the 
end  than  near  the  handle.  It  is  ever  ready  to  be  used  for 
cutting,  digging  or  any  other  kind  of  work  to  which  it  can  be 
applied. 

Cattle,  etc. — Buffaloes  are  largely  used  in  the  valleys  for 
cultivation,  and  command  a  high  price  around  the  chief  paddy- 
producing  tracts,  as  for  example,  near  Lweje  and  in  the  Maubong 
valley,  which  is  worked  almost  entirely  by  the  Chinese,  though 
part  of  it  only  is  Chinese  territory.  In  these  valleys  cultivation 
is  very  carefully  carried  out,  the  land  being  turned  up  in  large 
lumps  in  order  to  induce  aeration  a  long  time  before  it  is  required 
for  planting.  The  value  of  this  operation  appears  to  be  fully 
recognized  by  the  cultivators. 

Buffaloes  are  also  made  use  of  in  certain  "  Nat "  ceremonies. 
Bullocks  are  sometimes  used  for  cultivation,  but  are  very  largely 
used  as  pack  animals.  Though  slower  than  mules,  asses  or 
ponies,  they  are  cheaper  and  serve  the  purpose  very  well  on  the 
steep  hill  paths.     As  the  Kachins  do  not  drink   milk,   cattle    are 


KACHIN    HILL    TRACTS  :    THOMPSTONE.  51 

not  kept  for  milk  production,  though  breeding  and  rearing  are 
carried  out  in  most  places. 

Pi(j>>  are  reared  in  all  places  —sometimes  very  largely. 
They  are  allowed  to  run  wild  around  the  villages,  feeding  on  wild 
plants,  roots  and  offal,  but  they  are  also  fed  on  a  kind  of  paddy 
meal  (simply  paddy  ground-up  without  husking),  mixed  with  a 
large  quantity  of  water. 

Manuring  is  very  little  practised,  except  as  above  described, 
on  the  garden  lands  attached  to  the  houses.  In  some  of  the 
larger  villages,  however,  the  droppings  of  pigs  and  cattle  are 
said  to  be  collected  and  applied  to  the  land. 

Transport  oj  Produce  is  one  of  the  chief  difficulties.  Owing 
to  the  absence  of  roads — except  narrow  paths  cut  along  the 
hill-sides,  all  goods,  produce,  etc.,  have  to  be  carried  on  pack 
animals.  Asses,  mules,  ponies  and  bullocks  are  made  use  of  for 
this  purpose.  Consequent}}^  only  the  least  bulky  and  most  valu- 
able produce  can  be  profitably  transported  to  Bhamo  or  other 
marketing  centre. 


THE  CONSTRUCTION  OF  COW-HOUSES.* 

By  JOHN  SPETR,  Kt.St.O. 

The  requirements  of  modern  life  demand  a  deo'ree  of  purity  in 
our  food  supplies  little  dreamt  of  in  previous  generations.  Milk  is 
no  exception  to  the  general  rule,  and  in  order  to  obtain  pure  milk 
it  must  be  produced  by  healthy  cows  in  healthy  surroundings. 

In  the  construction  of  houses  for  the  accommodation  of  cows 
intended  to  produce  milk,  either  for  consumption  as  it  comes  from 
the  cow,  or  to  be  made  into  cheese  or  butter,  the  main  requirements 
to  be  kept  in  view  are  the  following  : — 

(1)  The  milk  produced  should  run  little  risk  of  being 
contaminated  either  by  dirt  or  disease. 

(2)  The  animals  should  enjoy  the  best  of  health,  and  be  free 
from  risk  of  infection  of  any  kind. 

(l^)  The  design  of  the  buildings  should  be  such  that  the  labour 
of  feeding*  and  cleaning  the  cows  should  be  reduced  to  the  mininnim, 
while  the  comfort  of  the  animals  should  be  the  greatest  which  it  is 
possible  to  give. 

(4)  The  outlay  should  be  such  as  will  add  as  little  as  possible 
to  the  cost  of  production  of  the  milk. 

While  it  is  comparatively  easy,  where  the  requisite  skill  is 
available,  to  provide  new  buildings  which  will  meet  all  the  above 
requirements  at  even  a  very  moderate  cost,  it  is  much  more  difficult 
to  alter  an  existing  building  so  that  it  can  be  made  as  suitable  for 
the  purpose  as  a  new  one.  That  should  not,  however,  deter  ow'ners 
and  occupiers  from  making  alterations  on  the  lines  suggested,  as 
under  suitable  guidance  even  the  most  unsatisfactory  buildings 
could  often  be  much  improved  at  moderate  cost. 

*   Repriateil  from  the  Jonni'il  of  the  Board  of  Agricihlture,  No.  7,  Vol.  XVI. 


CONSTRUCTION    OF    COW-HOUSES  :    JOHN    SPEIR.  53 

In  designing  ;i  cow-liouse,  tlie  principal  details  which  should 
receive  consideration  are  the  followinof : — 

Site,  including  aspect  and  arrangement  with  regard  to  other 
buildings. 

General  construction  of  the  buildinf/,  including  the  walls,  roof, 
floor,  drainage,  and  water-supply. 

Fnternal  Desiijn,  including  arrangement  of  stalls,  stall 
divisions,  bindintfs,  feedino:  troughs,  manure  and  urine  channels, 
passages,  etc. 

Air- Space,  including  floor  space. 

Ventilation,  including  the  various  methods  by  which  this  is 
attained  ;  and  Li/jhtimj. 

The  Site. — AVhere  there  is  the  o|)portunity  of  selection,  the 
site  should  be  moderately  high  and  dry,  convenient  for  the  supply 
of  fodder  and  roots,  the  preparation  and  storage  of  feeding  stuffs, 
the  removal  of  the  manure  and  urine,  and  should  give  easy  and 
ample  access  to  the  nearest  pasture  without  interference  with  other 
stock,  and  without  affording  the  cattle  an  opportunity  to  stray  into 
other  parts  of  the  farm  buildings,  etc.  In  the  designing  of  a  com- 
pletely new  set  of  farm  buildings  these  can  usually  be  all  provided 
without  any  great  difficulty.  It  is  when  a  new  cow-house  is  being 
added  to  existing  buildings,  and  more  especially  when  no  part  of 
these  has  previously  been  utilised  for  dairy  purposes,  that  the  great- 
est difficulties  occur.  In  such  circumstances,  it  is  seldom  possible  to 
get  all  the  details  worked  out  as  completely  as  can  be  done  where 
everything  is  new,  but  with  care  and  skill  there  should  be  no  real 
difficulty  in  effecting  considerable  improvement  on  the  average 
building  of  the  present  day. 

While  shelter  from  heavy  winds  is  desirable,  no  cow-house 
should  have  any  buildincrs,  such  as  liav  or  straw  sheds,  or  buildino-s 
occupied  by  otlioi- kinds  of  stock,  erected  against  the  side  walls.  If 
the  building  is  one  such  as  an  open  fronted  shelter  for  implements, 
little  objection  can  be  urged  against  it,  but  anything  which  would 
interfere  with  the  proper  ventilation  of  the  cow-house  should  be 
placed   somewhere    else.     Land  is   not  so    very  costly   round    the 


54  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  1. 

average    farm    that    tliere    is    any    excuse    for  crowding   buildings 
too-ether,  as  is  not  infrequently  the  case. 

Walls. — The  walls  may  be  of  any  material  whicli  is  plentiful 
and  cheap  in  the  district,  and  with  suitable  precautions  equally 
oood  buildings  may  be  erected  of  stone,  brick,  concrete,  wood,  or 
wood  and  iron.  If  of  stone,  or  brick,  all  outside  walls  should  be 
neatly  pointed,  and  inside  ones  plastered,  or  faced  with  bricks, 
either  enamelled  on  the  one  side,  or  hard  pressed.  Where 
j)lastering  is  adopted,  cement  should  be  used  for  a  heiglit  of 
six  feet  from  the  floor.  Above  that  the  surface  should  be  smooth, 
and  of  such  a  nature  that  it  can  be  either  washed  or  lime-washed. 
If  the  building  is  to  be  of  wood,  or  wood  and  iron,  all  uprights  and 
sills  should  be  of  creosoted  timber.  The  extra  expense  will  not  be 
great,  while  the  life  of  the  building  will  at  least  be  doubled. 

Hoof. — While  any  kind  of  roofing  material  may  be  adopted. 
with  more  or  less  advantage  in  j)articular  districts,  a  wooden  roof 
covered  with  slates  or  tiles  should  be  given  the  preference.  No 
matter  what  is  the  material  used  or  what  is  the  desi"n  of  the  build- 
ing,  in  every  case  in  this  country  it  should  be  open  to  the  ridge. 
Other  countries  with  more  sevei-e  climates  than  ours  may  tolerate 
lofts  and  barns  above,  but  here  nothing  of  the  kind  should  be 
permitted.  The  extra  cost  of  planing  the  inside  surface  of  the 
roof  is  very  trifling,  and  from  various  points  of  view  the  planing  is 
of  considerable  advantage. 

1^00)'. —The  first  point  which  should  be  considered  in  connec- 
tion with  the  floor  is  its  level  compared  with  the  existing  roadway, 
or  completed  surface  round  the  building.  In  the  majority  of  cases 
but  more  particularly  on  level  land,  or  where  there  is  a  difficulty  in 
getting  sufficient  fall  for  the  drains,  the  floors  are  laid  at  too  low  a 
level.  This  is  a  serious  mistake,  which  there  are  few  opportunities 
ot  correcting,  and  one  which  is  very  common  in  old  buildings 
The  consequence  is  that  the  floor  and  stalls  are  often  drtmp,  and  the 
roadway  outside  is  invariably  covered  with  mud  and  slush.  In  not 
a  few  instances  the  roadway  outside  is  difficult  to  improve,  as  it 
fiinnot  be  raised,  owing  to  the  risk  of  running  the  surface  water 
into    the   building,    instead    of   away    from    it.      These    difficulties 


CONSTRUCTION    OF    COW-HOUSES  :    JOHN    SPEIR.  5o 

should,  therefore,  be  guarded  against  by  fixing  the  floor  at  a 
comparatively  liigh  level  rather  than  a  low  one. 

'Ihe  main  flooring  materials  should  be  either  cement  concrete, 
or  blue  bricks.  Both  have  some  faults,  each  in  a  direction  different 
from  the  other.  A  perfect  material  for  cow-house  floors  has  yet  to 
be  introduced,  but  with  all  its  faults,  good  cement  concrete,  properly 
laid  and  finished,  is  probably  the  best  for  general  purposes,  where 
clean  sharp  sand  and  gravel  are  available.  If  suitable  sand  is  not 
easil}^  obtained,  and  hard  blue  bricks  can  be  had  at  a  moderate  cost, 
they  may  be  used  in  preference  to  cement  concrete.  In  putting 
down  the  floor,  either  for  cement  concrete  or  bricks,  the  bottom 
should  be  laid  with  stones  6  to  8  inches  deep.  These  should  be 
sufficiently  large  to  fill  up  the  whole  depth  in  one  layer,  each  stone 
being  separately  placed  in  position  by  hand.  A  layer  of  ordinary 
concrete  3  to  4  inches  thick  should  be  placed  on  the  top  and  well 
beaten  down  among  the  bottoming  by  hand  beaters.  Before  the 
concrete  has  set,  it  should  be  covered  with  one  inch  or  so  of  two 
parts  of  crushed  granite  and  one  part  of  cement.  Instead  of  being 
floated  or  smoothed  on  the  surface  this  should  be  left  rough,  as 
when  smooth  it  is  always  slippery,  unless  when  well  washed. 
It  is  generally  recommended  that  the  passages  and  hind  part 
of  the  stalls  should  be  V-sfrooved,  but  this  has  little  effect  in 
preventing  slipping  where  the  passages  are  not  kept  thoroughly 
clean,  while  the  wheels  of  coolers,  or  other  carriages  used  in  the 
conveyance  of  food  to  the  stock,  invariably  break  the  surface  at 
the  grooves  Properly  Hnished  concrete  is  scarcely  ever  slippery 
if  clean,  but  may  be  more  or  less  S3  if  dirty.  It  is  fully  as  clieaj)  as 
any  other  flooring  material  laid  equally  substantially,  is  less  absor- 
bent than  most,  and  probably  more  durable  than  any  other.  Where 
blue  brick  is  used  for  the  passages  and  stalls  cement  might  with 
advantage  be  put  in  the  bottoai  of  the  manure  channel,  as  there 
are  no  junctions  as  with  bricks  to  hold  urine  and  manure,  and  the 
uniform  gradient  necessary  for  this  part  is  more  easily  maintained 
with  cement  than  with  bricks. 

Drainage. — There  is  general  agreement  among  those  who 
know    this    subject    best   that    there    should    be  no  covered  drains 


5G  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA,  [V,   1. 

inside  the  cow-house,  or  if  there  are,  they  should  be  reduced  to  the 
sliortest  length  possible.  With  buildings  having  two  rows  of  stalls, 
particularly  those  of  the  hirgest  size,  it  is  not  always  convenient  to 
have  open  drains,  as  occasiorsally  the  fall  is  to  the  centre,  and  in 
that  case  a  covered  drain  has  often  to  be  made  from  the  manure 
channel  to  the  outside.  In  such  circumstances  no  one  need 
hesitate  in  })utting  in  a  covered  drain,  rather  than  have  an  open  one 
in  an  awkward  position,  where  tlie  risks  from  the  open  drain  rrjay  be 
nuich  ureater  than  from  the  closed  one.  In  such  circumstances  no 
pipe  should  be  put  in  less  than  six  inches  in  diameter,  and  pipes  eight 
or  nine  inches  are  to  be  preferred.  The  pipes  should  be  given  a 
steep  gradient,  say,  one  inch  or  more  for  each  three  feet  length  of 
pipe.  There  should  be  no  bends  in  the  line  of  piping,  which 
apis^no  the  building  should  end  in  a  small  cess-pool.  The  entrance 
at  the  manure  gutter  should  be  .  j)rotected  by  a  grating,  and  any 
good  pattern  of  sludge  collector. 

The  drainage  outside  the  cow-house  will,  in  great  part,  depend 
on  how  the  urine  is  to  he  disposed  of.  Urine  drains  are  always 
difficult  to  keep  clear,  and  in  consequence  they  should  be  given  a 
good  fall  and  kept  as  short  as  possible.  If  there  are  any  bends, 
pipes  with  loose  covers  should  be  inserted  at  each,  and  if  the  length 
is  great  or  fall,  little  pipes  with  loose  covers  should  be  inserted  at 
frequent  intervals. 

A  good  method  for  utilising  the  urine  is  to  have  a  tank  close 
to  the  dungstead  into  which  all  leakage  from  it  should  run,  and 
into  which  the  drain  from  the  cow-house  shoukl  discharge.  A  urine 
tank  in  such  a  position  permits  of  the  contents  being  distributed 
over  the  top  of  the  manure  heap,  when  there  is  not  a  suitable 
piece  of  land  to  apply  it  to.  One  of  the  most  economical  methods 
of  utilising  urine  is  to  spread  it  on  permanent  hay  meadows.  If 
so  utilised  it  may  be  carted  on,  but  better  results  will  be  obtained 
and  less  labour  will  be  required  if  the  urine  can  be  diluted 
with  water,  and  spread  over  the  land  by  small  irrigation 
channels. 

Water  Supp/i/.- The  best  supply  is  by  gravitation  from  some 
perennial  spring  at  a  higher  level  after  which   come    supplies    from 


CONSTRUCTION    OF    COW-HOUSES  :     JOHN    SFEIR. 


57 


58  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   I. 

streams,  lakes  or  ponds.  In  many  cases  springs  and  rivers  at  a 
lower  level  can  be  utilised,  and  part  of  their  contents  conveyed  to 
the  farm  by  a  ram  or  windmill.  These  sources  are  only  availal)le 
for  a  limited  area  of  the  country,  and  in  the  majority  of  cases  the 
average  farm  has  to  depend  on  well  water.  In  such  circumstances 
a  sufficient  supply  should  be  provided  in  storage  tanks  at  such  a 
height  as  will  permit  of  it  being  distributed  to  the  cow-house 
and  milk-cooler. 

Internal  Designs. — The  utility  of  every  building  will  in  great 
])art  de[)end  far  more  on  the  design  adopted  than  on  the  materials 
used  in  the  construction  of  it.  Expensive  materials  may  be  used 
in  the  construction  of  a  cow-house,  yet  owing  to  the  imperfection 
of  the  design  very  unsatisfactory  results  may  be  obtained.  On 
Hie  other  hand,  very  plain  materials,  if  worked  up  into  a  good 
design,  may  give  very  satisfactory  results.  While  excellence  in 
materials  should  always  be  aimed  at,  much  more  will  depend  on 
the  design  than  the  materials. 

The  method  of  stalling  the  animals  adopted  in  Fig.  1  is  one 
of  the  oldest,  and  at  the  same  time  one  of  the  most  approved, 
more  particularly  where  existing  farm  buildings  are  being  utilised 
for  cow^-houses.  Many  ordinary  farm  buildings  are  from  13  to  20 
feet  wide,  and  where  it  is  desired  to  transform  them  into  a  cow- 
house, this  can  usually  be  accomplished  at  a  very  moderate 
expense.  Where,  however,  a  new  building  is  being  erected,  it 
will  be  more  economical  to  adopt  design  No.  2,  where  the  same 
j)rinciple  is  followed  as  in  No.  1,  except  that  two  rows  of  cows 
are  provided  for,  instead  of  one. 

This  arrangement  has  a  great  deal  to  recommend  it  from 
various  points  of  view,  and  although  the  initial  cost  is  fairly  high, 
the  advantages  obtained  warrant  tlie  extra  expense.  In  building 
a  new  cow-honse,  unless  for  a  very  small  number  of  cows,  the 
two-row  design  will  in  nearly  every  case  be  adopted,  as  the  cost 
per  cow  is  somewhat  less  than  in  the  single  one.  The  extra  cost 
tor  a  cow-house  on  this  plan  is  not  so  great  as  would  appear  at 
iirst  sight.  It  is  desirable  to  provide  a  certain  cubic  or  Hoor  space 
lor    eacli    animal,    and   the  cost  of  the  extra  passage  is  saved  in  the 


CONSTRUCTION    OF    C;OW-HOnSES  :    JOHN    SPEIK. 


59 


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60  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  I. 

Willis,  which  do  not  require  to  be  made  the  same  height  as  in  a 
building  without  any  passage  at  the  heads  of  the  cattle. 

In  many  of  the  dairying  districts  a  passage  between  the 
heads  of  the  cows  and  the  wall  is  considered  unnecessary  and 
undesirable,  because  ( I  )  any  saving  in  labour  that  is  effected  by 
feeding  the  cows  from  a  passage  at  their  heads  compared  with  one 
from  behind  is  only  trifling,  and  is  more  than  discounted  by  the 
extra  labour  necessary  to  keep  that  passage  clean  ;  and  (2)  when 
animals  have  been  lying  for  a  time  they  very  often  pass  some 
excrement  as  soon  as  they  rise.  Where  there  is  a  feeding  passage 
at  their  heads  the  cows  usually  rise  when  feeding  begins,  and  in 
their  anxiety  to  be  fed  they  generally  press  toward  the  passage, 
and  if  the  fittings  permit  of  it,  they  often  thrust  their  heads  over 
the  division.  Any  excrement  dropped  at  this  time,  as  is  often 
the  case,  falls  on  the  floor  of  the  stall,  instead  of  in  the  manure 
channel.  If  this  is  not  cleared  away  soon  after,  the  cow  may  lie 
down  on  it  later  on,  and  soil  not  only  her  hindquarters,  but  also 
her  udder  and  teats.  With  a  bullock  intended  to  be  slaughtered 
this  would  be  thought  little  of,  as  it  is  not  in  any  way  likely  to 
effect  the  ([uality  of  the  flesh  of  the  carcase.  It  is,  however,  quite 
the  reverse  with  a  cow  "fivin";  milk,  as  clean  milk  can  never  be 
obtained  from  a  dirty  cow,  much  less  from  one  with  her  udder  or 
teats  soiled  with  her  own  excrement.  Milk  produced  under  such 
conditions  is  disgusting.  Where  the  division  in  front  of  the  cows, 
however,  is  made  high  enough  to  prevent  them  putting  their 
heads  over  the  top  of  it,  there  is  no  greater  liability  of  the  stall  being 
soiled  than  if  the  animals  were  tied  up  with  their  heads  to  the  wall. 

Cleanliness  of  the  udder  and  teats  or  the  hands  of  the  milker 
is  a  comparative  term,  and  will  be  variously  interpreted  by  differ- 
ent people.  At  the  International  Congress  on  Dairying  at  Buda- 
Pest  in  1909  Dr.  Paul  Schuppli  gave  the  following  definition: — 
"  The  udder  (and  particularly  the  teats)  should  be  so  clean  that  no 
one  would  shrink  from  touching  them  with  lips  or  tongue."  This 
is  one  of  the  best  definitions  of  cleanliness  of  the  udder  and  teats 
that  has  yet  been  given,  and  the  more  it  is  considered,  the  greater 
wdl  be  found  the  necessity  for  its  general  application. 


CONSTRUCTION    OF    COW-HOUSES  !    JOHN    SPEIR. 


61 


62  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   I. 

In  addition,  milk  once  polluted  can  never  be  made  clean,  as 
sievino"  and  pasteurising  only  cover  up  the  pollution  by  removing 
what  is  objectionable  to  the  sight,  but,  after  all,  the  pollution  re- 
mains very  much  the  same  as  before. 

In  many  parts  of  the  country  the  most  common  type  of  cow- 
house is  that  represented  in  Fig.  3,  in  which  the  cows  are  stalled 
with  their  heads  to  one  of  the  outside  walls.  In  these  cases  the  one 
central  passage  serves  the  purpose  of  conveying  the  food  to  the  cows, 
removing  the  manure,  and  taking  away  the  milk.  Like  plans  No.  1 
and  No.  2,  this  one  may  be  either  single  or  double,  tlie  latter  being 
the  cheapest  building  that  can  be  erected.  It  does  not,  however, 
give  the  same  opportunity  for  supplying  the  stock  with  fresh 
unpolluted  air  that  designs  No.  I  and  No.  2  do,  as  the  air  at  the 
head  of  the  stalls  is  always  more  polluted  than  in  any  other  part  of 
the  building,  whereas  it  is  there  that  pure  air  is  of  most  advantage. 

There  is  a  type  of  cow-house  which  is  very  comtY\on  in  many 
districts  of  Britain,  but  which  is  objectionable  in  various  respects. 
In  it  all  the  stock  are  fed  from  one  central  passage,  while  the 
manure  and  the  milk  are  removed  by  the  two  at  the  sides.  In  this 
case  the  cows'  heads  are  as  far  removed  from  the  fresh  air  inlets 
as  they  possibly  can  be,  while  the  animals  breathe  into  each  other's 
faces  from  opposite  sides  of  the  passage.  In  a  building  of  this 
class,  where  not  exceptionally  well  ventilated,  the  general  healtii 
of  the  stock  is  likely  to  be  low,  and  one  infected  animal  in  the  lot 
may  cause  a  great  amount  of  damage.  It  is  also  defective,  in  that 
the  passages  from  which  the  milking  is  carried  on  are  usually  too 
narrow  to  secure  milk  standing  on  them  from  risk  of  pollution,  as 
where  the  passages  are  under  5  ft.  or  6  ft.  wide,  the  walls  behind 
the  cows  are  often  spattered  with  dung. 

Passages. — The  majority  of  cow-houses  usually  have  the  pas- 
sages much  too  narrow  A  feeding  passage  cannot  be  worked  in 
with  comfort  if  the  breadth  is  less  than  4  feet,  and  it  will  be  all 
the  better  if  made  slightly  more.  Milking  passages,  no  matter 
whether  in  single  or  double  buildings,  should  not  be  less  than  5 
G'tr  wide  for  sinijle  cow-houses  and  (i  to  7  feet  for  double  ones. 
This  v.idtli  is  not    necessary,    either  for  feeding  or  cleaning,  but  on 


CONSTRUCTION    OF    COW-HOUSES  :    JOHN    SPEIR. 


63' 


most  farms,  particularly  the  larger  ones,  nothing  less  should  be 
allowed  for  a  milking  passage.  It  is  only  on  the  very  smallest  of 
farms  that  each  milker  carries  the  milk  direct  from  the  cow  to  the 
dairy  or  cooler.      The  common    practice  i"^  to    have  special    cans  for 


^^^^^ 


carrying  the  milk,  and  during  the  operation  of  milking  these  are 
left  in  the  passage  or  walk,  and  as  each  cow  is  finished,  the  milk  is 
emptied  into    tliese  cans.      When  full,  they    are  carried  to  the  dairy 


•64  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   I. 

or  refrigerator  and  emptied,  after  which  they  are  returned  to  their 
place  in  the  passage.  With  a  double  cow-house  where  the  passage 
is  less  than  6  feet  wide  there  is  always  a  risk,  while  they  remain 
there,  of  a  cow  near  at  hand  passing  either  urine  or  dung,  and  part 
of  these  not  only  getting  splashed  on  the  can,  but  also  into  it. 
The  narrower  the  milking  passages  are,  the  greater  is  the  risk  of 
this  source  of  pollution,  which,  although  always  present,  is  more 
pronounced  during  the  season  when  pasture  is  young  and  succu- 
lent     Sinofle   cow-houses  with    24-inch   manure   channels  and  5-ft. 

a 

passages  behind  the  cows  become  spattered  with  dung  even  during 
the  winter  months,  so  that  it  is  quite  evident  that  cans  of  milk 
standing  in  the  passage  run  more  risk  of  pollution  than  most 
people  care  to  admit. 

Stnl/s. — The  stalls  of  cow-houses  only  require  a  very  trifling 
incline  from  the  trough  to  the  manure  channel.  E;ich  spring 
when  the  cows  go  out  to  the  pasture  the  stalls  should  be  thorough- 
ly scraped,  and  all  filth  removed,  'i'his  necessitates  soaking  the 
stall  with  water,  and,  when  the  dirt  has  been  removed,  thoroughly 
washing  it  out,  and  unless  the  stall  is  given  a  fall  of  from  one  to 
two  inches,  it  is  difficult  to  get  the  floor  dried, 

Kach  stall  should  be  proportionate  in  length  to  the  class  of 
cow  tiiat  is  expected  to  occupy  it  For  the  smallest  size  of  cows, 
such  as  Jerseys,  Kerrys,  and  young  Ayrshires,  the  stall  measured 
from  the  wall  or  division  between  the  cows  and  the  passage  to  the 
manure  channel  should  be  from  (>  ft.  9  in.  to  7  ft  longf,  inclusive  of 
the  breadth  of  the  trough.  For  Ayrshires,  a  stall  of  7  ft.  to  7  ft. 
H  ins.  is  quite  sufficient,  while  Shorthorns  require  from  7  ft.  ?>  in.s. 
to  7  ft.  6  ins.,  and  exceptionally  large  cows  3  ins.  more.  If  the 
stalls  are  too  short  for  the  cows,  they  will  stand  in  the  manure 
channel,  and  sooner  or  later  the  feet  become  soft  and  diseased.  If 
the  stalls  are  too  long  for  the  stock,  they  drop  their  dung  on  the 
floor,  and  later  on  when  they  lie  down  they  are  almost  sure  to  soil 
their  hindquarters  or  udder  with  it.  Where  this  state  of  matters 
exists  the  extra  labour  necessary  to  keep  the  stalls  and  cows 
reasonably  clean  is  very  great,  and  out  of  all  proportion  to  what  is 
necessary  to  reduce  the  stall  to  the  proj)er  length. 


CONSTRUCTION    OF    COW-IIQUSES  :    JOHN    SPEIR. 


65 


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66  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,     I. 

For  the  smaller  size  of  cows,  each  double  stall  should  be  from 
6  ft.  to  6J  ft.  in  width,  and  for  the  larger  ones,  from  6J  ft.  to  7J  ft. 
wide.  If  the  stalls  are  too  narrow,  the  cows  tread  on  each  other's 
leo-s,  udder,  and  teats,  and  in  the  latter  two  cases  injury  to  these 
almost  invariably  means  loss  of  a  qunrter.  If  the  stalls  are  too 
wide,  the  cows  turn  round  in  them,  and  drop  urine  or  excrement 
in  the  trough,  or  on  the  floor  of  the  stall.  While  the  back  part 
of  the  stall  may  be  of  cement  concrete,  blue  brick  or  stone,  the 
front  part  should  be  of  brick  or  hard  asphalt  only. 

Stall  Divisions. — The  stall  divisions  may  be  of  cement,  con- 
crete, stone,  wood,  or  iron,  or  in  the  event  of  stanchions  being  used, 
they  may  be  done  without  altogether.  Coloured  or  uncoloured 
cement  3  ins.  thick  is,  however,  one  of  the  strongest,  neatest,  and 
most  serviceable  divisions  yet  introduced,  as  it  is  almost  everlasting, 
and  saves  painting,  periodic  washing  with  water  or  lime  washing 
being  all  that  is  required  to  keep  it  clean  and  bright.  The  stall 
divisions  should  not  be  less  than  4|-  ft.  long,  and  4  ft.  to  4  ft.  3  ins. 
high.  With  the  swinging  stanchions  used  in  Canada  and  the  States 
the  cows  can  be  much  more  quickly  tied  up  than  with  our  method 
of  chains  and  hooks,  while  the  attendant  runs  less  risk  of  being 
hurt  by  the  horns  of  the  animals  while  so  engaged. 

Troughs. — Each  cow  should  have  a  sei)arate  feeding  trough  of 
thoroughly  glazed  fireclay,  as  separate  troughs  for  each  animal  are 
much  to  be  preferred  to  continuous  ones.  It  is  a  mistake  to  })ut  in 
very  large  trouglis,  those  20  by  IG  by  8  ins.  being  quite  large 
enough  for  most  purposes.  Each  double  stall  should  have  the 
space  between  the  two  troughs  filled  up  with  brick.  This  keeps 
each  trough  sufficiently  far  away  from  the  neighbouring  animal 
that  it  cannot  steal  any  food.  All  the  corners  along  the  back  and 
ends  of  the  troughs  should  be  filled  up  with  cement  to  as  long  a 
slope  as  possible,  so  as  to  prevent  unconsumed  food,  bits  of  straw, 
and  filth  of  any  kind  from  lodging  there,  and,  when  putrefaction 
begins,  setting  up  bad  smells. 

Where  it  is  desired  to  provide  facilities  for  supplying  the  stock 
with  water  when  in  the  house,  one  of  the  best  of  many  methods  is 
to   have   small  circular   troughs    9  ins.    or   so  in  diameter,  set  in  a 


CONSTRUCTION    OF    COW-HOUSES  :    JOHN    SPEIR.  67 

recess  cut  out  of  the  stall  division  close  to  the  wall  or  division,  and 
1  ft,  or  so  above  tlie  trough.  These  troughs  should  have  a  lid 
which  is  hinged  at  the  back  and  projects  over  the  edge  ^  in.  or  so, 
and  it  should  be  so  arranged  that  it  cannot  be  lifted  up  to  a  perpen- 
dicuhir  position.  All  stock  seem  to  learn  to  lift  the  lid  with  their 
nose  in  a  few  days,  and  as  soon  as  they  have  satisfied  their  thirst, 
the  lid  falls  and  keeps  out  dust,  straw,  etc.  The  level  of  the  water 
in  the  troughs  may  be  regulated  either  by  a  ball  cock,  or,  if  water 
be  plentiful,  it  may  pass  off  by  an  overflow  at  any  or  all  of  the 
troughs.  If  there  is  a  feeding  passage,  the  overflow  may  pass 
away  by  an  open  shallow  gutter  in  the  floor  along  the  side  nearest 
the  troughs. 

Manure  Channel. — Probably  no  part  of  the  average  cow-house  is 
constructed  in  so  faulty  a  manner  as  the  manure  channel.  In  no 
case  should  it  be  less  than  24  ins.  wide,  and  for  large-sized  cows  it 
may  with  advantage  be  increased  to  27  or  28  ins.  It  should  not 
be  less,  and  need  not  be  greater  than  6  ins.  deep  at  the  cow's  heels, 
and  at  the  side  next  the  passage  4  ins.  will  be  quite  enough.  A 
fall  lengthwise  in  the  floor  of  the  channel  of  |-  in,  for  each  cow  is 
quite  sufficient.  These  in  themselves  are  trifling  details,  but  they 
are  items  of  immense  importance  in  connection  with  the  cleanliness 
of  the  animals,  and  indirectly  with  the  purity  of  the  milk.  The 
reason  for  makintj  the  manure  channel  as  sug-aested  above  is  that 
when  the  cattle  have  been  in  the  house  for  a  few  hours,  the 
manure  which  they  make  is  so  great  that  if  the  channel  is  any 
narrower  than  suoccjested,  it  becomes    blocked    with    manure    from 

or?  ' 

side  to  side.  In  the  interval  more  or  less  urine  is  constantly  being 
passed  by  all  the  animals^  and  instead  of  getting  an  outlet  to  the 
cistern,  it  remains  dammed  for  the  time  being  between  each  heap  of 
manure.  Under  these  conditions  every  time  a  cow  lies  down  there 
is  a  liability  of  her  tail  dropping  into  the  pool  of  urine,  which 
later  on  she  switches  over  her  own  body  and  that  of  her  neigh- 
bours. This  mixture  of  urine  and  thin  dun$r  is  soon  dried  bv  tlie 
heat  of  the  bodies  of  the  animals,  and  during  the  act  of  milking 
part  of  it  becomes  detached  in  the  form  of  dust,  and  drops  into 
the  milk.     Cows  so  stalled  can  only  be    kept   reasonably    clean   by 


r,8  AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  I. 

the  expenditure  of  nn  excessive  amount  of  labour  on  the  part  of 
the  attendant,  and  no  matter  what  amount  of  care  is  exercised 
during  the  process  of  milking',  the  milk  itself  is  sure  to  suffer. 

Before  a  cow-house  can  be  considered  efficient  in  regard  to  the 
cleanliness  of  the  animals,  or  the  purity  of  the  milk,  it  must  be 
provided  with  a  manure  channel  having  a  minimum  width  of  24: 
ins.,  and  constructed  as  suggested.  People  who  have  not  had  ex- 
perience of  a  wide  manure  channel  fancy  that  the  cows  will  have 
difficulty  in  stepping  across  it.  Such  is  not  the  case,  as  they 
seldom  make  any  attempt  to  step  across  it.  They  simply  seem  to 
io-nore  it,  as  owing  to  its  shallowness  they  step  into  it,  as  if  it  were 
not  there.  Even  although  every  known  precaution  is  taken,  ex- 
traneous matter  will  at  times  enter  the  milk,  but  if  the  manure 
channel  is  badly  designed,  or  if  the  work  is  indifferently  executed, 
it  will  be  found  almost  impossible  to  produce  milk  even  approxi- 
mately pure. 

Floor  Space. — While  some  of  the  details  in  connection  with 
the  construction  of  cow-houses  have  in  the  past  received  more  con- 
sideration than  their  importance  warranted,  the  rpiestion  of  floor 
space  is  undoubtedly  one  to  which  somewhat  more  attention  might 
reasonably  have  been  devoted.  It  is  closely  associated  with  the 
feeding  and  milking  of  the  cows  ;  with  the  removal  of  the  manure  ; 
and  more  especially  with  the  cleanliness  of  the  milk.  The  area 
required  by  a  cow  for  her  comfort  is  very  much  regulated  by  her 
size,  but  all  require  about  a  similar  number  of  square  feet  for 
proper  attention.  With  passages  of  the  width  suggested  for  the 
different  designs  of  cow-houses,  a  floor  space  of  from  40  to  50 
square  feet  will  be  provided  per  cow,  and  for  the  large  class  of  animals 
it  may  with  advantage  go  higher  for  some  of  the  principal  designs. 
These  areas  may  by  some  be  considered  excessive,  but  it  should  be 
remembered  that  every  increase  in  the  floor  space  also  adds  to  the 
cubic  space,  and  both  materially  assist  in  keeping  the  air  in  the 
building  in  a  reasonable  state  of  purity. 

Cubic  Space. — By  sanitary  officers  cubic  space  has  hitherto 
been  the  standard  by  which  they  gauged  the  efficiency  or  non-effi- 
ciency of  a  cow-house.     Provided  that  this  detail  corresponded  with 


CONSTRUCTION    OF    COW-HOUSES  :    JOHN    SPEIR.  ()D 

their  ideal,  little  attention  was  devoted  to  the  other  matters  ah'eady 
referred  to,  which  have  a  greater  influence  on  the  purity  of  the 
milk  or  health  of  the  stock  than  does  cubic  space.  It  is  a  very 
necessary  detail  of  a  health}^  cow-house,  but  it  has  hitherto  been 
given  an  importance  far  greater  than  it  deserved.  This  has  been 
broutjht  about  under  the  mistaken  idea  that  in  a  buildin<j  with  a 
large  cubic  space  the  air  remained  approximately  pure  much  longer 
than  where  the  cubic  space  was  smaller.  AVhere  buildings  such  as 
churches,  halls,  and  theatres,  etc.,  are  occupied  for  a  limited  time 
compared  with  the  interval  during  which  they  are  empty,  the  in- 
ference is  reasonably  sound,  but  when  applied  to  the  case  of  a  cow- 
house in  which  the  animals  are  constantly  stalled  for  half  the  year, 
it  breaks  down  entirely.  In  the  one  case  the  building  is  flushed 
with  fresh  air  in  the  intervals  between  its  occupation,  while  in  the 
other  it  is  seldom  that  such  an  opportunity  occurs.  The  conse- 
fjuence  is,  that  the  air  of  a  cow-house,  no  matter  how  large  its 
cubic  space,  reaches  a  high  degree  of  impurity  in  an  liour  or  two 
after  it  becomes  occupied,  unless  provision  is  made  for  removing  the 
polluted  air,  and  replacing  it  by  that  which  is  pure. 

This  was  strikingly  brought  out  in  the  expeiiments  of 
the  Highland  and  Agricultural  Society  during  the  winter  of 
1908  and  1909,  in  which  the  air  of  several  cow-houses  of  medium 
and  large  cubic  space,  but  with  limited  provision  for  change  of  air, 
was  compared  with  others  similarly  placed,  where  it  was  liberal. 
In  iliose  which  were  freely  ventilated,  the  cubic  space  per  cow 
varied  from  520  to  1,268  cubic  ft.  In  the  smaller  building,  where 
fully  ventilated,  the  average  carbon  dioxide  in  the  air,  on  an  aver- 
age of  fortnightly  tests  by  chemical  analysis,  was  10"6— the  mini- 
mum being  G"5  and  maximum  1 5 "9 — per  10,000,  the  average  tem- 
perature being  slightly  under  49"  F.  In  almost  similar  buildings, 
with  the  ventilation  restricted,  so  as  to  keep  the  temperature  about 
GO^  F.,  the  carbon  dioxide  in  the  air  of  samples  taken  at  the  same 
time  as  the  other  was  29  05  per  10,000,  and  in  some  instances  was 
as  high  as  60,  70,  and  even  88  per  10,000  volumes.  On  the 
average  of  three  tests  at  one  of  the  farms,  the  air  of  the  freely 
ventilated    building,    with    a  cubic    capacity    of  1,130  cubic  ft.  per 


70  AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL   OF    INDIA.  [V,  I. 

COW,  contained  9*4  per  10,000,  while  an  adjoining  building, 
with  705  cubic  ft.  per  cow,  but  with  little  ventilation,  contained 
29*03  per  10,000.  On  two  of  these  farms,  at  about  the  same 
elevation,  in  the  same  district,  and  with  much  the  same  exposure, 
the  carbon  dioxide  in  the  air  of  the  smaller  of  the  freely  ventilated 
building's  was  10' 6,  while  the  very  large  one  was  I) "4  per  10,000, 
a  difference  of  only  12  of  carbon  dioxide  per  10,000,  although 
the  one  building  is  fully  double  the  other  in  capacity  per 
cow.  In  the  buildings  with  restricted  ventilation,  the  amount  of 
carbon  dioxide  was  identical  in  both  cases,  yet  the  one  building 
had  480  cubic  ft.  per  cow,  while  the  other  had  705  cubic  ft.  In 
both  cases  the  samples  were  taken  between  two  and  three  hours 
after  the  buildings  were  closed  for  the  night. 

In  another  case,  with  buildings  at  a  high  altitude  and  exposed 
situation,  but  having  a  large  cubic  capacity,  the  dangers  and  diffi- 
culties of  attempting  to  maintain  a  high  temperature  in  the  cow- 
house are  very  evident.  The  ventilated  building  with  a  cubic 
capacity  of  1,268  ft.  per  cow,  and  an  average  temperature  of  49° 
F.,  had  on  an  average  of  four  tests  19'7  of  carbon  dioxide  per 
10,000  volumes  of  air.  In  the  other  half  of  the  same  building, 
where  the  cubic  space  was  918  cubic  ft.  per  cow,  and  average  tem- 
perature 57*5°  F.j  the  carbon  dioxide  in  the  air  on  an  average  of 
four  tests  was  60  per  10,000  volumes  of  air.  At  the  other  farms 
where  this  experiment  was  carried  out  almost  identical  results  were 
obtained.  The  average  for  twenty-one  tests  made  on  five  farms  in 
raid-winter  gives  12'8  volumes  of  carbon  dioxide  per  10,000  of  air 
for  the  buildings  more  or  less  freely  ventilated,  and  having  an  aver- 
age temperature  of  49*8°  F.,  while  a  similar  number  of  trials  on  the 
same  evenings  in  similar  adjoining  buildings,  but  with  restricted 
ventilation  and  an  average  winter  temperature  of  59*4°  F.,  the 
carbon  dioxide  present  was  34*7  volumes  per  10,000  of  air.  The 
results  of  this  experiment  emphatically  show  that  there  is  no  gain 
in  purity  of  the  air,  corresponding  with  the  cost,  in  buildings  of 
very  large  cubic  capacity  per  cow  compared  with  those  of  more 
moderate  size.  They  also  prove  that  if  any  cow-house,  no  matter 
what  its  cubic  space  per  cow,  is  kept  at  a  temperature  of  60^    F.  or 


CONSTRUCTION    OF    COW-HOUSES  :    JOHN    SPEIR.  71 

more,  its  air  will  contain  about  three  times  as  much  carbon  dioxide 
than  if  the  building  had  been  freely  ventilated  and  kept  at  under  50" 
F.  While  the  production  of  milk  may  be  as  great  in  the  one  case  as 
in  the  other,  the  health  of  the  animals  in  the  freely  ventilated  build- 
ing will  remain  good,  while  the  constitution  of  the  others  will 
gradually  become  enfeebled. 

If  the  other  details  in  connection  with  the  construction  of  the 
building  are  attended  to,  it  will  be  found  that  fairly  good  results 
may  be  obtained  if  420  to  450  cubic  ft.  are  allowed  for  the  smaller 
breeds  of  cows,  such  as  Jerseys  and  Kerrys,  and  young  Ayrshires. 
Breeds  of,  say,  the  size  of  the  Ayrshire  should  be  allowed  a  mini- 
mum of  500  cubic  ft.,  and  the  larger  breeds,  such  as  Shorthorns, 
say,  600  cubic  ft.  While  there  will  be  some  advantage  in  increasing 
these  minima  by  20  to  30  per  cent.,  little  return  will  be  obtained 
for  the  money  expended  in  making  them  any  larger. 

Ventilation. — Closely  associated  with  cubic  space,  but  in  reality 
quite  a  separate  subject,  is  that  of  ventilation.  While  a  certain 
floor  and  cubic  space  must  be  provided  before  the  cows  can  be  con- 
veniently and  economically  attended  to,  the  health  of  the  animals 
and  purity  of  the  milk  will  in  great  part  depend  on  the  means  pro- 
vided for  ventilatinjy  the  buildino-.  Even  the  thorou"hness  of  the 
ventilation  is  much  more  a  matter  of  providing  in  the  walls  ample 
openings  of  any  kind  as  inlets  for  the  air,  and  the  same  iu  the  roof 
for  its  exit,  rather  than  any  special  S37stem  of  ventilation.  No 
class  of  building  is  so  easily  ventilated  as  that  which  is  open  to  the 
ridge,  and  in  none  may  the  system  w^hich  is  adopted  be  so  simple 
and  inexpensive.  The  great  requisite  is  to  provide  for  each  animal 
plenty  of  inlet  area,  which  should  not  be  less  than  40  sq.  ins.  per 
cow,  irrespective  of  doors  or  windows,  which  should  be  reserved  for 
exceptional  weather,  and  if  the  situation  is  at  all  sheltered,  more  should 
be  provided.  It  does  not  follow  that  all  available  ventilation  should 
be  always  utilised,  but  sufficient  openings  should  exist  to  keep  the 
air  fresh — say,  8  to  12  of  carbon  dioxide  per  10,000  volumes  when 
the  stock  are  in,  and  the  air  is  calm.  These  openings  should  be 
provided  with  some  arrangement  by  which  the  inlet  of  air  can  be 
easily  regulated  to  suit  the  conditions    of   weather.     For    instance, 


72  AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  1. 

if  the  wind  is  strong  the  volume  of  air  which  will  pass  through  any 
opening  will  be  many  times  greater  than  when  it  is  calm,  and  it 
is  to  provide  for  such  occasions  that  some  system  of  regulation  is 
necessary.  The  old  system  of  putting  straw  in  the  openings  in 
stormy  weather  cannot  be  recommended,  as  when  a  change  of 
weather  occurs  the  straw  is  almost  invariably  in  when  it  should  be 
out,  and  out  when  it  might  be  in.  The  outlet  ventilating  openings 
should  not  be  less  in  area  than  the  inlets,  and  may  with  advantage 
be  100  per  cent,  greater.  Like  the  inlets,  the  outlets  should  be 
provided  with  some  system  of  partially  closing  them  when  it  is 
desired  to  do  so. 

The  simplest  and  one  of  the  most  serviceable  of  inlet  openings 
is  a  fiat  one  24  ins.  by  4  ins.,  or  18  ins.  by  6  ins.,  in  the  wall  opposite 
each  double  stall.  This  opening  should  be  between  5  and  <>  ft. 
from  the  floor  if  the  animals  are  stalled  with  their  heads  to  the  wall, 
but  if  a  passage  intervenes,  it  may  be  somewhat  lower,  as  in  this  case 
the  current  of  cold  air  becomes  modified  and  diffused  in  its  course 
across  the  passage,  and  before  it  reaches  the  cows.  If  a  board  9  to 
12  ins.  broad  and  24  ins.  long  is  placed  flat  along  the  bottom  of  this 
opening,  and  the  edge  ne.xt  the  outside  of  the  wall  is  hinged  in  any 
convenient  manner,  an  arrangement  can  be  easily  fitted  up  by  which 
each  or  all  of  these  boards  can  be  raised,  so  as  to  reduce  wholly  or 
partially  the  incoming  current  of  air.  The  valve  may  not  only  be 
used  for  reducin<i  the  volume  of  air  entering'  the  buildinof,  but  also 
for  diverting  the  current  in  an  upward  direction,  so  that  it  may  pass 
over  the  bodies  of  the  cows.  There  are  numerous  devices  for  at- 
taining the  same  end,  all  of  which  serve  the  purpose  fairly  well. 

The  simplest  system  of  roof  ventilator  is  a  box  extending  over 
twoor  three  of  the  couples,  and  rising  18  or  24  ins.  above  the  ridge, 
and  having  louvre  boards  on  the  sides.  The  main  point  in  these  is 
to  have  them  large  enough  and  in  sufficient  number.  Another 
method  is  to  have  the  boarding  of  the  roof,  for  a  foot  or  so  on  each 
side  of  the  ridge,  hinged  on  the  under  edge,  so  that  it  opens  up 
and  leaves  an  outlet  12  ins.  or  so  wide  the  whole  length  of  the 
building.  Arrangements  have  to  be  made  for  raising  and  lowering 
the  flaps  from  the  floor. 


CONSTRUCTION    OF    COW-HOUSES  :    JOHN    SPEIR.  73 

Light. — Everybody  admits  tlie  advantages,  so  far  as  health  is 
concerned,  of  an  out-door  hfe,  but  just  how  much  is  due  to  fresh 
air  and  liow  much  to  the  influence  of  sunlight  it  is  very  difficult  to 
say.  Sunlight  is,  however,  known  to  be  one  of  the  most  powerful, 
as  it  is  one  of  the  cheapest,  germicides  we  possess  ;  it  therefore 
should  be  admitted  freely  into  all  buildings  occupied  b}^  stock.  It 
is  a  matter  of  indiflference  whether  it  comes  from  the  walls  or  roof, 
provided  it  is  ample  and  does  not  fall  directly  on  the  eyes  of  the 
animals.  The  minimum  allowance  should  not  be  less  than  2  or  S 
sq.  ft.  per  cow,  and  it  will  be  an  advantage  to  have  even  more  than 
that.  Of  all  the  details  connected  with  cow-houses,  few  of  them 
have  received  so  little  consideration  as  that  of  liohtino^.  This 
omission  has  been  in  part  due  to  the  erroneous  belief  that  stock 
fatten  quicker  in  the  dark  than  in  the  light  ;  but,  in  any  case, 
nuthino;  will  contribute  so  much  to  cleanliness  in  the  cow-house  jis 
plenty  of  light.  It  costs  little,  and  its  value  there  is  great,  if  it 
were  for  nothing  else  but  to  afford  an  opportunity  of  seeing  the  dirt. 

Manure  and  Food  Conveyora.  —  No  cow-house  can  be  con- 
sidered complete  which  is  not  provided  with  an  overhead  railway 
for  the  purpose  of  removing  the  manure,  and  bringing  in  food  and 
litter.  In  Canada  and  the  United  States  these  are  found  every- 
where, their  cost  is  trifling,  and  the  labour  they  save  is  great.  The 
manure  bucket  is  self-emptying,  holds  between  three  and  four  bar- 
row loads,  and  is  more  easily  pushed  than  an  ordinary  barrow,  and 
if  the  rail  can  be  laid  with  a  slight  fall  to  the  dungstead,  the  load 
may  run  out  and  em))ty  itself.  Separate  buckets  are  used  for  the 
carriage  of  the  manure  and  the  food. 


NOTES. 


The  assistance  of  the  Court  of  Wards  in  Agricultural 
Improvement. — It  is  well  to  define  at  the  outset  the  limits  of  the 
activity  of  the  Court  of  Wards. 

(1)  Apart  from  statutory  limitations  which  exist  in  some 
provinces,  the  Court  is  morally  in  the  position  of  a  trustee,  that 
is  to  say,  it  cannot  spend  money  freely  in  the  way  a  landholder 
can  ;  it  is  justified  in  making  improvements  which  will  either 
increase  the  rent-roll,  or  ensure  larger  collections  in  unfavourable 
seasons,  or  contribute  to  the  general  welfare  of  the  tenants,  but 
it  is  not  justified  in  spending  money  on  costly  experiments. 

(2)  The  tenure  of  the  Court  is  uncertain,  and  there  is  in 
ordinary  circumstances  little  hope  of  continuity  of  management 
after  its  term  expires.  The  best  chance  of  carrying  out  a  long- 
term  programme  exists  where  a  solvent  estate  comes  under  the 
Court  for  a  minority  of  15  to  20  years  ;  but  even  in  that  case 
the  minor  may  die  and  be  succeeded  by  an  adult.  Hence 
elaborate  schemes  of  stock-breeding,  afforestation,  and  the  like 
which  require  prolonged  maintenance  before  a  financial  profit 
accrues  are  ordinarily  unsuitable  to  the  conditions. 

(3)  A  very  large  proportion  of  the  estates  under  the  Court 
are  so  deeply  indebted  that  expenditure  in  all  directions  has  to 
be  cut  down  to  the  lowest  limits. 

It  follows  from  these  limitations  that  the  capital  expendi- 
ture on  improvements  is  most  likely  to  be  justified  when  it  is 
incurred  once  for  all  on  works  of  definite  agricultural  utility  such 
as  irrigation  or  drainage  projects.  In  the  larger  part  of  the 
United  Provinces  the  need  for  more  masonr}^- wells  is  more 
pressing  than  anything   else,   and  I   have   usually   advised    that 


NOTES.  75 

estates  with  moderate  resources  should  practically  confine  their 
capital  outlay  to  the  provision  of  wells  so  long  as  these  are 
required. 

There  are,  however,  ways  in  which  the  management  of  the 
Court  can  aid  in  the  improvement  of  agriculture  without  heavy 
initial  outlay.  Among  those  that  are  suited  to  the  province 
may  be  instanced. 

(1)  Inti'oduction  of  new  staples  and  renovation  of  seed- 
stocks. — In  this  case  the  capital  invested  in  seed  can  ordinarily 
be  recovered  at  harvest,  and  the  amount  required  in  any  year  is 
not  large  as  the  introduction  must  be  gradual.  Sugar-cane, 
ground-nuts,  and  better  varieties  of  wheat  and  other  crops  have 
thus  been  introduced  in  particular  estates. 

(2)  Maintenance  of  implement  depots. — Where  cultivators 
can  buy  or  hire  such  things  as  improved  ploughs,  sugar-cane  njills, 
irrigation-pumps,  well-boring  tools  and  the  like,  these  depots 
should  be  self-supporting  almost  from  the  start  andean  be  opened 
on  quite  a  small  scale  :  the  most  essential  feature  is  a  mechanic 
able  to  keep  the  implements  in  order  and  execute  necessary 
repairs.  It  has  also  been  found  advantageous  to  give  away  a  few 
implements  or  lend  them  free  of  cost  to  tenants  who  have  earned 
a  reward  in  cases  where  it  is  desired  to  popularise  a  new  implement. 

(3)  Provisio7i  of  facilities  for  the  demonstrations  of  the 
Agricidtural  Department. — These  cost  little  on  the  lines  on  which 
demonstrations  are  worked  here,  since  the  department  asks  for 
little  beyond  the  loan  of  a  field  here  and  there  and  the  use  of 
bullocks  for  tilling  it.  Past  experience  of  demonstrations  con- 
ducted by  the  subordinates  of  the  Court  has  been  highly  un- 
satisfactory :  hence  the  desirability  of  the  conduct  of  the  demon- 
strations being  in  the  hands  of  the  Agricultural  Department  in 
cases  where  the  Manager  himself  is  for  any  reason  unable  to 
supervise  them  efiectively. 

( 4 )  Provision  of  facilities  for  experiments  at  Government 
cost. — The  Court  can  render  much  assistance  by  providing  land 
and  other  facilities  for  experiments  which  it  is  desired  to  carry 
out  in  a  particular  locality. 


7G  AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   I. 

(5)  Maintenance  of  communication  hetween  the  tenants  and 
the  Agricultural  Department. — This  is  not  a  matter  of  expendi- 
ture :  on  the  one  side,  there  is  the  distribution  of  the  depart- 
ment's leaflets  or  popuhir  bulletins  so  that  they  may  come  into 
the  right  hands  :  on  the  other,  there  is  the  prompt  supply  of 
information  to  the  department  in  cases  {cy.,  outbreak  of  insect- 
pests)  where  its  help  is  required,  and  assistance  in  any  operations 
which  it  proposes  to  conduct. 

To  secure  success  in  operations  of  the  nature  indicated  above, 
close  co-operation  is  required  between  the  management  and  the 
oiiicers  of  the  Agricultural  Department  (except  where  as  in 
Madras  the  Court  employs  an  agricultural  expert  of  its  own). 
Formerly  this  co-operation  was  secured  to  some  extent  by 
periodical  conferences  of  the  Managers  under  the  Chairmanship 
of  the  Director  of  Agriculture  ;  of  late  years  the  practice  has 
been  that  when  an  important  estate  comes  under  the  Court,  the 
Director  or  Deputy  Director  confers  with  the  Collector  and  the 
Manager,  and  a  scheme  of  improvements  is  agreed  upon.  Further 
the  portions  of  the  Managers'  annual  reports  dealing  with  agri- 
cultural improvements  are  reviewed  by  the  Director  in  a  note  to 
the  Court.  The  main  point  is  to  establish  harmonious  personal 
relations  between  the  Managers  and  the  Officers  of  the  Agri- 
cultural Department.  — (W.  H.  Moreland). 

*  * 

Some  Manurial  Earths  of  Mysore. — In  Vol.  IV,  Part  I 
of  this  Journal,  Mr.  Harrison,  Agricultural  Chemist  to  the 
Government  of  Madras,  gave  an  interesting  account  of  "  Patti 
Mannu  ",  which  is  being  used  by  the  ryots  of  the  Krishna  Delta 
as  manure  for  paddy-fields.  In  certain  parts  of  the  Bangalore 
district  in  the  Mysore  State,  a  similar  practice  exists  of  using 
as  manure  of  earth  dug  out  from  what  are  probably  the  sites  of 
old  and  deserted  villages. 

Some  samples  were  taken  for  analysis  from  the  villages, 
Chikkabanavara,  Kakolu,  Kadanur,  Kajagatta  and  Andarlahalli 
ill  the  Bangalore  district  where  the  earth  was  dug  from  fields 
close   to   existing   villages.      In    almost   all   of  them   fairly  large 


NOTES. 


17 


excavations  Imve  been  made,  some  of  them  over  two  hundred 
feet  square  and  six  feet  deep.  In  the  village  of  Tubkunte  it 
is  reported  that  the  excavations  are  some  acres  in  extent.  But 
all  the  larger  ones  have  now  been  abandoned  b}'  the  order  of  the 
Revenue  authorities  as  these  areas  are  unfit  for  cultivation.  In 
other  places  small  pits  are  dug  in  the  fields  just  before  the 
cultivation  season  commences,  and  the  earth  is  either  sold  or 
used  by  the  owner  himself.  The  price  of  the  earth  varies  from 
four  annas  to  eight  annas  a  cartload. 

The  earth  is  ash-coloured,  as  its  Kanarese  name  ''  Boodhi 
Mannu "  indicates,  and  is  very  light  and  porous  with  a  free 
admixture  of  sand.  Tlie  })its  always  contain  pieces  of  broken 
pottery  and  also  occasionally  pieces  of  bones. 

In  the  above-mentioned  villages  the  earth  is  used  as  manure 
for  vagi,  and  in  one  of  them  for  sugar-cane  also.  It  is  reported 
that  in  years  of  good  rainfall  this  manure  gives  good  results, 
Vr'hile  in  years  of  poor  rainfall  it  is  more  a  disadvantage  than 
otherwise — a  fact  which  finds  an  explanation  in  the  sandy  and 
porous  character  of  the  material. 

Nine  samples  were  analysed  to  determine  the  amount  of 
nitrogen,  phosphoric  acid,  lime  and  potash.  The  analyses  are 
given  below  : — 


Number  of 
samples. 

Locality. 

Nitrogen. 

Phosphoric 
Acid. 

Lime. 

1 

Potash. 

5r)4 

Anrlarlalialli 

•035 

•54 

2-50 

•^^5 

;).o;j 

Ditto      .  . 

•040 

•62 

2-75 

•55 

aSl 

Chikkabanavara 

•1-20 

l^IO 

4-00- 

•42 

r)6o 

Ditto      ...            

•052 

•56 

•82 

•31 

.'562 

Kakolu 

•230 

1-60 

2-73 

1-02 

m?, 

Ditto      ...            

•084 

116 

3"25 

l-lt) 

566 

Koda<;ahalli 

•077 

•5S 

2-76 

•45 

573 

Kadaiiur     ... 

•057 

1-60 

3-60 

•99 

574 

Kajagatta  ... 

■057 

1"20 

2-82 

•52 

The  samples  are  all  strikingly  rich  in  both  lime  and  phos- 
phoric acid  and  some  of  them  in  the  other  constituents  as  well. 
Sample  No  562,  which  shows  the  highest  percentage  of  nitrogen, 
is  the  only  one  found  to  contain  nitrates  also.  Sample  No.  560 
is  not  really  a   sample  of  "  Boodhi    ]\Iannu  ',    but   a   sample    of 


78  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDL\.  [V,   L 

surface  soil  of  a  field  a  few  feet  below  which  the  characteristic 
ash-coloured  earth  was  dug,  and  out  of  which  sample  No.  561 
was  taken.  The  surface  soil  of  the  adjoining  fields  was  somewhat 
similar  in  appearance,  and  this  sample  was  analysed  to  see  if  the 
soil  of  these  fields  was  also  rich.  It  certainly  does  contain  a 
good  percentage  of  lime  and  phosphoric  acid.  Sample  No.  574 
is  a  sample  of  "  Boodhi  Mannu "  taken  from  the  village  of 
Rajagatta  which,  according  to  a  tradition,  produces  the  best 
ragi  in  the  whole  province.  The  earth  is  largely  used  to  manure 
rctf/i  fields  in  the  village  ;  the  soil  of  the  fields  of  this  village 
resembles  manurial  earth  in  appearance,  and  it  is  reported  that 
almost  every  field  contains  this  earth,  and  has  been  dug  for  the 
sake  of  the  manurial  earth  at  one  time  or  other — (A.  K.    Yegna 

Naratan  Aiyar). 

* 

*  * 

Report  on  "  Kahno"  Wheat  from  Sind. — This  wheat  is 
grown  at  present  to  a  limited  extent  in  Sind  chiefly  for  domestic 
consumption.  It  was  found  on  the  Government  Farm  at  Mirpur- 
khas  to  be  an  CKcellent  yielder,  hardy  grosver  and  to  have  good 
rust  and  "  kalar"'  or  alkali  resisting  properties.  On  enquiry, 
however,  from  various  exporting  firms  in  Karachi,  it  was  found 
they  would  not  buy  as  they  stated  its  only  use  was  as  macaroni 
wheat.     The  Imperial  Institute,  London,  reported  as  follows  : — 

Chemical  Examination. — "  The  wheat  was  examined  che- 
mically to  determine  the  proportion  of  gluten  present  with  the 
following  results  : — 

Sample  as  received.  Gluten  in  dry  Wheat 

Gluten  per  cent.  ...  ...     11*70  13'46 

Moisture  per  cent.  ...  ...      1.310 

"  The  gluten  was  of  good  quality,  fairly  elastic,  and  not  too 
dark  in  colour. 

"  The  amount  of  gluten  in  American  m^acaroni  wheats  usuall}^ 
varies  from  12-5  to  17 '9  per  cent,  in  the  dry  wheat  and  occasional- 
ly rises  to  as  much  as  20  per  cent. 

Commercial  Valuation. — "Samples  of  the  wheat  were 
forwarded  to  firms  for  macaroni  manufacturers   in   France,    Italy 


NOTES.  79 

and  Sicily  for  examination.  The  Sicilian  firm  stated  that  this 
Indian  wheat  may  be  considered  suitable  for  making  macaroni, 
but  the}"  pointed  out  that  when  large  quantities  of  wheat  of  this 
qualit}^  were  imported  into  Sicily  it  was  found  to  answer  the 
purpose  better  if  mixed  with  hard  taganrog  wheats,  in  the  pro- 
portions of  one-third  of  the  latter, 

"A  firm  in  Naples  reported  that  this  wheat  was 
perfectly  suitable  for  making  macaroni  and  stated  that  they 
would  like  to  receive  ofi^ers  of  consignments.  Information  is 
given  below  as  to  the  average  price  of  macaroni  wheat  in 
Naples. 

*'  A  London  firm  doing  a  large  trade  with  Italy  in  wheat  for 
macaroni  expressed  the  opinion  that  this  sample  of  Indian  wheat 
had  been  especially  hand-picked  for  exhibition  purposes,  and  they 
were  of  opinion  that  nothing  like  it  could  be  delivered  for  con- 
sumption. This  firm  also  stated  that  if  the  enquiry  was  connect- 
ed with  a  proposal  to  export  the  wheat  they  would  be  glad  to 
receive  offers, 

"  A  French  manufacturer  of  m,aca7vni  who  was  consulted, 
drew  attention  to  the  existence  of  great  prejudice  against  Indian 
wheats  on  the  part  of  macaroni  manufacturers  in  France  and 
Italy  on  account  of  the  prevalence  of  weevils  in  the  grain.  He 
stated  that  as  a  rule  manufacturers  in  buying  wheat  ask  for  a 
guarantee  that  Indian  grain  is  absent.  Recently,  however, 
offers  of  Indian  hard  wheat  had  been  received  at  Marseilles, 
owing  probably  to  the  present  storage  of  hard  wheats.' 

"  With  reference  to  the  prices  of  macaroni  wheat  in  Europe 
it  is  stated  that  the  only  hard  wheat  at  present  imported  into 
Naples  for  the  manufacture  of  macaroni  in  Russian  hard  wheat, 
which  is  sold  at  the  average  price  of  2275  lire  per  100  kilos 
(equivalent  to  95,  3cZ,  per  cwt,)  c.i.f.  in  bulk,  cash  against  docu- 
ments, one  per  cent,  discount.  Of  Indian  hard  wheat,  only  small 
lots  have  been  sold  of  Hard  Red  70  per  cent,  at  22}  lire  per  100 
kilos  (9.S,  l^d.  per  cwt.)  ci.f,  in  bags,  gross  for  net  cash  against 
documents,  one  per  cent,  discount.  There  is  also  a  commission  of 
one  per  cent,  from  seller  to  agent  to  which  the    above   prices  are 


80  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   I. 

subiect.     The  great  difficulty  in  the  importation  of  Indian    wheat 
is  the  time  of  shipment. 

''Shipments  should  be  made  before  the  15th  May  by  direct 
steamers  of  the  Navigazione  Generale  Italiana,  as  otherwise  the 
wheat  would  come   in  when  the  new  crop  was  ready." — (G.  S. 

Henderson). 

* 
*  * 

Akund  Cotton. — In  Part  III  of  the  '  Indian  Industrial 
Guide'  published  in  1007  by  Babu  D.  R.  Ghose,  b.a.,  of  the 
Provincial  Civil  Service  of  Eastern  Bengal  and  Assam,  an  account 
is  o-iven  of  jungle  products  likely  to  prove  profitable  articles  of 
trade  to  men  of  little  or  no  capital.  Amongst  these  is  mentioned 
Akund  Cotton  and  the  reference  has  led  to  a  moderate  degree  of 
enquiry. 

In  this  note  AJaind  cotton  is  said  not  only  to  be  in  good 
demand  for  export  but  large  quantities  are  used  in  Europe  and 
America  for  the  purpose  of  making  lint  cloth  and  a  kind  of  band- 
ao-e  cloth  for  rheumatism  and  gout  patients.  The  paragraph 
concludes  with  the  remark  that  there  may  be  other  uses  for 
this  cotton  but  these  are  not  known  here.  In  the  succeeding 
paragraph,  however,  we  are  furnished  with  definite  information 
to  the  effect  that  this  may  l)e  used  for  spinning  and  for  weaving 
other  kinds  of  cloth,  and  that  people  with  a  knowledge  of  the 
cotton  trade  predict  a  good  future  for  it. 

The  same  authority  proceeds  to  say  that  eight}^  per  cent,  of 
Akund  cotton  is  supplied  from  Agra  and  its  surrounding  districts. 
In  Bengal  it  is  totally  neglected.  The  Akund  is  one  of  several 
kinds  of  tree  cotton  found  in  India  and  at  Agra  and  the  sur- 
rounding districts  it  is  in  regular  cultivation.  An  incomplete 
botanical  and  agricultural  account  follows.  AVe  are  assured  that 
the  total  cost  of  production  may  not  be  more  than  Bs.  4  to  Rs.  5 
per  bigha  or  for  2h  maunds  of  clean  cotton,  which  may  easily 
fetch  Rs.  30  at  the  lowest.  Sometimes  it  sells  as  hio-h  as  Rs.  20 
per  maund.  The  plants  do  not  suffer  either  from  drought  or 
from  excessive  rain.  Besides  the  profit  from  the  sale  of  cotton, 
there  is  a  very  handsome   profit  from  the  sale  of  the  leaves  and 


NOTES.  8 1 

''>e  stalks  yield  a  soft  and  very  light   fibre   which  in  itself  would 
.n'lu  a  paying  industry.     Thus  far  we  have   followed   the   Indus- 
trial Guide. 

Mr.  Leake,  Economic  Botanist  to  the  United  Provinces, 
after  examining  specimens  of  Akund  cotton  from  the  Agra 
District,  kindly  informed  me  that  the  plant  is  the  common 
Madar  [Calotropis  gigantea)  and  not  a  species  of  Gossypium. 
The  Dictionary  of  Economic  Products  gives  the  name  of 
Akund  (for  Calotropis)  as  being  current  in  the  Hindi,  Bengali, 
Marathi  and  Gujarati  languages.  As  regards  its  properties 
and  uses,  the  Sap  is  said  to  yield  a  form  of  Gutta  Perch  a. 
(This  error,  however,  has  been  corrected  by  Mr.  D.  Hooper, 
who  says  the  substance  is  only  a  pseudo  gutta).  A  manna 
is  said  to  exude  from  the  plant.  .  The  best  fibres  and  floss 
from  the  seeds  are  well-known  fibres.  The  root  bark  and  sap 
are  medicinal.  A  liquor  is  reported  to  be  prepared  from  the 
juice.  The  wood  is  used  for  gunpowder,  charcoal  and  various 
parts  of  the  plant  are  employed  for  sacred,  domestic  and 
agricultural  purposes.  Full  details  on  all  these  points  can  be 
obtained  by  a  perusal  of  the  valuable  article  by  Sir  G.  Watt. 
The  truth  in  a  kernel  concerning  the  floss  is  simply  this  : 
the  silk  cotton  from  the  seeds  is  known  commercially  as 
"Madar  Floss,"  it  is  employed  to  some  extent  for  stufling 
pillows  ;  Balfour  says  it  is  used  in  Madras  for  making  soft,  cotton- 
like thread  and  Mr.  Moncton  found  that  when  a  mixture  of 
one-fifth  cotton  was  made,  a  good  weaving  cloth,  capable  of  being 
washed  and  dyed  was  produced.  Finally,  from  all  accounts,  it 
appears  that  the  floss  can  only  be  spun  when  in  combination  with 
cotton,  but  the  variation  in  its  quality  and  the  intermittency  of 
the  supply  offer  practical  difficulties  in  the  way  of  its  use.  The 
facility  with  which  Madar  can  be  grown  even  in  the  most  arid  and 
barren  situations  is  sufticient  reason  for  a  plea  that  the  plant  and 
its  properties  should  be  the  subject  of  earnest  investigation,  but 
we  cannot  believe  that  it  will  ever  become  either  a  serious 
competitor  to  cotton  or  even  a  vehicle  for  its  adulteration. — 
(G.[A.  Gammib). 

6 


82  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   1. 

Sugar  in  British  East  Indies. — An  interesting  series  of 
articles  on  ''  Sugar  in  the  British  East  Indies,"  by  Mr.  Peter 
Abel,  has  recently  come  to  a  conclusion  in  the  Louisiana 
Planter.  That  Journal  rightly  says  that  its  readers  will  find 
in  the  several  issues  that  have  contained  Mr.  Abel's  articles,  a 
supply  of  East  Indian  sugar-cane  data  nowhere  else  available. 

It  is  a  misfortune,  however,  to  Mr.  Abel's  readers  that 
his  observations  were  made  on  a  hurried  tour  through  India  in 
the  cold  weather,  and  that,  as  he  laments  in  his  article,  his 
opportunities  of  access  to  reliable  references  were  so  few  and  far 
between. 

As  a  result  probablj^  of  this  difficulty  of  access  to  official 
literature  we  find  that  the  only  tables  given  by  him  are  from  one 
or  two  official  publications  of  the  Bombay  Presidency,  and  in 
one  article  cut  bodily  from  a  bulletin  by  Khan  Bahadur  Sayed 
Mohomed  Hadi,  of  the  United  Provinces, 

We  find,  for  instance,  that  he  states  without  reference  to 
differences  of  practice  in  different  parts  of  India,  that  the  manu- 
rial  application  is  40  tons  of  farm-yard  manure  per  acre,  follow^ed 
by  15  to  20  tons  of  poudrette  or  4  tons  of  safflower  cake,  which 
is,  to  say  the  least  of  it,  not  usual  on  this  side  of  India. 

Owing,  again,  to  the  shortness  of  his  staj^  he  does  not  appear 
to  have  been  impressed  sufficiently  by  the  difference  in  climatic 
conditions,  and  he  has  thrown  the  estimated  costs  and  produce 
of  different  parts  into  violent  contrast  without  lajnng  sufficient 
stress  upon  the  possibility  of  varj^ing  conditions.  He  appears 
to  be  very  dissatisfied  with  the  different  estimates  of  cost  and 
profit  and  throws  those  of  the  Punjab  into  violent  contrast  with 
those  of  Bombay. 

Mr.  Abel  and  most  of  his  readers  know  that  Lahore  and 
Bombay  are  in  different  latitudes,  but  mere  latitude  cannot  pro- 
duce the  enormous  differences  of  climate  between  the  two.  His 
lack  of  access  to  official  literature  appears  also  to  have  again 
rather  led  him  astray.  In  one  case,  that  of  Bengal,  he  states 
that  it  is  possible  that  an  error  was  here  made  from  the  lack  of 
consideration  of  cost  of  labour. 


NOTES.  83 

He  quotes  {Louisiana  Planter,  Vol.  XLIII,  No.  3)  Mr. 
Banerjee's  remark  :  "  It  must  be  remembered  that  much  of  the 
labour  expended  both  in  cultivation  and  the  manufacture  of  (/no- 
is  sup[)lied  by  the  cultivator's  own  family,  and  the  net  profit  is, 
really,  therefore,  greater  than  these  figures  indicate."  He  ap- 
pears to  read  this  as  meaning  that  the  cost  of  labour  has  not 
been  included,  for  he  makes  the  remark  that  "  this  would  indicate 
that  Mr.  Banerjee  has  not  included  the  cost  at  its  selling  price 
of  the  labour  employed  in  growing  the  cane." 

It  is  difficult  to  understand  m  the  first  place  how  from 
Mr.  Banerjee's  words  this  inference  can  be  drawn,  and  in 
the  second  the  figures  published  by  Mr.  Banerjee  are  the 
total  of  a  carefully  compiled  table  (Departmental  Report  on 
Sugar-cane),  showing  every  item  of  expenditure  from  start  to 
finish. 

This  appears  to  be  the  only  instance  in  which  Mr.  Abel  has 
attempted  to  account  for  the  discrepancies  between  figures  in 
different  Provinces. 

As  regards  the  necessit}^  for  irrigation,  and  his  impression 
that  in  some  cases  excessive  water  is  used,  it  is  perhaps  certain 
that  the  cultivator  will  take  as  much  water  as  he  can,  knowing, 
as  he  does,  the  awful  ^'■early  Indian  drought  which  he  has  to 
face. 

It  is  a  pity,  however,  that  Mr.  Abel  has  not  given  specific 
examples  of  water-logging,  instead  of  merely  quoting  official 
figures  taken  by  him  from  Poona,  from  which  he  deduces  the  fact 
that  water  was  given  totalling  77 "5  inches,  to  which  he  adds  the 
IG  inches  yearly  rainfall,  making  a  total  of  93*5  inches. 

He  states  that  this  is  "  a  heavy  rainfall,  much  too  heavy  for 
a  clay  soil  even  if  fairly  well-drained." 

As  these  ficrures  from  Poona  toafether  with  some  from  Bara- 
iiiati  in  the  same  Province  are  the  only  ones  he  quotes,  we  are  led 
to  believe  that  these  are  the  most  striking  instances  of  the 
misuse  of  water.  It  is  possible  that  he  may  have  seen  water- 
logging, but,  if  so,  it  would  add  nmch  to  the  value  of  his  useful 
article,  if  he  quoted  the  instances. 


84  AGRICULTDRAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  I. 

Referrinof  to  this  excessive  use  of  water  he  states  that  "  this 
is  not  likely  to  occur  where  the  water  has  to  be  raised  from 
wells." 

Those  who  have  had  to  irrigate  by  means  of  wells  will  agree 
with  Mr.  Abel 

In  Patna  district  the  estimated  cost  of  irrigation  by  canal 
is  Ri?.  10-9-6  and  by  "mote"  (from  wells),  Rs.  18-0-0  per  acre, 
sufficient  argument  in  itself  to  uphold  the  cause  of  the  canal 
against  that  of  hand  irrigation.  It  is  possible  that  the  difference 
may  not  be  so  great  in  other  parts  of  India,  but  for  Bengal  at 
any  rate  there  is  no  doubt  of  the  saving  effected  by  the  great 
canal  systems. 

It  is  obvious  that  Mr.  Abel  had  no  intention  of  areruino-  from 
a  special  case,  and  accounts  are  given  by  him  of  agricultural 
practice  all  over  India  ;  but  the  limited  amount  of  time  and 
documents  at  his  disposal  do  not  appear  to  have  forced  upon  him 
the  main  difficulties  which  the  Indian  Sugar-cane  Industry  has  to 
face,  which  are  : — First — the  system  of  land  tenure  ;  Second — the 
lack  of  irrigation  ;  Third — the  intense  dryness  of  the  majority  of 
India  during  the  months  from  January  to  June  or  July 
which,  unless  one  has  experienced  it,  renders  almost  impossible 
any  attempts  to  give  an  idea  of  the  amount  of  irrigation  required 
in  figures  of  inches  of  water. 

The  amount  of  information  furnished  by  this  paper  is  enor- 
mous, and  the  work  done  by  Mr.  Abel  in  collecting  it  during  the 
few  months  in  which  he  was  in  India  was  colossal.  As  is  to 
be  expected,  however,  in  such  a  large  number  of  facts  it  is  difficult 
to  avoid  an  occasional  pitfall  and  almost  impossible  to  lay 
sufficient  stress  upon  the  one  or  two  points  that  are  in  all 
probability  of  primary  importance. 

As  an  account  the  article  is  excellent  ;  it  is  only  in  Mr. 
Abel's  criticisms  in  which  he  perhaps  fails,  from  an  insufficient 
supply  of  data. 

As  he  himself  says  (Louisiana  Planter  43,  No.  2,  page  29), 
in  connection  with  the  irrigation  problem,  "  many  conditions  are 
involved."     How  many  and  various  these  conditions  are,  can  only 


NOTES.  85 

be  o-athererl  even  in  one  Province  by  a  lengthy  residence  on  the 
spot,  and  in  a  tour  of  only  four  months  one  can  hardly  do  more 
than  touch  their  fringe. — (C.  Somers-Taylor). 

»  « 
Potatoes  in  Upper  Burma. — An  enquiry  as  to  the  origin  of 
the  potatoes  exhibited  for  sale  in  most  of  the  large  bazaars  of 
Upper  as  well  as  of  Lower  Burma  will  reveal  the  fact  that  only  a 
small  proportion  of  the  potatoes  consumed  are  the  produce  of 
this  countrj^  Many  are  imported  from  Calcutta  or  from  Europe — 
the  so-called  "  Calcutta  "  potato  is  generally  the  produce  of  Italy 
or  some  other  European  country  ;  a  fair  proportion  of  marketable 
produce  comes  down  from  the  Shan  States,  and  the  remainder  is 
produced  in  Burma  proper.  In  no  part  of  the  country  is  the 
potato  extensively  grown  as  a  field  crop,  but  it  has  reached  the 
stage  of  an  important  garden  crop,  the  cultivation  of  which  is 
in  some  parts  gradually  extending  to  field  areas.  On  the  islands 
and  inundated  lands  of  the  upper  reaches  of  the  Irrawady,  for 
example,  the  potato  crop  is  a  regular  one  in  the  hands  of  many 
cultivators.  This  is  particularly  the  case  in  the  Bharao  and 
Katha  districts,  where  the  cultivation  was  probably  started  by 
the  Shan  inhabitants,  who  still  hold  a  large  share  of  the  land 
under  this  crop.  The  Shan,  who  is  usually  a  better  gardener 
than  the  Burman,  and  bestows  more  care  on  his  crops,  evidently 
recognised  the  value  of  these  inundated  lands  for  growing  potatoes, 
and  was  the  first  to  commence  their  cultivation.  But  the 
Burman  is  an  apt  pupil  when  he  finds  it  is  to  his  advantage,  and 
especially  in  the  Bhamo  district,  he  is  rapidly  following  suit — so 
much  so  that  were  it  not  for  the  difficulties  and  heavy  expense  of 
transport  the  markets  of  Burma  might  befo'^e  long  be  filled  witli 
the  "Bhamo"  potato  instead  of  the  imported  article. 

Varieties. — In  the  Bhamo  district  the  following  eight 
varieties  are  easily  recognisable,  and  some  or  all  of  these  are  cul- 
tivated to  a  small  extent  alonor  the  river  at  least  to   the  southern 

o 

borders  of  the  Mandalay  district. 

The  cultivators  only  distinguish  three  or  four  varieties  by 
means    of  the  colour  of  the  skin  and  the  size  of  the  potatoes.     In 


86  AGRICDLTURAL   JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   I. 

some  cases  two  or  even  three  varieties  were  found  mixed  together 
under  one  local  name.  For  the  purpose  of  convenience  in  classi- 
fication these  varieties  are  distinguished  l:>y  numbers  and  have 
been  divided  into  (1)  white-skinned  and  (2)  red-skinned 
varieties;  and  each  of  these  divisions  may  be  again  divided  into 
(a)  round  and  (h)  oval  or  kidney-shaped  varieties,  and  so  on. 

No.  1.  A  white-skinned  variety  of  medium  size  and  very 
regular  oval  shape,  v/ith  a  rough  skin  and  very  shallow  eyes 
closely  clustered  near  the  "  bud  "  end  of  the  potato.  The  Hesh  is 
white  and  of  excellent  quality 

No.  2.  A  white-skinned  variety  of  large  size  and  elongated 
oval  shape  ;  the  skin  is  rough  (especially  in  patches),  and  the 
eyes  are  not  deep,  but  not  so  shallow  as  in  No.  1,  and  they  are 
often  distributed  throughout  the  whole  length  of  the  tuber.  The 
flesh  is  white  and  the  quality  very  good. 

No.  3.  A  white-skinned  variety  of  large  size,  elongated  oval 
shape  and  irregular  outline  with  prominences  bearing  dense 
clusters  of  eyes.  The  skin  is  usually  very  rough  in  patches  and 
the  eyes  are  shallow  but  densely  clustered  on  the  end  and  on  the 
lateral  prominences  of  the  potato.  FJesh  white  or  slightly 
yellowish  in  colour  and  of  good  (luality,  though  somewhat  coarse 
and  not  equal  to  Nos.  1  and  2. 

No.  4.  A  white  skinned  variety  of  large  size  and  round  shape, 
outline  not  very  regular.  The  skin  is  smooth  and  the  eyes  very 
deep.  The  flesh  is  yellow  and  not  of  very  good  qualit}^  being- 
hard  and  waxy  when  boiled. 

No.  5.  Very  small  potatoes  called  by  the  cultivators 
"Shan"  potatoes,  mostly  round  in  shape  and  rough  skinned. 
The  flesh  may  be  white  or  yellow.  These  potatoes  appear 
to  be  a  mixture  of  the  "  chats "  or  small  potatoes  of  the 
preceding  white  varieties,  and  are  sold  at  a  little  over  half  the 
price  of  the  larger  ones. 

No.  6.  A  red-skinned  variety  of  fairly  large  size  and  some- 
what irregular  oval  shape.  The  skin  is  smooth  and  the  eyes  are 
not  deep.  The  flesh  is  white  streaked  with  pink  and  of  very  good 
quality  when  boiled. 


PLATE   II. 


Xo.  1. 


No.  2. 


/<??    :- 


■fXtt-  »^- 


* 


^ 


'0 

™5» 


/. 


.1.  ./.  /. 


No.  3. 


PLATE   III. 


V 


» 


No. 


«0 


No    4. 


No.  5b. 


^P 


i 


A.J.  1. 


No.  (). 


PLATE    IV. 


No.  7. 


^ 


A.  J.  I. 


No.  8. 


NOTES, 


87 


No.  7.  A  variety  with  a  reel  skin,  of  medium  size  and  oval 
shape,  skin  smooth  and  eyes  of  moderate  depth,  the  flesh  is  white, 
sometimes  slightly  yellowish,  and  the  quality  is  good. 

No.  8.  A  round  red-skinned  variety  with  very  deep  eyes. 
The  tubers  are  of  fair  size  only,  and  the  flesh  white  to  slightly 
yellowish  in  colour.     When  boiled  the  quality  is  good. 

Cultivation  is  generally  very  simple  and  takes  place  only  in 
the  cold  weather — except  in  some  parts  of  the  hills  where  it  is 
cold  enough  for  the  successful  cultivation  of  potatoes  during  the 
rains.     The  chief  methods  are  shortly  as  described  below  : — 

I.  On  Inundated  Lands. — Though  the  islands  and  low-lying 
lands  along  the  banks  of  the  Irrawady  River,  which  are  annually 
inundated  during  the  rainy  season,  are,  generally  speaking,  well 
suited  for  the  cultivation  of  potatoes  and  other  vegetables,  there 
still  remain  large  uncultivated  tracts.  The  soil  is  either  sandy  or 
of  a  very  light  loamy  nature  and  very  easy  to  cultivate.  In 
many  places  where  the  water  does  not  flow  rapidly  over  the  land, 
but  simply  rises  and  falls  gradually,  deposits  of  fine  silt  or  mud 
are  often  left  behind  ;  and  apart  from  these  deposits  manure  is 
seldom  used,  except  near  the  villages  where  a  little  cowdung  or 
sweepings  may  be  applied  before  ploughing.  As  soon  as  the 
water  leaves  the  land,  usually  about  the  beginning  of  October, 
cultivation  is  commenced.  The  land  is  ploughed  once  with  the 
"  hte  "  and  harrowed  with  the  "  htuii  "  two  or  three  times  until  it 
is  cleared  of  weeds  and  a  fine  tilth  secured.  Sometimes  it  is  only 
harrowed.  The  sets  are  usually  planted  whole  and  in  rows  by 
being  placed  in  holes  made  to  a  depth  of  4  or  5  inches  at  a 
distance  apart  of  one  cubit  {i.e.,  about  15  to  18  inches).  The 
distance  apart  of  the  rows  is  also  about  15  inches  and  the  holes 
are  made  by  hand  by  the  aid  of  the  "  paukpya  "  or  '*  mamootie," 
the  "  tuywin  "  (spade),  a  stick  or  any  convenient  implement. 
No  drills  are  raised,  and  after  dropping  the  sets  the  holes  ai-e 
filled  in  with  earth.  Very  little  choice  of  sets  is  made,  except 
that,  as  a  rule,  the  very  small  ones  are  discarded,  and  cut  sets  are 
said  to  decay  rapidly  instead  of  sprouting.  As  soon  as  the 
shoots  appear  above   ground,  hoeing   is   done  between   the    rows 


88  AGRICULTDRAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   I. 

and  is  repeated  two  or  three  times  during  growth.  At  each 
hoeing  the  loose  soil  from  between  the  rows  is  heaped  up  slightly 
around  the  plants.  Irrigation  is  not  generally  carried  out  and 
the  crop  is  ripe  in  about  four  months  aftei-  planting.  When  the 
haulms  have  assumed  a  yellow  colour  and  before  the}?^  are  com- 
pletely dead,  the  potatoes  are  dug  up  by  hand. 

II.  On  the  higher  lands  they  are,  as  a  rule,  grown  in  gardens 
only  and  often  receive  a  little  manure  in  form  of  cattle  dung, 
village  scrapings,  etc.  They  are  planted  out  at  the  end  of  the 
i-ain}^  season  and  cultivated  in  a  way  similar  to  that  described 
above. 

III.  Oil  the  liifl.s  they  are  also  cultivated  as  a  garden  crop 
and  receive  a  good  supply  of  cattle  manure.  Though  usually 
a  cold  weather  crop,  in  the  higher  Kachin  Hills  they  were  seen 
ofrowinof  in  the  warm  weather,  havino^  been  planted  about  the 
beginning  of  March.  They  were  not  planted  in  rows  but 
irregularly  at  distances  of  about  1 8  inches  apart.  The  transport 
difficulties  from  these  hills  prohibit  the  growth  of  potatoes  for 
export  to  Burman  nmrkets. 

Rotations. — With  garden  crops  definite  rotations  are  rarely 
followed,  but  potatoes  are  often  seen  growing  mixed  with  oil- 
seeds and  vegetables — particularly  cucumbers  of  various  kinds. 
On  the  river  lands  they  may  be  rotated  with  a  grain  crop  or  with 
sessamum,  but  generally  they  are  grown  together  with  vegetables, 
and  as  unoccupied  land  is  usually  abundant,  the  cultivator  takes 
only  a  few  crops  in  succession  before  leaving  his  land  fallow. 
During  flood  time  also  the  lands  here  are  constantly  being  washed 
away  and  new  lands  formed. 

Outturn. — The  figures  obtained  are  somewhat  confusinor  and 
probably  not  very  reliable,  but  the  outturn  is  nowhere  very  large — 
not  more  than  four  or  five  tons  per  acre  in  the  best  places. 
The  yield  is  often  very  considerably  reduced  by  the  attacks  of 
Potato  disease  (Phyto[)hthora),  which  appears  to  be  very  common. 

Prices. — A.t  Bhamo  the  prices  run  from  anna  one  to  a  little 
over  annas  two  per  viss  (3G5  lbs.).  The  higher  price  was  paid  for 
the  best  of  the  large  varieties  and  the  lower  for  the  small  "  Shan  " 


KOTES.  8§ 

varieties.  In  Mandalay  the  average  prices  per  viss  may  be  taken 
as  follows  : — 

Best  Calcutta  potatoes  ...  ...  ...  4  to  i-h  annas. 

Large  Burmese  or  Shan  ...  ...  ...  4  annas. 

Medium     do.         do.  ...  ...  ...  3  anna.s. 

Small  "  Shan  "  potatoes  ...  ...  ...  2  to  2^  annas. 

At  these  prices  it  is  quite  probable  that  the  increase  in  area 
under  potato  cultivation  in  Upper  Burma  will  continue,  and  as 
the  quality  of  some  of  the  large  varieties  is  quite  equal  to  the 
best  imported  potatoes,  there  is  no  reason  why  the  supply  for 
our  chief  markets  should  not  be  grown  in  this  country. — 
(E.  Thompstone). 


REVIEV^S. 


Pkinciples  and  Practical  methods  of  curing  tobacco  by  W.  W. 

Garner,    Bull.    143,    Bureau    of    Plant  Industry,    U.  S. 

Department  of  Agriculture,  February,   1909. 

During  recent  j^ears  the  study  of  the  many  aspects  of  the 
production  and  curing  of  tobacco  in  the  United  States  has 
engaged  the  increasing  attention  of  the  Bureau  of  Plant  Industry 
at  Washington.  At  the  present  time  no  less  than  sixteen 
members  of  the  scientific  staff  of  this  section  are  working  on  the 
improvement  of  tobacco.  The  results  so  far  obtained  are  said 
to  have  attracted  considerable  attention  on  the  part  of  practical 
men  and  a  good  deal  of  the  work  appears  to  be  carried  on  in 
co-operation  with  the  growers.  The  present  bulletin  deals  with 
two  main  subjects.  In  the  first  place,  attention  is  devoted  to  a 
populaj  exposition  of  the  scientific  principles  underlying  the 
various  curing  processes,  while  the  second  part  of  the  paper 
consists  of  an  illustrated  account  of  the  practical  methods  of 
curing  as  a{)p]ied  to  the  various  t^'pes  of  tobacco  grown  in  the 
United  States,  such  as  cigar,  barley,  yellow  and  heavy  export 
tobaccos.  This  bulletin  is  perhaps  the  best  summary  of  a  many- 
sided  subject  which  so  far  has  been  written  and  will  no  doubt 
be  read  with  interest  by  all  engaged  in  the  improvement  of  the 
tobacco  crop  in  India. — (A.   Howard). 

Second  and  Third  Annual  Reports  of  the  Committee  oy 
CoMKOL  of  the  South  African  Central  Locust  Bureau, 
1908-1909. 

In    a    previous  issue  (Vol.   IV,  Part  3)  we  noticed  the  work 
oi     tlie  Locust  Bureau  as  detailed  in  its  first  annual  report.     We 


REVJEWS.  91 

have  now  the  Reports  for  the  whole  period  1907  to  1009, 
prepared  b}^  C.  Fuller  and  C.  P.  Loiinsbuiy.  The  Bureau 
has  settled  down  to  practically  two  functions  :  the  first  is  the 
collection  of  all  data  regarding  the  occurrence  and  movements  of 
Locusts  in  the  Cape  Colony,  Natal,  Transvaal,  Orange  River 
Colonj^  Southern  Rhodesia,  Bechuanaland  Protectorate,  Basuto- 
Jand,  Swaziland,  Mozambique  and  German  South  West  Africa, 
with  the  issue  of  warnings  to  all  these  areas  ;  the  second  is  the 
o-athering  together  of  reports  of  the  action  taken  in  each  area 
by  the  several  Governments  concerned,  and  the  communication 
of  these  to  the  others.  It  is  a  co-ordinating  bureau,  with  no 
powers  of  control,  jointly  maintained  by  all  the  Colonies 
which  benefit. 

Two  kinds  of  locusts  are  concerned,  one  essentially  a  desert 
species  which  breeds  in  arid  sandy  areas  and  thence  flies  out  in 
swarms,  the  other  dependent  upon  moister  conditions.  The 
first  is  normally  an  inland  species,  starting  from  the  Kalihari 
Desert,  the  other  a  Coastal  species,  originating  in  the  moister 
areas  near  the  sea ;  the  period  of  life  in  both  is  normalljT-  one 
year,  but  the  eggs  of  the  first,  if  not  slightly  moistened,  retain 
vitality  for  years  and  hatch  out  when  rain  falls.  This  complicates 
the  problem  and  as  both  species,  when  abundant,  fiy  over  long 
distances,  the  necessity  of  a  joint  "Intelligence  Bureau"  is 
fully  shown. 

In  1907-1908  a  sum  of  about  Rs.  6,00,000  was  spent  in  the 
whole  area,  and  this  is  estimated  to  be  about  one  per  cent,  of 
the  damage  that  the  destro3'ed  locusts  would  have  caused  had 
the  work  not  been  done.  A  feature  of  the  year  was  the 
extraordinary  destruction  of  the  eggs  by  parasites  ("  which 
destroj'ed  quite  two-thirds  of  those  laid  ')  in  Natal  and  the 
amount  of  good  done  by  locust-eating  birds  generally.  In  this 
connection  it  is  worth  note  that,  at  a  full  meeting  of  the  Committee, 
it  was  unanimously  resolved  that  it  was  impracticable  to  increase 
the  efficienc}'^  of  the  insect,  fungus  and  other  natural  enemies  of 
locusts  in  South  Africa,  beyond  affording  j)rotection  to  the 
birds  and  small  animals  that  destroy  them,  and  also  that  if  icould 


92  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  I. 

do  no  rjood  to  import  parasites  or  other  enemies  from  over-sea 
countries.  This  is  the  definite  opinion  of  a  gathering  of  practical 
and  experienced  agricultural  entomologists. 

Generally  speaking,  one  standard  method  has  been  adopted, 
the  application  of  a  strong  arsenical  solution,  sweetened,  to  th^ 
vegetation  that  the  hoppers  will  eat.  In  some  cases  the  materials 
are  provided  by  Government,  in  others  legislation  enforces  the 
use  of  the  method.  Longer  experience  of  this  method  is 
emphasizing  the  danger  of  Stock-poisoning,  cattle  getting  Hccess 
to  the  poisoned  vegetation,  but  this  is  a  very  small  item  of  loss 
which  is  expected  to  disappear  with  practice. 

The  1908-1909  report  shows  that  the  poisoning  method 
remained  in  force  and  that  the  value  of  another  method,  where  it 
was  practical,  had  become  established  ;  this  was  to  drive  the 
hoppers  into  dry  grass  and  burn  it.  The  report  states  "  of  such 
high  importance  is  the  last-mentioned  measure,  that  whenever 
feasible,  patches  of  old  grass  should  be  preserved  for  the  purpose 
when  an  appearance  of  voetgangers  (hoppers)  is  anticipated," 
An  improvement  made  in  the  poisoning  was  to  issue  a  con- 
centrated sweet  arsenical  solution,  rather  than  to  issue  the  white 
arsenic,  soda,  and  sugar  to  prepare  it  on  the  spot. 

Three  j'ears  of  experience  of  this  method  since  the  Locust 
Bureau  was  started  has  not  materially  modified  it  and  the  Bureau 
are  to  be  congratulated  on  having  a  reliable  method  for  extermin- 
ating locusts  and  upon  the  extremely  useful  nature  of  the 
work  the}^  are  doing. — (H.   jVE.   Lefroy). 


IjKGUME  Bacteria. — A  very  interesting  pamphlet  on  this 
subject  by  Drs.  Edwards  and  Barlow  is  published  as  Bulletin 
No.  169  of  the  Ontario  Department  of  Agriculture.  Work  on 
the  isolation,  cultivation,  and  preservation  of  nodule  bacteria 
from  various  leguminous  plants  has  been  in  progress  in  the  bac- 
teriological department  of  the  Ontario  Agricultural  College  for 
more  than  five  years  and  in  previous  publications  (Centrallblatt 
fliv  Bakteriologie,   II  Abt.,  Vol.  19,   1907),  the  results  obtained 


REVIEWS.  93 

up  to  1  90G  have  already  been  summarised.  Au  account  was  given 
of  the  isolation  of  B.  radicicola  from  14  different  species  of 
leo-ume  belonofino-  to  four  different  genera  and  the  media  which 
had  been  found  most  suitable  for  their  cultivation  were  described. 
In  the  present  publication  the  isolation  of  the  organism  from 
12  further  species,  and  eKperiments  with  modified  media  are 
recorded.  It  is  found  that  for  general  purposes  media  of  the 
following  composition  give  the  most  satisfactory  results  : — 

Water  ...  ...  ...  ...  100  parts. 

*  Ash    ...  ...  ...  ...  •••  4  to  1  part. 

Maltose  ...  ...  ...  ...  4  to  1     „ 

Agar  ...  ...  ...  •••         '4  to  15 „ 

It  is  found  that  dextrose,  mannite,  and  amygdalin  can 
advantageously  replace  maltose  in  solid  media,  but  the  substitu- 
tion of  asparagin  or  inulin  leads  to  very  scanty  growth,  and  that 
of  levulose  to  complete  inhibition.  In  liquid  media  maltose 
appears  to  be  the  best  of  a  number  of  sugars  tried,  and  levulose 
prevents  growth  altogether  just  as  it  does  in  solid  media. 

Since  1905,  the  Ontario  Department  of  Agriculture  has  been 
distributingf  cultures  of  various  nodule  bacteria  on  an  ash-suo^ar- 
agar  medium  to  farmers  for  the  inoculation  of  crops.  In  this 
connection  an  account  of  a  series  of  experiments,  which  is  in 
progress,  on  the  vitality  of  the  bacteria  in  cultivation  on  this 
medium  and  on  seeds  after  inoculation  with  the  culture  is  most 
welcome.  Investigations  on  these  points,  which  are  fundamental 
to  any  possibility  of  the  distribution  of  cultures  for  inoculation 
being  a  practical  success,  have  been  conspicuous  by  their  absence 
in  the  many  publications  on  the  subject  which  have  recently  been 
issued.  The  Ontario  observers  show  that  cultures  on  their 
medium  have  remained  alive  for  well  over  a  year  in  nearly  every 
case  and,  in  some  instances,  for  two,  or  even  three,  years,  and 
that  a  considerable  number  of  the  bacteria  remain  alive  on  the 
seed,  after  inoculation  and  drying,  for  periods  up  to  13  days. 
Furthermore  they  have  satisfied   themselves  that  the  inoculated 

*  Tlie  ashes  from  maple  or  mixed  beech  and   maple,    from  elm,  and  from   tamarisk,    were 
useit  with  equally  favourable  results. 


94  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  I- 

seed  sown  bv  the  farmers  to  whom  the  inoculatinof  material  was 
sent  did  actually  bear  living  bacteria  by  collecting  samples  of  it 
from  a  large  number  of  them  and  finding  living  bacteria  in  con- 
siderable numbers  still  present. 

So  far  this  is  all  very  satisfactory  ;  but  what  one  feels  is 
lacking  in  the  Ontario  experiments,  as  in  most  others  which  have 
been  carried  out  on  the  same  plan  in  other  parts  of  the  world,  is 
sufficiently  satisfactory  evidence  that  any  benefit  has  actually 
been  derived  from  inoculation.  During  the  four  years  1905-1908, 
3,106  cultures  were  issued  to  farmers;  of  these  only  1,012  (or 
about  32-6  %)  sent  in  reports  to  the  Agricultural  Department 
and  only  627  (or  about  20%)  recorded  successes.  Now,  dis- 
regarding the  probability  that  a  farmer  would  more  readily  send 
in  a  report  if  he  had  to  record  a  success  than  a  failure,  let  us 
assume  that  the  same  proportion  of  those  who  did  not  report, 
obtained  successful  results  as  of  those  who  did  so.  On  this 
assumption  we  conclude  that,  out  of  3,106  cultures  issued  1,309 
(or  about  42%)  led  to  positive  results  ;  a  very  small  proportion  if 
we  are  to  believe  that  inoculation  is  likely  to  be  of  anything 
like  universal  benefit  and  that  the  experiments  were  accurately 
carried  out  and  recorded.  But  in  this  latter  reservation  lies  the 
whole  difficulty  of  the  case.  The  appeal  to  the  practical  man  is 
the  order  of  the  day  in  agricultural  experiments,  and,  naturally, 
the  ultimate  verdict  as  to  the  value  of  any  new  practice  intro- 
duced into  agriculture  by  science  must  rest  with  such  appeal ;  but 
it  is,  to  say  the  least  of  it,  extremely  doubtful  whether  the  appeal 
should  be  made  until  very  searching  practical  tests  have  been 
carried  out  by  fully  qualified  investigators.  The  difficulties  of 
carrying  out  comparative  experiments  in  agriculture  accurately 
arg  so  great  that,  in  a  matter  of  the  sort  we  are  dealing  with,  the 
results  recorded  by  farmers  are  not  likely  to  be  worth  much,  and 
we  should  have  welcomed  some  figures  bearing  on  the  practical 
application  of  the  cultures  derived  from  experiments  carried  out 
by  Drs.  Edwards  and  Barlow  themselves.  It  may  be  that  some 
special  advantage  attaches  to  their  method  of  preparing  and 
preserving  their  cultures.     Cultures  prepared  and  preserved  in 


REVIEWS.  95 

different  ways  have  not,  so  far,  given  anything  Hke  uniform!}'' 
satisfactory  results  in  the  hands  of  competent  investigators  in 
other  countries,  and  we  should  have  liked  to  see  some  reall}' 
reliable  evidence  of  the  relative  value  of  the  Ontario  prepara- 
tions from  the  practical  standpoint. — (C.  Bergtheil). 


THE  FURLOUGH  WANDERINGS  OF  A  DIREC- 
TOR OF  AGRICULTURE.   * 

By  J.  MacKENNA,  ma.,    i.c.s., 
Director  of  AgriciiUiire,  Burma. 

3. — Holmes  Farm,  Kilmarnock. 

The  Holmes  Farm,  Kilmarnock,  is  the  Experiment  Station 
of  the  West  of  Scotland  Agricultural  College.  It  was  the  first, 
and,  I  believe,  is  still  the  only  Experiment  Station  attached  to 
an  Agricultural  College,  north  of  the  Tweed.  The  College  of 
Agriculture  has  its  local  habitation  in  Blythswood  Square  in  the 
City  of  Glasgow,  but,  for  obvious  reasons,  it  is  necessary  to  go 
some  distance  out  of  the  second  city  in  the  empire  to  get  land 
suitable  for  an  Experiment  Station.  The  farm,  accordingl}^,  is 
situated  about  a  mile  from  the  railway  station,  on  the  outskirts 
of  Kilmarnock — a  prosperous  little  town,  some  half  hour's  journey 
from  Glasgow  on  the  Glasgow  and  South-Western  Railway, 
amongst  surroundinojs  which  have  a  considerable  affinity  with  the 
agricultural  conditions  prevailing  in  the  South-Western  Counties 
of  Scotland  which  the  College  makes  it  its  aim  to  serve.  It 
may  be  remarked  that,  since  a  visit  to  Canada,  Principal  Wright 
has  given  it  as  his  opinion  that  an  Agricultural  College  and  the 
farm  should  always  be  together,  so  that  it  is  not  improbable  that 
this  arrangement  may,  sooner  or  later,  be  adopted. 

I  hope  readers  will  l)e  indulgent  should  this  article  go  into 
too  great  detail  or  run  to  inordinate  length  and  will  lemember 
that,  in  this  "Wandering"  my  foot  is  on  my  "native  heath,  " 
and  T  am  writing  of  my  agricultural  "  Alma  Mater." 

While    Glasgow   cannot    claim  rtink  among  the  older  schools 


*  Continued  from  Vol.  IV,  Part  III,  p.  232. 


D8  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   11. 

of  Agriculture,  it  certainly  is  a  remarkable  example  of  healthy 
vigorous  growth.  With  Edinburgh  University  rests  the  honour 
of  being  associated  with  the  oldest  definite  professorship  of 
Agriculture  not  only  in  Scotland  but  in  the  United  Kingdom. 
History  records  that  on  July  7th,  1790,  Sir  William  Pulteney 
endowed  a  chair  of  Agriculture  and  Rural  Economy  with  £50  a 
year  in  Edinburgh  University  :  the  first  incumbent  being  thus 
£10  a  year  better  off  than  Goldsmith's  impecunious  parson.  For 
many  years  Edinburgh  was  the  only  place  in  Scotland  where,  by 
attendance  at  the  University  lectures  on  Agriculture  and  allied 
subjects,  a  theoretical  training  in  Agricultural  Science  could  be 
obtained  :  but  the  whole  policy  of  Scotch  Agricultural  Education 
has  been  diverted  and  broadened  by  the  recognition  of  three 
distinct  and  separate  Agricultural  Colleges  in  Edinburgh, 
Glasgow  and  Aberdeen.  Thus,  instead  of  a  vague  and  arbitrary 
course  of  study— detached  University  lectures  and  indefinite 
Laboratory  work  —  tlie  student  can  apply  himself  at  once  to  a 
full  and  systeinatised  course  of  study  bearing  directly  on  the 
main  subject  of  Agriculture. 

The  hist(->ry  of  the  giDwth  of  the  Glasgow  College  is  not 
without  interest.  Originally  Agriculture  was  simply  an  extra 
subject  attached  to  the  chair  of  Chemistry  in  the  Glasgow  and 
West  of  Scotland  Technical  College.  To  cope  with  this  side  of 
his  subject  the  Profess(>r  of  Cheniistry  enlisted  the  aid  of  a 
lecturer  in  Agriculture  with  more  practical  knowledge  of  the 
subject  than  he  himself  could  be  exj^ected  to  have.  Rapidly  this 
child  of  the  cliair  of  Chemistry  waxed  strong  :  interest  in  the 
subject  of  Agriculture  increased  :  the  scope  of  the  course  of 
lectures  was  extended  and,  before  long,  the  Agricultural  section 
could  stand  on  its  own  legs.  Eventually  a  separate  Lecturership, 
later  a  Professorship  of  Agriculture  was  instituted,  and  this 
central  chair,  with  its  cognate  lectureships  in  Botany  and 
Chemistry  and  its  ramifications  of  county  lectures  and  demon- 
strations formed  the  material  from  which,  in  1899,  w'as  evolved 
the  West  of  Scotland  Agricultural  College.  That  the  ground 
work   and   the  foundation    had  been    well   and  truly  laid  by  the 


Eh 


THE    FURLOUGH    WANDEKIXriS  :    MACKENXA.  99 

Glasgow  Technical  College  may  be  ii)fen-ed  from  the  large 
measure  of  autonomy  given  by  the  Scotch  Education  Department 
as  expressed  in  their  circular  of  1901  : — "  My  Lords  are  of  opinion 
that  any  scheme  of  technical  education  \v(juld  be  incomplete  which 
did  not' provide  instruction  of  the  very  highest  kind  in  applied 
science  and  art  to  selected  students  who  will  devote  their  whole 
time  to  study.  They  think,  therefore,  that  a  further  differentiation 
of  institutions  is  necessary  and  that,  instead  of  all  alike  being 
subjected  to  the  same  set  of  regulations,  as  has  been  hitherto 
done,  a  few  which  have  had  an  outstanding  record  of  success  in 
the  past,  which  are  well  staffed  and  well  equipped  for  a  consider- 
able variety  of  work,  and  which  are  situated  at  the  natural 
centres  of  population  for  large  areas,  may  be  allowed  to  proceed 
upon  lines  of  their  own  in  the  hope  that  they  may  develop  into 
institutions  worth}'  to  rank,  not  in  the  number  of  students,  but  in 
quality  and  advancement  of  work,  with  the  best  of  their  kind  in 
any  other  country.  It  is  from  such  institutions,  and  the 
opportunities  of  research  and  discovery  which  they  will  naturally 
afford,  that  decisive  advantage  to  the  industries  of  the  country,  in 
so  far  as  that  is  dependent  on  educational  arrangements,  is  to  be 
looked  for." 

Of  the  three  Agricultural  Colleges — one  for  the  North  at 
Aberdeen,  one  for  the  East  at  Edinburgh,  one  for  the  South- 
West  at  Glasgow — the  West  of  Scotland  Agricultural  College  is 
by  no  means  the  least.  The  nurse,  through  all  its  infancv,  was 
the  present  Principal  of  the  College — Professor  R.  P.  Wright— and 
he  has  now  got  around  him  a  staff  which  will  conipare  favourably 
with  that  of  any  similar  institution  in  Great  Britain.  The 
Botanist  is  Professor  A.  N.  McAlpine  who,  as  a  Teacher  of 
Botan}',  has  few^  equals.  He  has  a  style  of  his  own,  his  fund 
of  pawky  humour  is  inexhaustible,  and  you  recover  from  a  tit  of 
unrestrained  laughter  to  find  that  you  have  abscn'bed  a  great 
botanical  fact.  His  method  of  teachinof  is  of  the  raciest  and  most 
original  type  ;  but  it  is  equally  effective  in  impressing  botanical 
facts  whether  he  be  teachins:  on  the  most  abstruse  branches  of 
plant  physiology  to  an  advanced  class  of  students  or  descanting  on 


\0Q  AGKICULTUllAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   II. 

the    coininon    grasses  to    a   farmer's  class  practically  untrained  in 
science  of  any  kind. 

Chemistry  is  taught  by  Professor  R.  A.  Berry  who,  before 
he  came  to  Glasgow,  was  an  assistant  in  Cambridge  where  he 
did  some  oood  woik  in  collaboration  with  Professor  T.  B.  Wood. 
The.se  Professors  are  all  supplied  with  assistants  and  there  is  a 
strong  staff  of  lecturers  (employed  both  in  the  College  and  in 
Extension  and  County  work)  dealing  with  Agriculture  and 
Dairying,  Agricultural  Zoology,  Bacteriology,  Book-Keeping, 
Agricultural  Engineering,  Surveying,  Agricultural  Law,  Geology, 
Poultry  and  Bees,  Horticulture,  and  Bacon-curing.  Veterinary 
Science  is  taught  by  the  venerable  Principal  McCall  of  the 
Glasgow  Veterinary  College  and  his  assistants,  while  Forestry  is 
in  the  hands  of  Dr.  John  Nisbet,  late  a  distinguished  officer  of 
the  Indian  Forest  Service  who  retired  as  a  Conservator  from 
Burma  some  years  ago.  His  position  in  the  world  of  Forestiy — - 
especially  Indian  Forestry — is  well  known  and  his  appointment 
has,  undoubtedly,  been  a  great  access  of  strength  to  the  College. 
It  will  thus  be  seen  that  the  equipment  of  the  College  is  just 
about  as  complete  as  it  can  be  :  the  only  subject  connected  with 
the  degree  of  B.  Se.  which  is  not  taught  in  the  College  ibself 
being^Political  P]c()nomy.  This  with  general  pure  science — i.e., 
Chemistiy,  Botany  and  Physics — is  obtained  in  the  University 
of  Glasorow. 

o 

The  constitution  of  the  Governing  Body  of  the  College  is 
representative  of  the  many-sided  nature  of  its  work.  The  close 
link  Ijetween  the  College  and  the  counties  for  whom  it  is  expect- 
ed, especially,  to  cater  is  emphasised  by  the  large  number  of 
rei)resentatives  oi'  County  Councils  who  find  a  place  on  the 
Board.  Old  ties  are  kept  up  by  the  presence,  on  the  Board  of 
Control,  of  representatives  from  the  Glasijow  Technical  Colleoe 
and  the  old  Dairy  School  at  Kilmarnock.  Two  representatives 
of  the  University  of  Glasgow  give  it  the  glamour  of  that  ancient 
seat  of  learning,  while  two  representatives  from  the  Highland  and 
Agricultural  Society  of  Scotland  guarantee  for  it  its  national 
character. 


THE    FURLOUGIT    WANDERINGS  :    MACKENNA.  101 

The  student  who  o-ets  his  first  introduction  to  the  Colleore 
through  its  Calendar  will  be  struck  with  the  number  of  degrees 
and  diplomas  which  are  within  the  reach  of  his  attainment.  In 
Agriculture,  the  ultimate  goal,  if  he  is  wise,  will  be  the  Bachelor  of 
Science  in  Agriculture  of  Glasgow  University  and  the  National 
Diploma  in  Agriculture  conferred  by  a  Joint  Board  of  the  Highland 
and  Agricultural  Society  of  Scotland  and  the  Royal  Agricultural 
Society  of  England.  But,  as  he  is  working  to  these  ultimate  ends, 
he  can  obtain,  first  of  all,  the  Associateship  in  Agriculture  of 
the  CoUeofe  and,  as  ho  is  nearinof  tho  fiid  of  his  full  course,  the 
College  Diploma  ill  Agriculture  (C.  D.  A.)  (Glas.):  while  a  student 
who  has  shown  distinction  in  this  diploma  competition  and  has 
aecjuitted  himself  well  in  the  B.  Sc.  and  N.  J^.  A.  courses  is 
almost  certain  to  continue  his  research  and  obtain  the  Fellowship 
of  the  Aoricultural  Colleoe.  Incidentallv,  during  his  aoricultural 
course,  he  may  take  the  Associateship  or  Fellowship  of  the 
Sui-veyor's  Institute. 

The  Associateship  of  the  College  can  be  taken  in  two  winter 
sessions,  the  Diploma  takes  three  sessions  and  is,  therefore,  a  more 
complete  qualification.  It  is  ordinarily  taken  by  students  who 
do  not  wish  to  enter  the  public  examinations  for  the  National 
Diploma  or  the  B.   Sc.  degree. 

In  addition  to  the  diplomas  and  degrees  in  pure  Agriculture, 
a  College  Diploma  is  given  in  Dairying,  and  a  large  number  of 
students  of  the  College  take  the  National  Di[)loma  in  Dairying. 
The  College  also  gives  a  course  which  enables  students  who  desire 
it  to  take  the  Highland  and  Agricultural  Society's  Certificate  in 
Forestry. 

The  above-mentioned  courses  of  instruction  form  what  might 
be  called  the  routine  work  of  any  Agricultural  College  which  pre- 
tends to  full  equipment.  But,  in  addition  to  these  orthodox 
courses,  there  are  a  number  of  subsidiary  courses  which  are  worthy 
of  mention  and  which  indicate  the  living  and  close  relation  which 
exists  between  the  College  and  the  ijeneral  interests  of  the  com- 
munit}'  in  which  it  labours.  For  instance,  to  meet  the  modern 
tlemand  for  Nature    Study   and    School    Gardening    (which  were 


102  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OP    INDIA.  [V,  II. 

things  undreamt  of  a  few  yeRYS  ago)  courses  of  practical  instruc- 
tion are  given  at  Kilmarnock  to  Glasgow  Normal  Students  during 
their  normal  course  :  while  for  teachers  already  employed,  short 
holiday  courses  are  arranged.  It  is  hoped  that  this  training  will 
qualify  the  teachers  to  give  instruction  in  School  Gardening. 
Each  member  of  the  class  is  allotted  a  plot,  and  all  the  horticultural 
operations  in  connection  with  this  he  performs  himself.  The 
training  is  thoroughly  practical  and,  apart  from  its  utilitarian 
aspect,  no  more  healthful  holiday  could  be  devised  for  teachers, 
who,  for  most  of  the  year,  are  confined  within  the  four  walls  of 
a  school-room. 

Another  quite  original  "side-show"  is  a  short  course  of 
lectures  given  under  the  auspices  of  the  Glasgow  Grocers'  and 
Provision  Merchants'  Association  on  such  subjects  as  Milk, 
Butter,  Cheese,  etc.,  and  the  other  agricultural  commodities  of 
the  trade. 

Last,  but  not  least,  there  are  the  special  short  courses  of 
four  weeks  for  farmers — arranged  at  the  time  of  year  which  in- 
terferes least  with  actual  farming  operations  and  to  which  come 
selected  farmers  from  the  various  subscribing  counties  wdio  receive 
a  small  grant  to  cover  their  expenses  during  their  residence  in 
Glasgow.  In  the  woid.s  of  the  syllabus  "the  courses  of  lectures  and 
laboratur}'-  instiuction  to  be  given  within  the  month  are  speciall}^ 
designed  to  be  of  a  practical  character,  i.<?.,  to  convey  to  practical 
men  the  results  of  those  scientific  discoveries  relatino-  to  ao-riculture 
which  seem  to  be  capable  of  the  readiest  application  to  actual 
farm  practice.  "  The  lectures  consist  of  some  practical  aspect 
of  Agricultural  Chemistr}^  e.</.,  foods  and  feeding  stuffs  : 
general  agricultui-al  practice  :  the  simpler  ailments  of  cattle, 
horses,  sheep  and  pigs  :  and  a  practical  course  on  botany  where 
Professor  McAlpine  gets  full  scope  for  his  disillusionment  of 
the  popular  fallacies  of  farmers  about  grasses  and  seed  mixtures. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  this  coui-se,  which  is  adopted  also  by 
Edinburgh  and  Aberdeen,  serves  a  very  useful  purpose. 

Similarly  a  four  weeks  course  in  Dairying  is  held  at  the 
Dairy  School,  Kilmarnock,   for    the    benefit    of    practical  cheese- 


THE    FURLOUGH    WANBERINTiS  :    MACKENNA.  103 

makers  who  are  unable  to  attend  tlie  Dairj^  School  during  the 
summer  months.  This  course  is  eminently  practical  :  dail}^ 
instruction  in  Cheese-making  and  Butter-making  is  given  and  a 
course  of  lectures  on  Dairying  is  also  delivered.  *'  The  lectures 
are  specially  adapted  to  the  requirements  of  practical  men  and 
are  intended  to  convey  to  them  a  knowledge  of  those  scientific 
discoveries  which  seeni  to  be  capable  of  application  to  existing 
dairy  practice.  " 

But  enough  of  preamble  :  it  is  time  that  we  came  to  the 
main  business  of  this  article  which  is  the  Experimental  Farm 
of  the  College.  As  we  have  said,  the  Farm  is  at  Kilmarnock 
and  extends  to  about  200  acres,  of  which,  however,  only  some  20 
acres  are  under  actual  experiment,  while  about  27  acres  are 
devoted  to  varietal  experiments  with  oats — a  subject  to  which 
Principal  Wright  has  devoted  much  attention.  The  experi- 
mental area  is  hard  by  the  Dairy  School,  attached  to  which  is 
the  section  devoted  to  Poultr3^  Up  till  this  3'ear  the  remainder 
of  the  Farm  has  been  sublet  to  a  tenant  who  farmed  in  accord- 
ance with  the  general  practice  of  the  district,  but  in  future, 
the  whole  area  of  the  farm  will  be  taken  up  by  the  College 
to  admit  of  the  conduct  of  stock-raising  experiments  on  a 
considerable  scale.  The  farm  is  equipped  with  an  extensive  ranoe 
of  farm  buildings,  containing  the  latest  improvements  in 
machinery,  etc.,  and,  I  must  srj,  that  when  one  sees  the  equip- 
ment of  these  Experiment  Stations  at  home,  and,  indeed,  of  the 
ordinary  medium  sized  farm,  one's  mind  is  put  at  rest  as  to  the 
apparent  lavishness — and  it  is  really  apparent  only  by  contrast 
with  its  surroundings — of  our  equipment  of  Agricultural  Stations 
in  India.     At  home  the}'   would  hardly  excite  remai'k. 

The  points  which  most  strike  the  visitor  to  the  Holmes 
Farm  Experiment  Station  are  the  cleanliness,  tidiness  and  general 
order  of  the  place,  and,  above  all,  the  eminent  piacticalness  of  the 
experiments  and  their  up-to-dateness.  Nothing  is  missed  out. 
The  (juestion  of  tobacco-culture  in  Scotland  which  has  lately  been 
discussed  is  brought  back  to  one's  memory  b}^  a  well  cultivated 
patch  of  the  crop  just  as  one  enters  the  farm  from  the  farm  build- 


104  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  II. 

ino-.?.  It  is  well  grown  and  would  compare  favourabljMvith  our 
tobacco  in  Burma  :  though  sheep  dips  and  not  cheroots  is  its 
destination.  The  effects  of  electricity  on  the  growth  of  plants — 
the  theory  advanced  by  Oliver  Lodge — accounts  for  a  plot  on  the 
farm  treated  in  this  way  for  comparison  with  a  plot  not  treated 
at  all.  These  two  instances  are  evidence  that  the  College  does 
not  lose  much  time  in  putting  to  local  test  any  new  practices  or 
theories. 

Before  dealing  with  a  few  of  the  larger  and  more  important 
experiments  being  carried  out  on  the  farm  I  propose  to  touch  on 
some  of  the  demonstration  plots  which  naturally  bulk  large  on  a 
farm  whicli  is  at  once  educational  and  experimental.  If  we  enter 
the  farm  at  the  gate  adjoining  the  large  implement  and  grain 
shed,  we  find  ourselves  iu  the  small  horticultural  section.  This  is 
the  area  set  aside  for  teachers  :  a  summer  class  for  those  in 
employment  lasting  one  month,  and  short  courses  of  instruc- 
tion for  Normal  teachers  in  training  who  travel  twice  a  week 
from  (jrlas«>()w  durino-  the  session.  Each  member  of  the  class 
lias  a  small  [)lot  corresponding  to  those  required  in  connection 
with  school  instruction.  All  the  work — dio-gino\  trenching', 
planting  and  weeding — is  done  by  the  [)lot-holder.  At  present 
there  are  about  40  of  these  plots — each  a  pole  in  area  :  and  the 
number  is  being  increased.  All  plots  are  cultiv^ated  alike  and  the 
flowers,  which  were  in  full  bloom,  at  the  time  of  my  visit,  gave  a 
w^elcome  touch  of  colour.  This  section  is  also  used  for  ex- 
[)eriments  on  flowers  and  vegetables  :  varietal  and  manurial. 

Another  interesting  miscellaneous  group  is  a  large  collection 
of  forage  and  miscellaneous  plants  grown  on  plots  of  ^goth  of  an 
acre  which  foiin  an  interesting  series  of  demonstrations.  Here 
amongst  a  large  collection  of  English  common  crops  are 
recognised  such  Indian  friends  as  Indian  corn  (Zea  mais),  lucerne 
(Medicago  sativa),  Soy  Beans  (Soja  hispida),  Chick  pea  or 
Gram  (Cicer  arietinum),  Grey  field  pea  (Pisum  sativum), 
Common,  Blue  and  Siberian  Melilots,  Hemp  {Cannabis  sativa), 
Flax  (Linuni  usitatissinuim)  and  Coriander  (Coriandriiin 
sativum). 


THE    FURLOUGH    WANDERINGS:    MACKBNXA.  105 

Similarly  a  large  plot  is  laid  out  in  weeds  and  miscellaneous 
plants  for  the  use  of  the  practical  Botany  class  and  for 
demonstration.  For  the  use  of  students  of  Forestry  a  consider- 
able area  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  the  Daijy  School  has  been 
set  apart  to  form  the  nucleus  of  a  forest  garden  and  foresti-y 
experiment  plots.  In  the  Demonstration  area  "the  species 
represented  have  been  chosen  with  the  view  of  including  in  the 
collection  all  those  species  of  broad-leaved  and  coniferous  trees 
commonly  grown  for  timber  in  Great  Britain.  The  shrubs 
include  those  species  suitable  for  underwood  game  covers  and 
ornamental  [)ui-poses.     Two  specimens  of  each  species  are   planted. 

Then  there  is  the  Forest  Area  proper  containing  specimen 
plots  planted  with  five  species  of  trees  some  of  which  are  fairly 
well  known,  while  others  appear  to  deserve  more  attention  on  ac- 
count of  their  timber-producing  (jualitirs  than  they  have  yet  had. 

Finalh',  tlie  Poultry  Area  is  also  planted  out  with  shelter 
trees — duplicates  of  those  in  the  other  plots  and  oi'namental 
species  and  varieties  which  at  once  serve  as  shelter  for  the 
poultry  and  for  forestr}^  demonsti'ation  and  expei'iment. 

An  Englisli  experimental  station  has  unecpial  intei-ests  for  a 
visitor  from  the  East,  and  accordingly  I  decided  to  concentrate 
attention  on  experiments  which  might  be  of  interest  either  on 
account  of  the  cro[)s  with  which  they  dealt  or  of  some  [)eculiar 
interest  in  [)i'inciple.  Of  these  tlie  famous  Rotation  Experiment 
which  was  commenced  in  IDOi'  and  again  recommenced  in  1  90G  is 
hy  far  the  most  important.  The  results  of  the  four  years — 1002 
to  11)05 — are  i)ublished  in  the  College  Bulletin  No.  38  which  is 
wfll  woitli  studv  :  and  contains  some  results  of  o-reat  practical 
\  alue  to  Scotch  aorriculturists. 

o 

Tw(»  rotations  were  worked  with  as  follows  : — 

No.   I. — Potatoes,  wheat,  seeds,  oats  : 

No.   II.-    Turni})s,  barley,  seeds,  oats  : 
iiotli  of  wliich  are  connnon  rotations  in  the  west  of  Scotland. 

To  iiiiiiiniise  experimental  errors  each  I'otation  was  repeated 
four  times,  making  four  series  of  No.  I  and  four  of  No.  II.  The 
main  ol)j('cts  of  the  experiment  were  as  follows  : — 


106  AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL   OF    INDIA.  [V,  XL 

1.  To  demonstrate  the  differences  in  the  utilization  and 
rate  of  exhaustion  of  dung  or  farmyard    manure    b}^    farm  crops. 

2.  To  compare  the  merits  of  large  with  small  dressings  of 
dung — namely,  20  and  10  tons  respectively. 

3.  AVhich  is  best — to  applj^  fresh  dung  broadcast  in  autumn 
or  in  drills  in  the  spring.  Whether,  in  the  former  case,  to 
plough  it  in  at  once,  or  to  leave  it  spread  on  the  surface  of  the 
soil  some  months  before  ploughing  in. 

4.  To  test  the  value  of  dung  when  stored  in  a  heap  and  in 
the  field  with  that  stored  under  cover,  and  with  fresh  dung. 

5.  The  comparison  of  dung  alone  with  artificials  alone,  and 
of  large  and  small  dressings  of  dung  when  supplemented  by 
artificials. 

6.  To  compare  the  effect  of  difterent  combinations  of  arti- 
ficial manures    and  in  difterent  quantities. 

7.  To  find  the  best  crop  or  crops  in  a  rotation  to  which  to 
apply  manures  in  either  large  or  small,  single  or  complete  dress- 
ings, so  as  to  determine  which  is  the  most  profitable  sj'stem  of 
manuring  under  the  conditions  prevailing  at  the  Experiment 
Station. 

8.  To  show  for  all  crops  sino-lv  which  system  of  manurinii' 
is  the  most  economical,  and  any  other  characteristic  eftect  arising 
from  the  manurial  treatment. 

The  results  of  the  experiments  were  in  some  eases  different 
to  what  might  have  been  expected,  especiall}'  in  the  experiments 
on  the  application  of  farmyard  manure,  and  at  the  time  of  their 
[)ublication  gave  rise  to  much  discussion  and  criticism  among 
Scotch  aofriculturists. 

With  regard  to  (2)  in  which  the  eftect  of  large  and  small 
dressings  of  dung  were  compared,  it  was  clearl}'^  shown  for  both 
rotations  that  there  is  a  limit  to  the  economical  ap|)licati(»n  of 
the  manure.  Twenty  tons  as  against  ten  tons  were  the  quantities 
worked  with.  When  applied  to  potatoes  in  rotation  (1)  it  was 
found  that  the  value  of  the  manure  per  ton  for  the  whole  rota- 
tion when  20  tons  were  used,  i.e.,  the  efficacy  of  the  manure  in 
terms    of  money    in    the    whole  rotation— was  sh.    lO/S,   whereas 


THE    FURLOUGH    WANDERINGS  I    MACKEXNA.  107 

when  only  10  tons  were  used  tlie  value  per  ton  was  sh.  25/1. 
Applied  in  the  same  wa}^  to  turnips  in  the  second  rotation,  the 
result  was  even  more  marked  in  favour  of  the  smaller  dressinof. 

In  connection  with  experiment  (3)  above  quoted  the 
superiorit}^  of  applying  fresh  manure  in  drills  to  the  potato  crop 
in  the  spring  as  against  broadcasting  it  in  autumn  was  clearly 
established.  Twenty  tons  fresh  dung  were  applied  atid  the  profit 
and  loss  for  the  whole  rotation  in  Rotation  No.  I  for  each  method 
was  as  follows  : 

£     s.   d. 

1.  Applied  broadcast    in    autumn    and  ploughed  in  at 

once  ...  ...  ...  ...     4     4   11 

2.  Applied  broadcast  in  autumn  but  not  ploughed    in 

for  3  months   ...  ...  ...  ...     ,'i     3     5 

3.  Applied  in  drills  in  the  Spring  ...  ...  10  12     7 

In  connection  with  experiment  (4)  above,  designed  to  test 
the  comparative  merits  of  (I)  fresh  manure  as  against  (2)  manure 
rotted  in  a  heap  in  the  field,  and  (3)  in  a  heap  under  cover,  some 
marked  differences  were  got  between  the  result  in  the  two 
rotations. 

In  the  first  rotation  fresh  dung  gave  the  best  result,  and  that 
rotted  under  cover  was  shown  to  be  superior  to  that  rotted  in 
the  open.  It  was  not,  however,  proved  that  fresh  manure  gives 
better  results  than  the  fiame  weiglif  of  I'otted  mniuue  as  the 
stored  manure  lost  197  percent,  of  its  weight  when  rotted  in  the 
lield  and  17  per  cent,  when  rotted  under  cover. 

In  experiments  on  application  of  farmyard  manuie  in  con- 
nection with  the  turnips-barle}'  rotation  the  most  important 
difference  in  results  from  those  of  the  first  rotation  wa.s  in  the 
superiority  of  fiesh  dung  applied  broadcast  in  the  autumn  to  the 
lesidue  from  the  same  weight  of  dung  after  rotting  applied  in 
chills  in  the  ."Spring.  The  turnip  increase  was  greater  for  the 
latter  than  for  the  former,  while  the  increase  for  the  three 
remaining  crops  was  exactly  in  inverse  order. 

In  coimection  with  experiment  (G)  above  it  was  clearly 
proved  that  it  is  profitable  to  apply  dung  in  small  quantities  more 
than  once  in  a  rotation  rather  than  apply  one  large  dressing  once — 


108  AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  II. 

a  point  of  much  practical  importance.  In  this  experiment  the 
mixture  of  artificials  used  in  Rotation  No.  I  was  4  cwts.  superphos- 
phate, 1|-  cwts.  sulphate  of  potash  and  I  cwt.  sulphate  of  ammonia, 
and  in  connection  with  Rotation  No.  II  the  turnips  had  applied  a 
mixture  consisting  of  4  cwts.  superphosphate  and  J  cwt.  sulphate 
of  ammonia.  In  the  first  rotation  the  addition  of  the  artificials 
gave  a  marked  increase  in  produce  in  all  cases,  and  tiie  best  result — 
a  total  increase  amounting  to  £14-2-11  per  acre  for  the  whole 
rotation — was  Cfot  hv  adding:  the  artificials  to  10  tons  of  duno-  an- 
plied  to  the  drills  in  spring.  When  the  mixture  of  artificials 
was  added  to  the  fai'm^'ard  manuie  J^i  the  second  rotation, 
although  an  inci'ease  was  got  with  the  tuinip  crop  the  manure  re- 
sidue was  in  all  cases  so  pei'ceptibly  decreased  that  the  total  effect 
of  the  application  when  20  tons  of  dung  were  used,  was  to  inci-ease 
still  more  the  loss  for  the  rotation.  With  10  tons  a  nn^re  [>rolir 
al)le  leturn  is  given  for  all  the  crops. 

An  interesting  and  inipoitant  experiment  was  that  designed 
to  discover  to  which  crop  of  the  rotation  the  artificials  should  he 
added  after  Jip[>lying  10  tons  of  dung  to  the  root  crop. 

In  the  fiist  rotation   the    best    results    were    2'ot   when    each 

o 

flop  h;id  an  artificial  di-fssing  npplied  as  follows  : — 

Potatoes  ...  ...     (4  cwts.   siipeiphospliate,   1  i  cwts.  siilphate   of 

potash,  ami  1  cwt.  aulpliate  of  aimuoiiia). 

Wlieat  ...  ...     (1  cwt.  .siipcrpliosphatc,  I  cwt. 

Kaiiiit,  2  cwts.  nitrate  of  toda), 

Seeds  ...  ...     (saiue  as  wlieat). 

Oats  ...  ...     {-2  cwt.s.  superpliosphate,  2  cwts.  Kaiiiit, 

1  cwt.  nitrate). 

The  total  profit  foi-  the  whole  rotation  amounted  to 
.£11-11-3. 

The  second  rotation  ojave  much  thf^  same  results,  different 
manurial  mixtures  beino-  used. 

o 

In  connection  with  experiment  (8)  the  effect  of  different 
inaimres  on  individual  crops  as  apart  from  tlieir  effects  on  the 
whole  rotation  was  investigated. 

The  whole  series  of  experiments,  wliich  has  been  re-instituted 
for  another  four  years  was  characterized  by    thoroughness,    fresh- 


TIIK     FLKLOUGH    WANDERINGS:    MACKKNNA.  109 

ness  of  method,  practical  ini})ortance  and  opportuneness  to  the  re- 
quiren)ents  of  the  day.  The  results  of  the  repeated  experiment 
will  be  awaited  with  interest  by  the  agricultural  world.  The 
series  appears  to  me  to  suggest  suitable  lines  of  work  for  any 
Department  of  Agriculture  in  any  part  of  the  world. 

Another  exceedingly  interesting  series  of  experiments  has 
been  carried  out  with  the  new  nitrogenous  manures,  Lime  Nitrate 
Ca  (NO'j '—Calcium  Nitrate,  and  Lime  Nitrogen  Ca  CN'— 
Calcium  Cyanamide.  The  recent  discoveries  of  the  utilization  of 
the  nitrogen  of  the  atmosphere  as  a  manure  are  important,  in 
that  the  supplies  of  nitrate  of  soda  may  one  da}-  run  out ;  and 
the  experiments  conducted  by  Professor  Berry  are  interesting,  in 
that  they  test  the  value  of  these  new  sources  of  nitrogen  as 
aoainst  the  older  nitrooenous  manures,  nitrate  of  soda  and 
sulphate  of  ammonia.  An  interesting  description  of  the  process  of 
manufacture  of  lime  nitrate  and  lime  nitrogen  is  prefixed  to 
the  account  of  the  practical  experiments  which  appears  in  the  last 
Annual  Report  of  the  College.  The  latter  go  to  show  that  on 
the  whole  the  newer  compounds  are  less  valuable  than  the  older. 

Til  the  experiment  with  oats  in  1905  lime  nitrogen  gave  prac- 
tically no  better  return  than  that  of  the  unmanured  plot.  When 
nitrate  of  soda  and  lime  nitrogen  were  compared,  each  having 
been  a[)plied  with  equal  dressings  of  other  manures,  the  yield 
from  the  nitrate  of  soda  was  greater  than  that  fVom  tlic  lime 
nitrogeji. 

Jn  the  inof)  experiment  basic  linio  niti'ate  was  tried  and 
found  to  give  a  p(jorer  result  than  lime  nitrate,  but  the  results 
of  thi.s  year's  experiment  seemed  to  show  that  nitrate  of  soda  and 
lime  nitrate  are  of  e((ual  \alu<'  as  (op-di'essings  for  oats. 

Li  expeiiments  on  hay  with  lime  niti'ogen,  nitrate  of  soda 
and  sul[)hate  of  ammonia.  exteiidiiiL;- over  the  years  1904  and  1905, 
the  conclusion  reached  was  that  the  lime  nitrogen,  compared  with 
nitrate  of  soda  and  sulphate  of  ammonia,  does  not  ap[)ear  to 
be  as  effective  as  a  top-dressing  for  grass. 

Further  experiments  on  "seeds"  were  carried  out  in  1906 
with  nitrate  of  lime,  basic  nitrate  of  lime,    and    nitrate  of  soda, 


110  AGRICULTURAL    .JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   IL 

amounts  of  these  being  applied  to  supply  nitrogen  equal  to  that 
contained  in  ij  cwts.  of  nitrate  of  soda.  The  results  of  the 
experiments  showed  that  nitrate  of  soda  and  sulphate  of  ammonia 
have  ofiven  better  returns  than  either  lime  nitrate  or  lime  nitroo:en 
as  manures  for  the  hay  crops. 

In  experiments  with  the  same  manures  on  root  crops, 
mangels,  potatoes  and  sugar  beet  were  placed  under  trial.  The 
results  of  experiments  on  mangels  conducted  in  1904  and  1905 
showed  that  lime  nitrogen,  when  added  with  dung  and  super- 
phosphate, produces  a  yield  not  much  inferior  to  that  of  nitrate 
of  soda,  under  the  same  conditions.  When  added  with  super- 
phosphate and  kainit  only,  its  action  is  much  inferior  to  that  of 
nitrate  of  soda.  The  same  poor  return  is  produced  by  the  lime 
nitrogen  compared  with  that  given  by  sulphate  of  ammonia  and 
nitrate  of  soda  when  used  with  dung  or  basic  slaof. 

In  the  experiments  on  potatoes  the  conclusion  was  reached 
that  for  potatoes  lime  nitrogen  is  almost  of  equal  value  to 
ammonium  sulphate  when  used  along  with  dung  and  mineral 
manures,  including  superphosphate.  But  when  used  with 
mineral  manures  alone,  and  including  superphosphate,  it  is  far 
inferior  to  sulphate  of  ammonia  used  with  the  same  mineral 
manures.  When  basic  slag,  however,  replaces  superphosphate 
in  the  minerals  used  without  duno^,  the  two  nitrooenous  manures 
give  results  of  nearly  equal  value.  If  anything,  the  proportion 
of  "ware"  potatoes  is  larger  from  lime  nitrogen  than  from 
sulphate  of  ammonia. 

In  the  sugar  beet  experiments  nitrate  of  soda  gave,  w^th 
all  the  three  varieties  tested,  a  larger  yield  of  roots  than  that 
given  by  the  other  nitrogenous  manures. 

An  important  and  interesting  piece  of  work  is  that  conduct- 
ed by  Professor  Wright  on  the  inoculation  and  manuring  of  the 
bean  crop.  Experiments  were  carried  out  on  the  College 
Station  and  on  farms  in  the  centre  and  south-west  of  Scotland 
during  the  years  1905-06. 

For  inoculation,  cultures    were    obtained   from    the    United 
hStates  of   America    Department   of    Agriculture   and   solutions 


THK    FURLOUGH    WANDERINOS  :    MACKENXA.  Ill 

matle  therefrom  according  to  the  accompanying  instructions. 
The  conclusion  drawn  from  the  experiments  was  that  the 
practice  of  inoculating  the  seed  seems  likely  to  be  attended  with 
beneficial  results  on  the  majority  of  soils,  though  on  some  soils, 
like  that  of  the  College  Experiment  Station,  no  good  effect  was 
obtained.  The  Report  says,  "  the  addition  of  nitrate  of  soda 
to  superphosphate  and  sulphate  of  potash  would  appear  to  be  of 
doubtful  advantage,  and  the  cheaper  practice  of  inoculation  as 
a  means  of  assisting  the  bean  plants  to  secure  their  necessary 
nitrogen  seems  to  be  preferable," 

The  general  manuring  of  the  bean  crop  was  taken  up  in 
190G  and  experiments  were  made  with  various  "doses"  of  farm- 
yard manure  and  artificials.  The  most  important  conclusions 
obtained  were  :  (I)  that  the  bean  crop  is  capable  of  giving  quite 
good  yields  without  the  addition  of  manures  at  all  :  (2)  that 
the  most  profitable  returns  are  obtained  from  the  application  of 
G  cwts.  superphosphate  and  2  cwts.  sulphate  of  potash  per  acre 
applied  with  inoculated  seed  :  (.3)  that  sulphate  of  potash  is  to 
be  preferred  as  a  bean  manure  to  either  kaiiiit  or  the  "  potash 
manure  "  salt  used  in  the  experiments. 

Oats  are  the  great  cereal  crop  of  the  south-west  of  Scot- 
land and  indeed  of  tlie  whole  country  :  on  their  products  and  on 
the  shorter  catechism  Scotchmen  have  waxed  stronor  both  in 
body  and  in  the  faith  :  and  the  west  of  Scotland  College  of 
Agriculture  has  made  a  speciality  in  this  crop.  To  many  the 
uiost  interesting  part  of  the  College  Farm  is  the  27  acre  field  on 
which,  in  plots  of  i/20tli  of  an  acre,  some  90  varieties  are  being 
studied  for  comparison  as  to  quality  and  yield.  So  far  as  we 
could  judge  from  a  cursory  inspection,  the  best  varieties  are  the 
popular  Banner  Oat,  Beseler's  Prolific  Excelsior  (a  small  headed 
grain  but  a  heavy  yielder).  Mounted  Police,  Thousand  Dollar 
and  Wide  Awake  :  but  whether  they  will  retain  their  quality  if 
introduced  into  the  south-west  of  Scotland  remains  to  be  seen. 
Experience  indicates  that  frequent  changes  of  seed  are  of 
advantaoje.  An  interesting:  oat  is  the  Awnless  Probstei  from 
Denmark.     The    earliest   oat  of  all  is   Danish  Island;  the  next 


112  AOIIICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   II. 

earliest  Black  Mesdag  :  and  these  might  be  worth  trying  in  India 
M'here  we  have  such  a  short  cold  season.  An  interesting  sample 
of  Chinese  Naked  Oat  was  also  seen,  but  this  showed  sio-ns  of 
reversion.  As  soon  as  a  variety  seems  to  stand  out  conspicuously 
on  the  College  Farm,  collateral  experiments  are  undertaken  by 
farmers  in  the  contributing  counties,  and  a  most  interesting 
and  exhaustive  review  of  the  results  from  1902-06  has  just  been 
published  in  the  last  Annual  Report  of  the  College.  This 
should  be  consulted  as  an  example  of  thoroughness  and  complete- 
ness of  work. 

The  first  part,  which  is  by  the  Professor  of  Agriculture, 
deals  with  the  influence  of  soils  and  seasons  :  without  going 
into  too  much  detail  the  completeness  of  the  work  may  be 
gauged  from  the  many-sidedness  of  the  conclusions  which  are 
arrived  at.  They  show,  first,  the  great  effects  of  seasons  on  the 
oat  crop  generally:  that  in  seasons  of  low  temperature — especi- 
ally late  cold  and  wet  s])ring  and  early  sunnner  weather — the 
yield  of  the  oat  cro[)  is  prejudicially  affected  :  that  particular  now 
varieties  are  better  both  in  yield  and  in  freedom  from  variation 
than  the  common  kinds  at  present  grown  in  Scotland  :  but,  on  the 
other  hand,  they  are  more  liable  to  grub  attacks,  and  finally  their 
requiremnts  as  to  soil  and  exposure  are  deduced.  The  Botanist 
deals  with  their  botanical  characters  and  the  influence  of  manures 
thereon  :  with  the  dressed  grain  and  finally  with  the  comjxnients 
of  the  dressed  grain  :  firstly,  the  kernels  and  then  the  pro[)ortion 
of  kernel  to  husk  and  the  mealing  power. 

This  elaborate  eiKjuiiy  suggests  most  suital)le  lines  of  work 
for  an}^  Department  of  Agriculture  on  any  main  cereal  cro[),  and 
I  would  strongly  recommend  the  study  of  this  lvej)ort  to  any  one 
who  proposes  to  undertake  such  eiupiiries  with  similai'  thorough- 
ness, 

I  need  only  refer  finally,  in  this  connection,  t(»  two  other 
experiments  on  oats  :  an  experiment  to  ascertain  the  best  time  of 
sowing,  i.e.,  whether  there  will  be  any  advantage  in  sowing  in 
winter,  or  earlier  in  spring  than  the  usual  time,  and  an  experiment 
in   thick   versus    thin    seeding    of  oats.     The  standard    rate    is 


THK    FUKLOUliH     WANDERINGS:    MACKENNA.  113 

three    iiiillioii  seeds    per   acre  :   this   is    being"  tested  against   two 
niilhons  and  4  niihons  per  acre. 

There  are  many  otliei-  interesting  lines  of  work  on  this 
experiment  station  into  the  details  of  which  I  regret  I  had  not 
time  to  enter.  Amongst  these  may  be  noted  an  important 
experiment  on  liming  chiefly  designed  to  discover  whether  a 
single  application  of  lime  in  a  large  dressing  or  its  more  frequent 
application  in  small  dressings  will  give  the  best  results  during  a 
rotation  of  crops.  Work  on  these  lines  will,  doubtless,  find  a 
place  on  some  of  our  Indian  Experiment  Stations.  Another 
interesting  experiment  which  might  be  copied  with  different  crops 
where  pasturage  of  cattle  is  undertaken,  is  to  test  whether  it  is 
profitable  to  sow  certain  seeds  with  lea  oats  as  a  catch  crop  to  be 
grazed  off  in  autumn  and  afterwards  ploughed  in  for  the  mainten- 
ance  of  the  fertility  of  the  soil. 

Then  there  is  an  interesting  series  on  potatoes  to  test  the 
comparative  merits  of  different  varieties  :  the  use  of  different 
sized  "  sets  "  and  the  effect  of  distance  in  planting.  The  general 
impression  is  that  medium  sized  potatoes,  planted  whole,  at  dis- 
tances of  from  12  to  15  inches  apart  give  the  best  commercial 
results — with  a  limit  on  the  price  of  the  seed. 

A  most  interesting  plot  is  the  demonstration  of  the  effects 
of  spraying  cereal  crops  for  the  eradication  of  runch  and  charlock. 
A  3  per  cent,  solution  of  copper  sulphate  applied  at  the  rate  of 
50  gallons  per  acre  is  used.  The  efficacy  of  this  has  been 
thoroughly  proved,  and  there  is  no  discovery  of  agricultural 
practice  which  has  been  so  generally  adopted  by  farmers.  It  is 
estimated  by  farmers  themselves  that  the  saving  by  this  process 
amounts  to  as  much  as  £7  per  acre,  while  the  cost  is  only  some 
seven  shillings  per  acre — everything  taken  into  account, 

A  somewhat  similar  experiment,  of  equal  interest  and 
importance,  is  that  on  Finger  and  Toe.  A  plot  of  rape  was 
found  ill  1901  to  be  badly  infested  with  the  disease.  The  plot 
was  sown  with  turnips  in  1902,  so  that  the  disease  might  be 
further  propagated.  The  turnips  were  raised  in  the  autumn  and 
the  diseased  parts  carefully  In-oken  up  and  spread  over   the   land 


114  ^aUICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [^^,   ^l- 

equally.  Various  treatments  were  then  applied  and  the  land 
sown  again  with  turnips.  In  190(>  all  the  plots  were  put  under 
a  rotation  of  crops.  From  the  experiments  on  treatment  made, 
it  would  appear  that  a  heavy  dose  of  .shell  lime  at  the  late  of 
about  4  tons  per  acre,  applied  immediately  after  the  last  diseased 
crop  has  been  taken  off  the  land,  gives  the  most  relief.  Copper 
sul})hate,  too,  is  good  :  but  it  is  too  expensive  for  geneial 
application. 

It  remains  to  give  some  account  of  the  Dairy  School  attached 
to  tiie  i'arm — the  only  institution  of  the  kind  in  Scotland  and  a 
most  popular  one.  Here  is  given  the  only  practical  course  of 
Dairy  instruction  in  Scotland.  The  school  is  fitted  with  all  the 
refjuisite  and  most  modern  appliances  for  pasteurising  milk,  for 
butter-making,  and  for  Cheddar,  Stilton  and  cream  cheese- 
makino-.  The  milk  of  about  120  cows  is  handled  daily  durino- 
tiie  summer,  part  being  made  into  butter  and  the  remainder  into 
cheese.  Pupils  take  part  in  all  the  practical  work,  and,  in  order 
to  give  better  facilities  for  individual  practice,  a  number  of  small 
vats  for  cheese-makinof  have  been  introduced  instead  of  usino- 
one  or  two  large  ones  as  former]}^,  so  that  students  may  be  thrown 
more  on  their  own  responsibilit}^  and  so,  it  is  hoped,  gain  greater 
skill  in  cheese-making.  Supplies  of  pure  cultures  are  sent  out 
every  week  from  the  school  to  farmers  engaged  in  cheese-making 
in  the  subscribing  counties  and,  to  keep  them  uniform,  a  series  of 
experiments  have  been  carried  out  with  a  view  to  standardising 
the  process  of  reproducing  such  cultures. 

No  well-equipped  dairy  should  be  without  its  piggery  :  and 
elaborate  experiments  are  being  carried  out  on  the  feeding  ol' 
pigs,  the  object  being  the  discovery  of  the  best  utilisation  of 
whey  and  bye-products  of  the  dairy  in  combination  with  other 
feeding  stuffs. 

In  addition  to  the  practical  work  of  the  dairy,  courses  of 
lectures  are  delivered  on  the  theor}^  of  dair3'ing,  dairy  bacteri- 
ology, chemistry,  milk-testing  and  poultry-keeping,  and  successful 
candidates  obtain  certificates  in  butter-making  and  dairying,  or 
qualify  for  the  National  Diploma  in  Dairying  (N.D.D.). 


Eh 


Eh 
< 

Oh 


TIIK     FLKI.OlCH     WANDEKIXGS  :    MACKENNA.  115 

JjHst  of  all,  we  come  to  the  Poultiy  Department  of  tlie  farm 
which  oecu[)ies  a  well  selected  block  ot  .s(jme  5  acres  near  to  tlie 
DaiiySehool.  The  aspect  is  hleak,  but  this  is  being  improved 
by  the  judicious  planting  oi"  IVuit  and  (jther  shade  trees.  A 
c(»in[);ict  block  of  bi'ick  buildings  rdiitains  an  ollicc  and  Icctuic 
room  :  incubator  house,  tbod  stores  and  plucking  and  tiussing 
rooms.  The  grounds  are  well  e(juipped  with  chicken  pens  and 
poultiT  houses,  and  the  comparative  egg-[)roducing  powers  of 
various  selected  strains  of  fowls  are  being  studied.  Turkeys, 
geese  and  ducks  are  also  reared  and  Kaverolle-BuH'Orpingt(Hi  and 
Indian  Game  crosses  are  [)roduced  foi'  table  purposes. 

Courses  of  instruction  in  the  practical  handling  of  poultry 
can  be  arranged  at  any  time.  The  instruction  includes  the  use 
of  all  modern  appliances  connected  witli  the  natural  and  artificial 
methods  of  hatching  and  rearing  chickens,  ducks,  geese  and 
turkeys  and  the  feeding-,  fattening',  killiuii',  shapino-  and  dressino- 
of  table  poultr\'.  In  addition  two  special  courses  of  ten  weeks 
are  given.  These  include,  with  all  aspects  of  the  practical  work, 
a  course  of  lectures  on  the  Theory  of  Poultry  Breeding  and 
Handlino-. 

On  the  whole,  it  would  be  difficult  to  find  a  more  fully 
e(iuip[)ed  Agricultural  Station,  and  1  can  confidently  recommend 
any  one,  who  has  the  oppoi-tunity,  to   visit  it. 


AGRICULTURAL  IMPROVEMENTS 
IN  CHHATTISGARH. 

By   D.  CLOUSTON,  B.Sc, 
Deputy  Director  of  Agriculture.,  Central  Provinces  and  Berar. 

Chhattisgarh  is  the  most  backward  part  of"  the  Central 
Provinces.  The  Chhattisgarhi  is  recognized  by  his  fellow  cultiva- 
tors of  other  parts  of  the  Provinces  as  being  lazy  and  resourceless, 
and  his  cultivation  as  being  of  the  yqyj  poorest  kind.  This  is 
due  partly  to  lack  of  enterprise  and  partly  to  conservatism  which 
are  the  hereditary  instincts  of  the  people  ;.  but  partly  also  to  their 
poverty  and  other  difficulties  under  which  they  labour.  Some  races 
are  born  cultivators,  and  take  a  pride  in  their  work  ;  the  average 
Chhattisgarhi  is  not  one  of  these  ;  he  works  that  he  may  not  starve. 

The  division,  as  a  whole,  is  flat  and  land-locked  by  hills. 
There  was  no  trade  to  speak  of  till  the  country  came  under 
British  rule  in  1854.  With  the  opening  of  the  railway  between 
Nagpur  and  Bilaspur  in  1892  trade  was  still  further  developed 
and  prices  of  rice  and  other  grains  gradually  rose.  In  1862  the 
price  of  wheat  was  83  seers  per  rupee,  and  of  rice  70  seers,  as 
compared  with  10  seers  and  20  seers  respectively  at  the  present 
time.  But  the  average  Chhattisgarhi  has  not  yet  learned  to 
take  full  advantage  of  these  better  times.  Sufficient  unto  the 
day  is  the  evil  thereof  would  seem  the  extent  of  his  ambition  in 
farming. 

Their  conservatism  is  due  to  their  isolation  and  ignorance. 
They  still  stick  to  their  old  cropping  system ;  grow  kodon 
(Paspalum  scrobiculatum)  and  kutki  (Panicum  psilopodium)  on 
i;ood  soil  where  far  more  profitable  crops  of  wheat  or  groundnut 
could  be  grown.  They  broadcast  their  rice  instead  of 
transplanting   it,  and  until  the  last  three  years,  seldom   irrigated 


IMPROVEMENTS    IN    CHHATI'ISC ARH  :    CLOUSTON.  117 

their  rice,  and  wheat  never.  But  the  poverty  of  the  ordinary 
Chhattisgarhi  ryot  also  helps  to  account  for  his  lack  of  progress. 
Many  of  them  have  been  disheartened  by  repeated  famines  and 
years  of  scarcity.  His  bullocks  are  small  and  thin,  and  too 
weak  to  cultivate  his  land  properly. 

To  introduce   agricultural   improvements   in    any   tract    one 
must  study  (l)  the  cultivators  of  that  tract    and    the    difficulties 
under   which   they    labour,   (2)   the    soil  and  climatic  conditions, 
and    (3)    the    cropping    systems    in    vogue.      The   low    standard 
of    cultivation    in  Chhattisgarh    is    partly  due  to  the  inferiority 
of  the    work    cattle.      The    ordinary  work   bullock    is     only    36" 
behind  the  hump.      None  but   well-to-do    cultivators    can    aftbrd 
to  purchase  buffaloes.     Another  obstacle  in  the   way  of  progress 
is    the    loss    of  crop   and   cattle    in   years    of  short    rainfall    and 
its    resultant   distress,     which   demoralises   the    ryot    and  throws 
his  cropping   system    out    of  joint.      While    the    average  rainfall 
at   Raipur    for    the    last   40    years    is   5 3 "30  inches  :  it  fell  to  22 
in  the  year    1900-01.     The    success    or   failure    of  the    rice    crop 
depends    largely    on    the    seasonable  distribution  of  the   rainfall. 
Years  of   scarcity  have  generally   been   due   to    the   comparative 
failure  of    the   rains    during    the  latter   half  of  September   and 
the  first   half  of  October.     Ample   facilities   for  irrigation   is  the 
only  means  possible  of  averting  such  disasters. 

The  .soils  of  this  division  are  mostly  of  laterite  origin. 
They  may  be  divided  into  four  distinct  classes.  The  partially 
decomposed  laterite  rock  of  the  higher  lands,  which  gives  a 
reddish  gravelly  soil,  locally  known  as  hJiafa,  is  the  typical 
soil  of  large  high-lying  I'idges  covered  with  scrub  and  stunted 
grass,  some  of  which  bear  at  intervals  a  poor  crop  of  the  lesser 
millets,  kndon  and  kutki.  The  hhata  grades  gradually  into 
mafdsi,  a  fine-grained  yellow  loam  which  is  considered  the 
ideal  soil  for  paddy  in  this  tract.  Afafasi  like  hhata  is  unsuitable 
for  double-cropping  on  account  of  its  tendency  to  harden  after  the 
rains  into  a  brick-like  mass,  which  it  is  almost  impossible  to 
reduce  to  a  fine  state  of  tilth  b\^  means  of  the  cultural  implements 
in  use  in  this  tract.      Moreover,  it  does  not  retain   moisture    well. 


118  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   H. 

Dorsa  or  dorasa  (meaning  two  kinds)  is  a  mixture  of  mafasi  and 
hanhav  :  it  is  dark  gre}^  in  colour,  grows  rice  and  rahi  crops  fairly 
well,  and  is,  therefoi'e,  suitable  for  double-cropping.  Kanhar  is  a 
dark  loamy  soil  found  at  still  lower  levels  ;  it  contains  less  sand, 
and  if  pure,  no  nodules  of  limestone  ;  it  is  very  retentive  of  mois- 
ture. KanJiar'i^  the  best  wheat-producing  soil  of  the  tract,  but 
is  not  so  good  for  rice,  being  too  heavy.  Dr.  Leather's  analysis 
of  these  soils  is  given  below  :  — 


Matrtsi. 

Dorsn  Soil. 

Kfinhar  Soil 

87-41 

74-68 

60-73 

4-12 

6-71 

7-64 

4-78 

11-43 

13-83 

0-28 

0-85 

ro.i 

n-.so 

0-81 

0-75 

n-4.s 

0-86 

0-79 

ni:^ 

0-20 

0-25 

0-02 

0  02 

0^02 

Vory  littlo. 

0-13 

0  00 

o-os 

2-40 

4-35 

5-86 

inn-oo 

101) -00 

1(10 -no 

•n.53 

•041 

•036 

•001 

•001 

•001 

•010 

•Oil 

•012 

•3t) 

•20 

Tnsolnblo  silicates  and  sand 

Feriic  oxido 

Alumina 

Lime 

Magnesia 

Potash 

Soda 

Phosphoric;  acid 

Sulphuric  acid 

Carbonic  acid 

Organic  matter   (t    combined    water 


Total  Nitrogen 
Available  phosphoric  acid 
Ditt-)  do.     potash 

E.|nivalent  to  calcium  rarljoiiito 

The  cropping  system  in  vogue  in  tliis  division  is  of  the 
simplest  kind;  rice,  l-odon  and  /?////  are  the  chief  rain  crops. 
The  hhanf  crops  are  by  far  the  most  important  ;  of  the  total 
cultivated  area  of  4,704,168  acres  rice  alone  occupies  3,020,1.54 
acres,  and  Jcodon  and  hitki  618,803  acres.  The  value  of  a 
uood  crop  of  the  latter,  thouoh  it  is  often  orown  on  the  best 
l)lack  soil,  does  not  exceed  Rs.  10  an  acre.  It  requires, 
however,  very  little  cultivation  and  its  seed  rate  is  only  0 
or  10  lbs.  an  acre.  It  is  the  chief  crop  on  which  the  ryot 
falls  back  should  his  rice  fail.  In  the  absence  of  irrigation  ho 
has  learned  by  bitter  experience  that  all  he  can  hope  to  do  in 
l)ad  years  is  merely  to  survive.  His  cropping  system  is,  in 
consequence,  largely  a  shift  to  avert  the  distress  of  famine. 
The   chief  raid  crops  grown   are,    linseed,   wheat    and   ])ulses   of 


IMPROVEMENTS    1\    CHHATTISfiARH  :    CLOUSTON.  110 

different  kinds  :  linseed  and  the  pulses  being  largely  grown  on 
the  best  black  soil  as  a  second  crop  after  rice. 

In  carrying  out  its  demonstration  work  this  Department 
lias  liad  to  stud}^  and  to  deal  witli  these  difficulties  one  by  one, 
fVillv  realizino-  that  the  averao'c  ryot  was  adverse  to  any  chano^e 
in  his  methods  of  husbandry,  and  tliat  he  would  act  as  a  passive 
resister  should  these  be  forced  upon  him.  To  ensure  progress 
the  Department  has  worked  through  the  leading  and  more 
enliti-htened  men  in  each  villaoe.      In  most  cases  the  leadinfj   man 

o  o  o 

is  the  Maltruzar.  When  the  Mal^fuzar  is  once  convinced  that  a 
new  method  of  cultivation  will  pay,  his  tenants  follow  his  example 
in  adopting  it.  In  some  villages  almost  every  tenant  now  trans- 
plants at  least  a  small  area.  The  members  of  the  Agricultural 
Associations  have  also  given  great  assistance.  With  bad  cultiva- 
tion, irrigation,  transplantation  and  other  improved  methods  are 
almost  void.  The  difficulty  of  tilling  his  soil  properly  with  the 
small  bullocks  at  his  disposal  has  partly  been  got  over  by  hiring 
out  buffiiloes  to  cultivators  for  the  kharif  season  at  the  rate  of 
Rs,  5  per  pair. 

The  work  of  raisingf  the  cultivator  from  the  slouoh  of 
poverty  and  despondency  will  necessarily  be  slow,  but  it  will 
come  gradually  as  the  result  of  his  adopting  the  more  profitable 
methods  of  farming  based  on  the  extension  of  irrigation  which 
will  ensure  him  against  years  of  scarcit}'. 

The  most  f(jrmidable  difficulty  that  the  Department  has  to 
face  in  tackling  this  great  problem  of  agricultural  improvement 
by  demonstration  has  not  been  in  devising  eliective  methods  of 
introducing  necessary  improvement,  Init  in  getting  a  sufficient 
number  of  suitable  men  to  carry  them  out  on  a  fairly  lai-ge  scale. 
A  practical  expert  will  always  keep  in  mind  the  fact  that  his 
duty  is  to  devise  methods,  organize  his  stall"  and  to  supervise  the 
work  sufficiently  often  to  see  that  it  is  carried  out  properly.  The 
nu-mlters  of  that  staff'  should  be  intelligent  practical  men  who 
can  gain  the  confidence  of  the   cultivator. 

Anothei-  line  of  work  that  is   being  taken  up  on  the   Experi- 
mental Farni  is  that  of  training  the  sons  of  cultivators  and  orphan 


120 


AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA. 


[V,  II. 


boys  in  practical  agriculture.  Courses  have  been  arranged  by 
which  these  can  get  a  training  in  the  method  of  transplanting 
rice,  of  irrigating  wheat,  of  cultivating  sugarcane  and  groundnut 
and  of  growing  fruit  and  vegetables.  The  Experimental  Farm 
thus  serves  as  a  most  important  centre  for  agricultural  training 
as  well  as  research. 

This  Department  has  for  the  last  3  years  worked  in  hearty 
co-operation  with  the  Irrigation  Department.  The  latter  sup- 
lies  water  ;  the  former  induces  the  ryots  to  use  it  for  their  crops. 
This  has  been  no  easy  task  ;  for  the  Chhattisgarhi  had  never  been 
accustomed  to  pay  water  rates.  When  in  years  of  good  rainfall 
there  was  water  available  in  the  village  tank,  he  got  it  free  of  cost. 
For  three  years  the  advantages  of  irrigation  for  rice  and  wheat 
have  been  demonstrated  to  him  in  his  own  village.  He  has  been 
encouraged  to  transplant  a  late  heavy-yielding  rice,  ever}^ 
acre  of  which  has  had  to  be  irrigated.  He  has  been  induced, 
too,  to  irrigate  his  wheat.  That  this  Demonstration  has  been 
effective  and  that  the  ryot  is  now  beginning  to  appreciate 
the  value  of  irrigation,  is  evident  from  the  Statement  given 
below. 


1 

190607. 

1907-08. 

1908-09. 

]  909-10. 

g 

6 

0) 

o 

Pnrtiuiilari:. 

=' 

c 

_>. 

<u 

>^ 

r! 

4^  v 

if 

E 
J 

It 
tic 
a 

ST3 

£ 
1 

<0 

s 
J 

C5 

a 

c 
£ 

0) 

< 

^r. 

< 

<'" 

S 

<< 

<;"■ 

S 

< 

<'" 

^ 

< 

Pi 

Rs.  A. 

' 

Rs.  A. 

Rs.  A. 

Rs. 

Rice 

1,272 

1    t 

n-60 

23,693 

1    4 

0-69 

21,853 

2    0 

0-93 

25,374 

2 

1-41 

Wheat     ... 

672 

1     4 

0-93 

2.248 

1     4 

1-15 

2,113 

1    8 

1-50 

not 
known 

2 

For  each  assistant  an  area  including  from  S  to  10  villages, 
the  land  of  which  is  irrigable,  is  selected.  This  area  is  known  as 
a  Demonstration  centre.  The  advantages  of  the  new  method  are 
demonstrated  in  tlio  villages  of  the  circle  and  as  many  ryots  as 
passible  are  induced  to  adopt  it  in  the    same    season.      But    there 


IMPROVEMENTS    IN    CHHATTISGARH  :    CLOUSTON.  12 1 

is  a   wide  orulf  between  the  agricultural  assistant  and  the  village 
ryot  of  this  tract.     The  ryot  is  generally  an  illiterate  but  practical 
man  who  works  with  his  own  hands  ;   the    agricultural    assistant 
in  the   Central   Provinces   is   in  his    own    estimation    a    superior 
person    and    does  not   believe    in   the    dignity  of  manual  labour. 
His  true  sphere  is  supervision.     For  demonstration  work  another 
class  of  man  is  also  required,  who  will  demonstrate  with  his  own 
hands  the  new  method   which    is    to    be    introduced.     In   trans- 
plantation, for  instance,  the  Chhattisgarhi  ryot  has  to   be   taught 
all  the  processes.      For  this  we    require    a    more    practical    class, 
who  will  themselves  work  daily  among  the   ryots,    and    who    are 
sufficiently  intelligent  to  correct  their  mistakes  and   to   carry    on 
the  work  in  the  absence  of  the   agricultural  assistant.     For    the 
last  two  years  skilled  men  have  been  imported   from    other    dis- 
tricts where  rice- cultivation  is  seen  at  its  best.     These  were   em- 
ployed during  the  rice  season   only.     Some  of   these   were    after- 
words engaged  by  Malguzars  as  managers.     The  three  objections 
to  this  system  were  :  (I)  that  difficulty  was  experienced  in  getting 
suitable  men  for  so  short  a  time,  (2)  it  did    not    provide    for    the 
permanent  employment  of  the   very    best   men,    and    (3)    though 
expert  in  rice  cultivation,  these  men  had  little  or  no  knowledge   of 
the  other  demonstration  work.     It  was,  therefore,  decided  that  the 
best  of  them  should  be  given  permanent  employment  in  the    De- 
partment.     Fifteen  were  appointed  last  year  and  the  number  will 
be  gradually  increased.     They    are    paid   from  Rs.  0  to  Rs.   1 0  a 
month,  rising  to  Rs.    15,  and  have  been  designated  Kamdars.      In 
the  work  required  of  them  other  than  transplantation,    they    will 
undergo  courses  of  training  on  the  Raipur  Farm.     With  a  Kamdar 
as  the  unit  for  one  or  more  villages,  and  an  agricultural    assistant 
as  the  unit  for  the  Demonstration  Centre    and     the    Superinten- 
dent of  the  Farm   as  the  unit  for  the  Division,  it  will  be  possible 
to  extend  demonstration   work    very  rapidly.      The    scheme    is   a 
practical    one  ;    it  enables  the  Department  to  do  a  large   amount 
of    w(jrk     at    a    very    small     cost.      It    may    be    applicable,   too, 
to     other    parts   of    India     where     the    standard    of    cultivation 
is  low. 


122  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   II. 

To  make  demonstration  work  successful  the  villao-e  demon- 
stration  plot  should  bo  a  concrete  example  of  the  advantage 
claimed  for  the  new  method.  Failures  are  fjital.  In  this  the 
Department  has  been  very  fortunate.  The  increase  duo  to 
transplantation  as  compared  with  hia.si,  i.e.,  rice  sown  broad- 
cast, was  tested  in  17  villages  in  the  demonstration  centres 
in  1908  and  in  32  villages  in  1909.  Biasi  gave  an  average  out- 
turn of  1,593  lbs.  per  acre  and  transplanted  rice  2,685  lbs.,  or  an 
increase  of  1,092  lbs.  In  1909  the  hiasi  fields  tested,  yielded  an 
average  of  1,356  lbs.  per  acre  and  transplanted  rice  2,043  lbs.,  or  an 
increase  of  687  lbs.  The  percentage  of  increase  due  to  transplanting 
was  68'5  in  1908  and  507  in  1909,  the  mone}^  value  of  which  is 
Rs.  27-12  and  Rs.  17-3  per  acre  respectively.  The  plots  were 
irrigated  and  carried  late  rices  in  each  case,  which  accounts  for  the 
comparatively  high  outturns.  The  increase  due  to  irrigation  alone 
where  hiasi  rice  was  grown,  was  tested  in  26  villages  last  season 
and  was  found  to  amount  to  585  lbs.  on  black  soil  and  to  625  on 
matasi,  the  money  value  of  which  was  Rs.  14-10  and  Rs.  15-10 
respectively.  This  corresponds  to  an  increase  of  80/'  for  black 
soil  and  861^  /  for  matasi.  The  average  increase  last  year  of 
grain  per  acre  due  to  the  irrigation  of  the  wheat  demonstration 
plots  was  356  lbs.  worth  Rs.  27-7. 

Another  line  of  agricultural  improvement  now  being  carried 
out  is  the  introduction  of  more  profitable  crops  than  those  at 
present  grown.  In  touring  through  this  division  in  the  rains  one 
is  at  once  struck  by  the  large  area  of  good  black  soil  cropped  with 
kodon  and  bdki  and  other  unprofitable  crops.  Under  these  two 
crops  alone  there  were  618,803  acres  last  year.  The  average  yield 
per  acre  of  which  is  valued  at  Rs.  10.  Thougli  unprofitable,  he 
continues  to  otow  these  :  it  is  hard  to  chansre  a  lifelono^  habit.  To 
remedy  this  the  Department  is  introducing  groundnut  and 
sugarcane,  crops  which  do  very  well  in  this  tract  when  the  water 
supply  is  sufficient.  Of  groundnut  8  varieties  have  been  tested 
on  the  Raipur  Farm  ;  it  has  proved  a  most  profitable  crop  when 
grown  in  black  soil,  i.e.,  dorso  and  kanlKd'.  In  the  varietal  test 
the  average  net  value  of  the    outturns    langps    fVoiii    Rs.    55    to 


PLATE  IX. 


i.  J,  I. 


Vakikties  (JK  (Jkoununut, 


IMI'KOVKMKNI'S    IN     CHH ATI  IS(1AHH   :    CLol'STOX.  123 

Rs.  1  1  I  per  acre.  The  local  variety  is  the  heaviest  jnelder  ; 
with  the  exception  of  Spanish  peanut  it  is  also  the  first  to  mature. 
This  local  variety  is  now  being  introduced.  That  grown  hy 
members  of  the  District  Agricultural  Associations  last 
year  gave  an  average  outturn  of  1,7  10  Ihs.  per  acre,  woith 
Rs.  108-12:  the  demonstration  plots  yielded  1,650  ll)s.  woitli 
Rs.  103. 

The  cultivation  of  new  varieties  of  sugarcane  is  also  heino- 
demonstrated  at  the  different  centres,  but  with  tliis  crop  the 
results  have  not  been  quite  so  good,  for  thick  canes  require  much 
manure  and  cai'cful  attention.  It  is  too  critical  a  ci"op  for  the 
average  careless  ChhattisGfarhi  to  arow  ;  he  neojects  it  and  it 
2:ets  infested  with  suofarcane  borer.  Seed  is  therefore  beino- 
supplied  to  the  best  cultivators  only.  For  this  very  practical 
suo'o-estion  I  am  indebted  to  the  Inspector-General  of  x\trriculture 
who  inspected  some  of  the  Demonstration  Centres  last  year.  At 
present  the  average  r^-ot  is  a  man  with  little  or  no  capital.  He 
is  often  badly  in  debt  to  the  village  Sotrkar  to  whom  he  pays  an 
exorbitant  interest.  He  cannot  therefore  afford  to  take  risks 
by  growing  a  new^  crop  such  as  cane,  the  seed  of  which  is  ver}" 
expensive.  To  alleviate  his  condition  the  Department  gives  out 
the  seed  of  such  new^  crops  as  sugarcane  and  groundnut  on  easy 
terms.  The  cane  is  given  on  loan  on  condition  that  the  same 
quantity  of  seed  is  returned  at  the  end  of  the  year  ;  groundnut  for 
seed  is  supplied  at  half  price. 

All  the  agents  employed  in  raising  the  standard  of  cultiva- 
tion in  this  tract  are  in  close  touch  with  each  other.  The  ex- 
l)iiinients  conducted  on  the  Raipur  Farm  give  the  cue  to  the 
improvements  to  be  introchicfd.  The  Demon.stration  (V-ntres 
arc  t  lie  conncctiiig  bilks  between  tho  Fxperimcntal  FaiMii  and 
the  cult  i\ator.  Tlic  iion  ox|)PiiiHontal  poj-tion  of  the  fai'm  serves 
as  a  model  di-rjionstration  conti-e.  and  is  a  miniatuiv  of  what  we 
hope  tile  cultivated  area  of  many  villages  in  Chhattisgarii  will  be 
10  years  hence.  The  assistants  ("m[)loyod  at  the  Demonstration 
Centres  meet  together  on  the  farm  once  a  year  and  the  ])lan  of 
operations  loi-  tho  suecocdini^-  vear  and  diftieulties  connpcted    with 


124  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,    IF. 

tlieir  work  are  considered.  The  farm  is  a  training  ground,  too, 
for  the  Kamdars,  cultivators  and  orphan  boys,  each  of  whom  is 
expected  to  do  something  for  the  advancement  of  agriculture  in 
this  benighted  tract. 

From  the  results  already  obtained  it  is  certain  that  by  work- 
ing on  these  lines  the  productiveness  of  the  soil  and  the  farmino- 
profits  derived  therefrom  can  be  increased  enormously  within  a 
very  few  years.  The  cultivation  of  groundnut  has  been  taken  up 
at  all  the  centres  and  an  area  of  over  4,000  acres  of  rice  was 
transplanted  and  irrigated  last  year.  But  the  extent  to  which  im- 
provements can  be  introduced  will  depend  very  largely  on  the 
irrigation  facilities  available.  The  present  sources  of  irrigation 
are  from  wells,  nullahs,  village  tanks  and  Government  tanks. 
Of  these  the  first  three  are  unreliable,  as  they  nearly  all  fail  to 
supply  water  for  irrigation  in  years  of  short  rainfall.  The  area 
irrigable  from  Government  tanks  in  this  Division  is  at  present 
only  about  32,000  acres. 

As  such  a  limited  area  offers  but  little  scope  for  any  great 
extension  of  agricultural  improvements,  the  department  will  have 
to  seek  fresh  fields  in  comparatively  few  years.  One  large 
irrigation  project,  viz ,  the  Tendula  Canal,  has  already  been 
sanctioned,  which  will  irrigate  annuall}^  an  area  of  263,000  acres, 
whilst  the  Mahanadi  Canal,  which  is  at  present  under  considera- 
tion, will  irrigate  300,000  acres  :  but  many  years  must  elapse 
before  these  schemes  are  finished  works. 

As  to  what  water-rate  the  ryot  can  afford  to  pay  is  a  ques- 
tion of  some  importance,  in  so  far  as  the  construction  of  future 
irrigation  works  will,  to  some  extent,  depend  on  that  rate.  After 
three  years'  experience  of  irrigation  he  has  this  year  paid  Rs.  2 
per  acre  for  kharif  and  rabi ;  but  he  can  well  afford  to  pay  Rs,  5 
for  the  full  irrigation  of  late  rices,  groundnut  and  wheat,  and  four 
times  that  amount  for  the  better  canes  now  being  supplied  by  the 
department.  In  a  normal  year  irrigation  should  increase  the 
value  of  his  rice  by  about  Rs.  15  and  his  wheat  by  more  than 
Rs.  20.  In  a  year  of  very  short  rainfall  it  will  mean  insurance 
against  the  failure  of  his  crops,  and  the  conseciuent  distress  which 


IMPROVEMENTS    IN    CHHATTISC  A  UH  ;    t'LOL'STON.  125 

follows  ill  its  train.  Irrigation'* facilities  will  be  to  liiiii  an  iiicen- 
ti\o  to  grow  more  profitable  crops  and  to  get  better  work  cattle. 
With  these  advantages  at  his  coiiiiiiand  we  believe  that  even  the 
Chattisgarhi  will  become  more  enterprising,  more  thrifty  and 
more  prosperous. 


THE  OUTBREAK  OF  BLISTER-BLIGHT  ON  TEA   IN 
THE  DARJEELING  DISTRICT  IN    luus-iijoy. 

By   W.  AIcRAE,  m.a.,   m.sc, 
Offij.    Imperial  Mi/coloyixL 

In  June  1!)08,  near  the  hoatl  wateis  uf  the  Balasan  River, 
leaves  of  the  tea  plant  were  obseived  to  be  attacked  by  Blister- 
Blight.  Gradually  the  blight  spread  from  garden  to  garden,  and 
in  October  it  was  noticed  on  gardens  on  the  Tukvar  slopes.  This 
was  the  first  appearance  of  blister-blight  in  the  district  of 
Darjeeling.  The  disease  is  not  a  new  one  on  the  tea  plant,  but 
hitherto  it  has  been  confined  to  the  Brahmaputra  Valley  in  Upper 
Assam,  where  it  was  investigated  and  described  b}^  Sii"  G.  Watt 
in  1895.  It  has  existed  in  that  region  for  over  40  years.  These 
two  places  are  widely  separated,  j^et  the  blight  has  not  been 
reported  from  any  of  the  intervening  tea  districts  of  Cachar, 
Sylhet  or  the  Duars.  In  this  year  it  did  not  do  much  damage 
Hiid   ill  the  cold   v/eather  died  down. 

In  11)09  the  blight  appeared  again  but  earlier  in  the  season, 
viz.,  in  March.  During-  the  summer  it  showed  foi'  the  first  time 
on  other  gardens.  Eveiywhere  it  spread  rapidly  till  hardly  a 
garden  in  this  part  of  the  district  is  now   free  from    blight. 

The  first  indication  of  a  blister  is  a  small,  pale  green,  yellow, 
or  pinkish  translucent  spot  easily  seen  against  the  darker  green 
of  the  rest  of  the  leal'  when  it  is  held  up  to  the  light.  Some- 
times the  pinkish  tinge  fades  or  it  may  never  be  discernible. 
In  other  cases  the  spot  is  deep  red  on  both  sides  like  red  ink, 
and  the  red  tinge  remains  even  when  the  spores  are 
ripe.  The  circular  spot  enlarges,  usually  reaching  a  dia- 
meter of  I  to  ^  inch.  (Jn  the  upper  side  of  the  leaf  the 
spot  gradually  becomes  depressed  into    a  shallow  cavity  and  on 


Plate  X. 

Fig.   1.     Shoot  of  tea  affected  with  Blister-Blight. 

Fig.   2.     Same  showing  the  red  tinge. 

Fig.   3.     Same  showing  the  hypertrophy  of  the  leaves  and  the  upper   flushing 

buds  killed  off. 
Fi».   4.      A  cut-back  seedling  badly  affected. 
Fig.   5.     Same  with  all  the  leaves  and  buds  killed. 


PLATE  XI 


Fk;.  1. 


Fig.  2. 
,1.  J,  1.  Blistkk  Blicut  ok  Tka. 

(Exobasiclium  vexaiiH,  Ma.sjsce.) 


Fic.    X 


\'.    11. J         TllK    OL'TBKKAK     OK     l!MS  IKK- IJLIG  HI     uX    TKA:    MlKAK.  \ '17 

llu'  uiitlei'  >^\dv  it  bulnes  out  .sli^ihtly,  lliu.s  fonuiDg  the  bli.ster 
Jnjin  wliicli  the  blight  takes  its  name  (Plate  XI,  figs.  2  and  :]). 
The  upper  eoncave  eireular  ai'ea  is  smooth  and  shining  and  the 
colour  is  usually  [);iK'r  than  the  rest  ot"  tlu,'  leaf.  The  unde)' 
convex  suiiace,  on  the  other  hand,  is  dull  and  at  first  is  grey 
as  if  dusted  with  white  [)o\vder  but  when  mature  it  becomes 
pure  white.  The  lower  surface  produces  colourless  spores 
which  with  the  outiirowth  of  fungus  filaments  give  the  white 
appearance  to  the  under  side  of  the  bhster  and  on  some  vigoi(jus- 
Iv  iirowiiii--  blisters  slightly  to  the  upper  side  also.  In  not 
a  few  cases  the  form  of  blister  is  reversed  and  both  forms  may 
be  found  on  the  same  leaf;  but  tlie  spore-bearing  surface  is  always 
principally  on  the  under  side  of  the  leaf.  After  a  time  the  white 
blister  becomes  discoloured  till  it  is  daik  brown  or  black,  then  it 
becomes  dry  and  shriidvs  till  the  discoloured  patch  is  in  the  same 
plane  as  the  rest  of  the  leaf. 

After  the  leaves  of  a  bush  have  been  attacked  the  disease 
spreads  to  tlie  leaf-stalks  and  the  young,  succulent,  green  stems, 
but  here  the  appearance  of  the  disease  is  not  so  conspicuous 
though  the  damage  is  nmcli  more  serious.  The  course  of  the 
disease  on  tlie  young  delicate  stem  is  like  that  on  the  leaf 
only  no  blister  is  formed.  The  colour  of  the  spot  is  very  similar, 
but  the  deep  red  tinge  is  wanting.  The  spot  becomes  elongated 
and  also  gradually  spreads  round  the  stem.  At  this  place 
the  stem  becomes  slightly  swollen.  When  the  spores  are  ripe 
they  give  a  grey  appearance  to  the  spot  but  it  does  not  become 
pure  white  like  the  blister.  The  disease  eats  throuo^h  and  tlu- 
leaves  and  buds  on  the  green  stem  abt)ve  wither  and  blacken 
while  the  stem  bends  over  and  falls  oft' at  the  diseased  part. 
►Several  t)f  these  dead  twigs  on  a  bush  gi\e  it  a  black,  unsightly 
appearance. 

When  a  thin  section  of  a  blister  is  looked  at  under  the 
microscope  fine  colourless  threads  (hyphte)  of  the  fungus  are 
seen  between  the  cells  of  the  leaf.  These  come  to  the  surface  on 
the  white  side  of  the  blister  and  produce  spores  at  their  ends. 
There    are    two    kinds  of  spores.     The  first  is  two-celled  and    is 


128 


AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA. 


[V,  II. 


produced  at  the  end  of  a  long  stalk.  The  second  kind  is  one- 
celled  and  is  produced  on  a  very  short,  thin,  stalk  from  the  swollen 
end  of  a  hypha.  In  the  latter  case  spores  are  always  produced  in 
pairs. 


Section  of  a  small  part  of  a  leaf  of  the  tea  plant  showing  the  hyphiu  of 

the  fundus  bursting:  through  the  surface  of  the  leaf  and  bearing 

(1)  two-celled  spores  singly  and  {'2)  one-celled  spores  in  pairs. 

When  kept  in  a  moist  chamber  on  a  slip  of  glass  or  on  the 
surface  of  a  fresh  tea  leaf  the  spores  swell  slightly  and  germinate 
within  5^  hours  of  being  sown.  From  each  of  the  cells  of  a 
two-celled  spore  or  from  the  one-celled  spore  a  thin  tube  grows 
out,  increases  in  length  and  enters  the  leaf  bj^  a  breathing- 
pore.  When  inside  it  branches  freely  and  gets  its  nourishment 
from  the  cells  of  the  leaf.  After  a  period  of  eleven  days  the 
translucent  spot  is  clearly  visible  and  in  from  six  to  eight  days 
more  the  blister  is  formed  and  the  hyphie  produce  spores. 

If  a  blister  is  situated  on  the  midrib,  the  leaf  often  folds  or 
rolls  upon  itself  irregularly,  sometimes  the  lower  and  sometimes 
the  upper  surface  of  the  leaf  remaining  outermost.  If  several 
blisters  occur  near  the  margin,  the  leaf  often  becomes  curled 
and   twisted     in    the    most    fantastic    manner.     The    number   of 


THE    OUTBREAK    OF    BLISTFR-BLK  iHT    ON    TEA:    MCIIAE.  129 

blisters  on  a  leaf  varies  from  one  up  to  about  twenty,  and 
they  may  be  isolated  or  several  may  run  together  to  form 
a  large  patch  with  an  irregular  outline.  To  such  an  extent  does 
this  sometimes  go  that  the  whole  under  surface  of  the  leaf  may 
be  covered  with  an  even  mass  of  blisters. 

When  many  of  the  leaves  on  a  bush  have  even  only  a  few  blisters 
each,  the  damao-e  done  to  the  bush  in  reducinor  its  orreen  surface 
available  for  food-making  is  great  and  in  addition  the  parasite  is 
draining  the  host  bush  of  the  nourishment  made  for  it  by  healthy 
leaf  tissue.  When  the  vitality  of  the  growth  is  lowered  the  healthy 
flushing  of  the  young  leaves  and  buds  is  retarded  causing 
considerable  loss.  When  the  disease  runs  unchecked  through 
a  bush  and  the  young  shoots  have  fallen  over  and  decaj'ed 
it  has  a  black,  unsightly  appearance  quite  justifying  the 
anxiety  of  the  managers  on  those  gardens  where  the  disease 
is  prevalent. 

The  exact  place  in  the  district  where  the  disease  first  occurred 
cannot  now  be  settled  with  certainty,  but  it  was  most  probably  on 
the  slopes  on  the  southern  side  of  the  Senchal  ridge.  Last 
year  it  was  noticed  at  several  places  near  the  head  waters  of 
the  Balasan  River  almost  simultaneously.  After  it  had  once  been 
reported  it  was  found  on  quite  a  number  of  gardens.  From  this  it 
may  be  conjectured  that  the  rate  of  dissemination  of  the  disease 
was  very  rapid  or  that  it  may  have  existed  in  the  gardens  for 
some  time  without  having  been  noticed.  This  last  may  quite  well 
have  occurred  in  gardens  where  it  was  doing  little  real  damage 
especially  as  the  disease  was  new  to  the  district  and  was 
then  unknown  to  many  planters.  From  observations  made 
this  year  the  former  also  seems  to  be  the  case,  and  when  once 
the  blisters  have  matured  the  spores,  which  they  produced, 
quickly  become  distril)utcd. 

When  blister-blight  a2:)pears  on  a  block  scattered  bushes  are 
aflected,  some  badly  and  others  slightly.  Only  one  or  two  leaves 
on  a  bush  or  a  few  more  or  a  great  many  are  blistered.  A  block 
may  appear  quite  healthy  till  suddenly  a  few  blistered  leaves  will 
be    seen,  and  this  occurs  in  a  noticeable  way  when  a  spell  of  wet 

d 


130  AGllICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   II. 

weather  recurs  after  a  few  days'  sunshine.  Little  damage  may 
be  done  or  the  blight  may  become  worse  and  worse,  both  mature 
leaves  and  iiushing  shoots  becoming  affected,  then  blackening  and 
dying  till  leaf-picking  is  stopped. 

The  spores  of  the  parasite  are  distributed  by  the  wind  and 
the  quick  distribution  can  be  understood  when  one  remembers 
the  fairly  strong  breezes  that  occur  here.  On  days  in  which 
there  are  a  few  hours  of  dry  weather  or  sunshine,  the  wind  will 
blow  the  light  dry  powdery  spores  about,  and  they  may  be  borne 
a  considerable  way  and  scattered  over  a  comparatively  wide  area. 
In  the  Balasan  Valley  strong  breezes  blow  up  the  valley,  especially 
in  the  evening  of  a  hot  da}^  and  the  blight  has  travelled  much 
more  rapidly  and  is  more  severe  towards  the  head  waters  than 
downwards  towards  the  plains.  In  this  valle}^  the  disease  is  severe 
on  slopes  exposed  to  the  wind,  i.e.,  on  southern  slopes.  On  the 
Tukvar  side  of  Senchal  the  winds  are  not  so  steady  and  are  more 
irregular  in  direction,  and  here  the  distribution  of  the  disease  is 
erratic. 

The  blight  attacks  the  high  ([uality  Assam  and  hybrid  jats 
most  severely,  while  China  and  Manipuri  are  not  so  much  affect- 
ed. It  is  quite  interesting  to  see,  in  some  China  blocks  where 
Assam  or  hybrid  bushes  have  been  used  to  reset  empty  places, 
how  the  leaves  of  the  two  high  quality  jTits  are  well  infected  with 
blister  whereas  the  leaves  of  the  China  are  almost  free.  Yet  in 
some  gardens  China  is  very  badly  affected  and  the  bushes  have  a 
woeful  white  or  black  appearance  according  to  the  stage  of  the 
disease. 

With  respect  to  heavy  pruned,  lightly  pruned  and  unpruned 
tea  it  is  difficult  to  say  definitely  that  one  is  attacked  more  often 
than  another  but,  when  once  the  blight  has  come,  the  damage 
done  is  in  the  order  of  mention.  In  the  young,  succulent  rapidl}'- 
growing  leaves  of  heavy  pruned  tea  the  blight  developes  vigorously 
and  may  destroy  nearly  all  the  leaves  that  ought  to  go  to  form 
growth  leaves.  Now  for  a  good  framework  of  new  wood  a  heavy 
pruned  bush  depends  mainl}^  on  the  growth  made  in  the  first  year 
after  heavy  pruning.     If  then  in  the  first  season  much  damage  is 


THE    OUTBREAK    OF    BLISTER- BLIOHT    ON    TEA   :    MCRAE.  131 

done  to  the  leaves  growth  is  checked,  thus  causing  serious  loss  in 
crop    in    the    following  season. 

The  blight  is  worse  on  places  with  a  higli  rainfall  and 
worst  about  that  elevation  where  rain  falls  nearly  every  day 
and  mists  are  constantly  hanging  about.  Thus  on  the  slopes 
of  the  Rungbang  and  Balasan  Valleys  facing  the  plains  the  blight 
is  on  the  whole  worse  than  on  the  Darjeeling  side  of  Senchal. 
The  bliofht  seems  to  be  more  severe  at  hio-h  elevation  and 
worst  between  4,000  and  5,500  feet.  Not  elevation,  however, 
but  moisture  is  the  real  factor  with  regard  to  severity.  In  this 
district  high  elevation  means,  within  certain  limits,  high  and 
evenly  distributed  rainfall.  The  three  worst  blocks  and  the  only 
extremely  bad  cases  on  a  large  area  seen  by  me  were  on  gardens 
between  5,000  and  5,500  feet.  Whereas  in  a  low  elevation  garden 
in  the  Rangit  Valley,  the  blight  came  late  in  the  season  of  1909 
and  was  only  very  slight  ;  one  had  to  search  to  get  blistered 
leaves.  Too  much  shade  whether  artificial  from  planted  trees 
or  from  proximity  to  jungle  favours  the  blight  and  it  is  worse 
too  on  damp,  shady  hollows.  It  was  found  that  the  bushes 
under  the  trees  grown  for  shade  in  the  garden  were  often  affected 
when  the  surrounding  unshaded  bushes  were  free  from  blight,  and 
when  both  were  affected  the  shaded  bushes  were  more  severely 
blistered.  This  occurred  under  old  trees  that  were  oivino-  more 
shade  than  was  really  necessary,  and  suggests  the  thinning  of 
jungle  trees  near  the  tea  and  lopping  off  branches  where  shade- 
trees  have  become  too  dense. 

The  amount  of  damage  done  b}-  blister-blight  this  season  is 
difficult  to  gauge.  Fortunately  for  the  industry  weather  con- 
ditions were  favourable  from  April  to  June  and  gardens  flushed 
well,  getting  thus  well  ahead  of  their  usual  average.  Tliey  have, 
however,  since  gone  down  and  some  gardens  are  well  behind. 
The  greater  loss  is  attributable  to  wet,  unfavoural)le  weather  in 
Jul}^  and  August  and  a  considei^able  portion  to  blister-blight.  The 
worst  damaged  piece  of  tea  was  a  heavy  pruned  block.  Ninety  per 
cent,  of  the  plants  had  lost  all  their  leaves  or  the  leaves  were  all 
blistered.     As  soon  as  a   bud  sent   forth   a  leaf  it  was  attacked. 


132  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   II. 

The  year's  growth  had  failed,  and  most  of  the  bushes  will  start  next 
spring^as  if  they  had  been  just  pruned  unless,  as  is  more  likely, 
they  start  weakened  by  the  lack  of  growth  this  season.  In  new- 
extension  young  plants  often  suffer  badly  (see  Plate  X,  figs.  4 
and  5).  In  one  seed  bed,  all  the  seedlings  were  destroyed  by 
blister-blight,  and  as  tlie  cost  of  the  seed  and  of  upkeep  amounted 
to  Rs.  770,  this  was  a  dead  loss.  On  Dooteriah  Division  in  the 
two  seasons  over  900  maunds  of  blistered  leaves  were  picked 
and  destroyed  of  which  about  one-sixth  might  have  been  made 
into  tea,  the  remainder  being  mature  leaf.  The  cost  of  collect- 
inof  this  amount  of  blistered  leaf  was  Rs.  657.  At  Tukvar  the 
loss  this  year  is  about  80  maunds  of  tea.  These  are  average 
examples  of  loss,  but  some  gardens  have  lost  much  more  and 
others  nuich  less.  No  account  has  been  taken  of  the  damafre 
due  to  lowerino-  of  tone  and  weakenino-  of  the  bushes. 

How  the  bliglit  came  to  the  tea  plant  in  this  district  is  not 
definitely  known.  It  may  liave  been  imported  into  the  district 
from  Assam  or  have  come  from  the  jungle.  Every  year  small 
iiuantities  of  seed  are  ini[)orted  into  the  Darjeeling  district  and 
very  probably  from  Dibrugarh  and  the  surrounding  tea-area 
where  some  of  the  best  tea-seed  is  grown.  It  is  possible  that  the 
blight  may  have  been  introduced  with  the  seed  or  the  earth  in 
which  it  is  usuall)'-  packed.  Though  many  spotted  leaves  from 
weeds  and  trees  amoni»-  the  tea  bushes  and  on  the  edofe  of 
the  jungle  were  examined  none  were  found  to  have  been  caused 
by  the  same  fungus  {K.cuha.sidiuui  vexcins)  as  causes  blister- 
blight  on  tea.  On  Kharani  {Symplocos  T/iccB/'ulia)  a  very 
similar  blister  occurs  caused  by  an  Exobasidium  nearly  related 
to  that  on  tea.  Tiiere  are  microscopic  differences  between  the 
two  fungi  and  probably  they  are  different  species.  Preliminary 
inoculations  made  to  see  if  spores  from  the  Kharani  blister 
would  attack  tea  were  not  successful. 

Methods  that  have  been  tried  for  keeping  the  disease  in 
check  resolve  themselves  into  (1)  picking  oif  diseased  material,  (2) 
pruning,  and  (3)  spraying  with  fungicides.  The  first  and  second 
aim    at  lessening  the  spread  of  the  disease  by  removing,  and 


PLATE  XIII 


k,/w 


..**^- 


A.  J.   I. 


KXOIiASIIHU.M    ON    SVMl'I.OCOS    Til  IMa'OLIA. 


THE    OUTBREAK    OF    BLISTER- BLIOHT    ON    TEA  :    MCREA.  133 

destro^'ing  the  material  containing  tlie  spores  of  tlie  parasite 
wliich  cause  new  infection.  The  tliiixl  aims  at  kilHng  the 
fungus  and  at  preventing  the  growth  of  spores  that  ina}^  fall  on 
the  spraj'ed  leaves. 

On  Dooteriah  Division  ever  since  the  blioht  was  first  seen 
the  ]\Ianager  had  the  blistered  leaves  picked  off  and  destroyed, 
and  it  was  hoped  that  this  would  have  been  enough  to  keep  the 
disease  in  check.  The  coolies  who  picked  the  blistered  leaves  were 
not  allowed  to  pick  leaf  for  tea  and  the  baskets  were  kept  separate. 
The  diseased  leaf  was  burned  in  tlie  factor}^  furnace  when  the 
coolies  happened  to  be  within  reach,  otherwise  it  was  buried  in 
trenches.  This  saved  the  risk  of  infection  while  the  baskets 
were  beino-  carried  lonof  distances  throuo^h  tlie  tea  or  sent  down 
the  wire  rope.  The  tea  near  these  trenches  did  not  become 
more  affected  by  the  blight  than  that  an3Mvhere  else.  In  all  620 
inaunds  of  blistered  leaves  were  destroj-ed  this  season,  yet  in 
September  the  blight  spread  more  rapidly  than  it  could  be  dealt 
with  and  got  beyond  the  available  labour  for  treating  it  in  this 
way.  Thus  though  the  blight  was  kept  in  check  for  a  time  the 
result  was  not  satisfactor3\ 

The  Manager  of  Pussimbing  tried  to  check  the  blight  by 
close  picking.  All  blistered  leaves,  3^oung  shoots  and  sprouting 
buds  were  removed  whether  affected  with  blister-blight  oi-  not,  and 
then  the  coolies  got  I'ound  the  oarden  once  every  eio^ht  to  ten 
daj's.  They  took  a  bud  and  two  leaves  as  usual  but  removed  most 
of  the  third  leaf  as  well.  The  idea  was  to  take  all  the  leaves  on 
which  the  blit^ht  grows  before  it  had  time  to  bring  its  new  spores  to 
maturit3\  By  thus  continually  preventing  the  production  of 
spores,  it  was  hoped  that,  after  a  time  the  young  shoots  would 
grow  up  free  from  bhght.  So  far  as  the  absence  of  blister- 
blight  is  concerned,  the  result  on  Pussimbing  and  especially  on 
Pubong  was  very  satisfactojy.  In  Juh^  blight  was  prevalent 
on  both  gardens  and  severe  on  part  of  the  latter,  but  by  the 
middle  of  September  there  was  not  much  blight  on  either. 

The  drawback  planters  uro-e  ao-ainst  this  method  is  thot 
it  takes  a  strong  labour  force  to  pick  over  a  garden    in   the   time 


134  AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL   OF   INDIA.  [V,  II. 

and  in  most  gardens  in  the  Darjeeling  district  at  the  present  time 
this  is  said  not  to  be  available  in  the  busy  season.  If  a  garden 
was  in  vigorous  health  and  flushing  well,  it  could  not  be  over- 
taken in  time,  for  even  with  the  ordinary  way  of  jDicking  it  is 
sometimes  difficult  to  get  round.  Then,  again,  this  method  of 
close  picking  is  practicable  only  in  the  latter  part  of  the  season 
after  good  growth  has  been  made  in  the  earlier  part  of  the  year, 
but  Avould  be  dangerous  after  a  period  of  unfavourable  growth  at 
the  opening  of  the  growing  season.  Some  modification  in  the 
style  of  leaf-picking  along  the  lines  of  this  method  seems, 
however,  the  most  likely  way  of  dealing  with  the  blight  in 
the  rains,  and  the  details  will  have  to  be  worked  out  b}"  a 
practical  man  on  the  infected  gardens. 

Spraying. — It  Nvas  demonstrated  at  Tukvar  in  a  number 
of  small  experiments  that  spraying  with  Bordeaux  Mixture 
kills  the  spores  and  filaments  of  the  fungus  where  the  liquid 
comes  in  contact  with  them.  It  also  does  much  good  on  young 
f/reen  twio-s  affected  with  blioht.  In  the  usual  course  of 
the  disease  when  a  twig  becomes  "  blistered"  the  swelling 
extends  gradually  round  and  through  the  twig,  and  ultimately 
causes  the  part  above  the  spot  to  succumb.  If,  however,  it  is 
sprayed  before  the  spot  has  extended  much,  then  the  Bordeaux 
Mixture  kills  the  fungus  and  the  shoot  recovers.  This  in  itself 
is  a  ofreat  advantaofe  as  it  saves  the  buds  in  the  axils  of  the 
leaves  above  the  affected  spot  to  produce  leaf  for  tea.  The 
mixture  on  the  leaves  also  prevents  spores  that  fall  on  them  from 
developing. 

As  spore-formation  usually  and  infection  invariabh^  takes 
place  on  the  under-surface  of  the  leaf,  this  is  the  side  that  must 
be  spraj^ed.  That  accordingly  makes  sprajnng  difficult  as  the 
tea  bushes  are  very  dense.  Spraying  on  tea  gardens  situated  as 
they  are  on  steep  slopes  of  hill  sides  is  an  arduous  task.  The 
chief  difficulties  in  the  way  are  due  to  heavy  rainfall  and  to 
the  difficulty  of  transporting  water  for  preparing  the  fungicide. 
During  the  time  Avhen  blister-blight  is  spreading  the  heavy  and 
frequent  showers  wash  off  any  liquid  sprayed  on  the  leaves,  and 


THE    OUTBREAK    OF    BLISTER-BLIOHT    ON    TEA  :    MCRAE.  135 

especially  on  the  high  gardens,  about  the  mist-zone  where  it  is 
often  continuously  wet  for  clays  together.  The  fungicide  does 
not  always  remain  long  enough  on  the  leaves  to  prevent  incipient 
blisters  from  maturing.  It  has  no  effect  on  new  shoots  that 
develop  after  the  application,  and  they  are  just  as  ready  to  be 
infected  and  spraying  must  be  repeated  for  their  benefit.  General 
spraying  in  the  rains  is  im])racticable,  baton  heavy  pruning,  new- 
extension  and  seed-beds,  where  the  area  is  small  and  the  blight 
might  cause  heavy  loss,  the  labour  and  expense  of  repeated 
spraying  would  be  well  repaid  by  the  saving  uf  the  plants.  At 
Tukvar  a  small  block  of  heavy  pruning  became  well  blighted  in 
June  and  July.  It  was  sprayed  with  Bordeaux  Mixture  five 
times,  and  in  September  looked  very  well,  though  it  never  became 
cjuite  free  from  blight ;  a  few  blisters  could  be  found  here  and  there. 
The  bushes  were  all  healthy  and  had  made  good  growth.  The 
Manaofer  was  well  satisfied  that  the  result  was  worth  the  eftbrt 
made.  Spraying  in  such  cases,  to  do  good  must  be  repeated  ; 
once  only  is  not  enough.  Buds  that  open  after  the  bush  has 
been  sprayed  are  unprotected  by  the  fungicide,  and  are  liable  to 
fresh  infection  and  have  to  be  covered  with  fungicide. 

Pruning.  —  It  is  on  pruning  that  reliance  will  have  to  be 
placed  in  combating  blister-blight  during  the  cold  weather.  For 
this  one  cold  weather  all  bushes  should  be  pruned,  in  the  ordinary 
way  back  to  the  last  one  or  two  buds  and  the  lower  as  well  as 
the  upper  parts  of  the  bash  should  receive  attention.  All 
pi'unings  or  at  any  rate  all  from  aftected  areas  should  be 
burned  or  buried,  and  with  careful  cultivation  following,  all  the 
fallen  leaves  and  twigs  will  be  turned  in  and  rendered  harmless. 
Piuninfrs  ouo-ht  bv  no  means  to  be  left  on  the  ground  nor  is  it 
sutticient,  simply  to  turn  them  in  during  cultivation. 

As  it  is  possible  and  veiy  })robable  that  unpruned  tea  carries 
over  the  blight  from  the  end  of  one  season  to  the  beginning  of  the 
next,  it  is  strongly  to  be  recommended  that  this  cold  weather  no  tea 
be  left  unpruned.  Heavy  pruned  tea  suffers  severel}^  and  whether 
the  leaves  are  picked  off  or  left  blistered  on  the  bush  an  attack 
often  means  disaster.     As  little  as  possible  heavy  i)runing  should 


13G  AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  II. 

be  done  this  autumn,  and  when  it  must  be  done  care  should 
be  exercised  in  selecting  a  plot  that  it  is  not  very  near  one 
that  was  badly  affected.  It  is  necessary  that  every  one  should 
adopt  the  measures  as  one  neglected  garden  may  infect  a  whole 
neighbourhood. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  season  of  1910,  a  careful  look-out 
should  be  kept  for  the  first  appearance  of  blister-blight  and  when- 
ever seen  the  blistered  leaves  should  be  destroj^ed  and  the  surround- 
ing bushes  should  be  sprayed  thoroughly  with  Bordeaux  Mixture, 
and  after  a  day  or  two  a  man  should  be  sent  round  to  pick  any 
leaves  with  fresh  blisters  that  may  have  escaped  treatment. 
Continue  the  treatment  till  the  early  rains  come. 

Recommendations  for  the  cold  weather  of  1909-1910. 
It  would  be  desirable 

to  prune  all  bushes  in  the  garden.  The  pruners  should 
open  up  the  bushes  and  remove  all  growth-leaf  showing  traces 
of  having  been  blistered. 

to  leave  no  unpruned  tea  anywhere  on  the  garden  and  to  do 
no  top-pruning  (skiffing). 

to  do  heav}^  i)runing  with  caution  and  to  restrict  the  area 
as  far  as  possible.  It  should  be  done  comparatively  early  to 
get  some  growth  in  spring  before  the  blight  may  appear. 

to  burn  prunings  or  to  bur}'  them  in  trenches  under  at 
least  Ij  foot  of  earth. 

to  have  a  responsible  assistant  go  carefullj''  over  every  block 
to  see  that  no  infected  stems  or  leaves  are  left  on  the  bushes  or 
exposed  on  the  ground. 

to  begin  pruning  early  in  the  cold  weather  and  to  cultivate 
soon  afterwards,  in  order  that  any  blighted  leaves  or  twigs  on 
the  ground  may  be  forked  in. 

Every  garden  in  the  whole  district  should  be  pruned. 
Success  in  extei-miiuiting  the  blight  depends  on  whole-hearted 
co-operation. 

If  blister-blight  should  appear  in  March  pick  off  blistered 
leaves  at  once  and  spray  the  surrounding  bushes.  This  may 
be  done  till  the  early  rains  come. 


THE    OUTBREAK    OF    BLISTER-BLIGHT    ON    TEA  :    MCRAE.  137 

In  seetl-beds,  new-extension  and  heavy  pruning,  where  the 
damage  from  blister-blight  is  considerable,  be  prepared  to  expend 
money  on  repeated  application  of  blight-remedies  because 
the  benefit  in  each  case  would  moie  than  pa}-  for  the  cost  of 
treatment. 

Explanation  of  Plates. 

Plate  X  (Frontispiece). 
Tea  leaves  and  stems  afifected  by  Blister-Blight. 

Plate  XI. 
Fig.   1.     Shoot  of  a  tea    showing    the  upper    part    bending    over     at     the 

affected  spot  on  the  stem. 
Fig.   2.      Upper  side  of  a  blistered  leaf  showing  the  concave  spots.     From  a 

photograph. 
Fig.   3.     Under  side  of  a  blistered   leaf  showing  the  convex  spore-covered 

surface.     From  a  photograph. 

Plate  XIT. 

Tea  bush  affected  by  Blister-Blight.  From  a  photograph  by  Mr. 
Claud  Bald,  Tukvar.  The  surrounding  bushes  have  been  blucked 
from  the  backgrciund. 

Plate  XIII. 
Exobasidinm    on   Kharani    (Sipnplocos  Theit-fulia,    D.    Don.) 


A  NEW  INSECTICIDE. 

By  H.  MAXWELL-LEFROY,  m.a.,  f.e.s.,  f.z.s., 

Imperial  Entomologist^    Pusa. 

Insecticides  do  not  occupy  the  same  place  in  this  country 
that  tliey  do  in  other  agricultural  countries,  but  they  have  been 
increasingly  used  during  the  last  few  years  by  those  who  grow 
the  more  valuable  permanent  crops,  fruit  trees  or  vegetable 
crops,  and  they  are  a  necessit}^  on  experimental  farms  where  the 
results  of  experiments  must  not  be  interfered  with  by  insect 
}K'sts.  A  small  number  of  standard  insecticides,  suited  to  a 
tropical  climate,  have  been  tested  in  India,  and  they  have  been 
available  and  are  in  use.  In  this  country,  lunvever,  there  aie 
objections  to  the  use  of  one  class  of  insecticide  which  is  lariielv 
em[)lo3'ed  elsewhere,  namely,  the  arsenical  poisons  used  against 
caterpillars,  grasshoppers  and  similar  leaf-eating  insects  ;  these 
objections  are  important,  and  they  have  been  a  constant  bar  to 
the  use  of  these  compounds;  thebest  form  of  "stomach  poison"(Lf., 
insecticide  which  poisons  the  insect  eating  the  leaf)  is  lead  arseniate; 
it  has  in  America  replaced  Paris  Green,  London  Purple  and  the 
older  arsenicals  ver}^  largely  and  even  in  England  is  now  being  used. 
Lead  arseniate  was  introduced  to  India  six  years  ago,  has  been 
made  and  sold  to  a  considerable  extent,  and  has  represented  the 
best  available  stomach  poison.  The  objections  to  it  are  of  a 
peculiar  nature  ;  it  is  first  of  all  an  irritant  cattle  and  human 
poison  ;  its  introduction  into  India  generall}"  might  lead  to  com- 
plications such  as  cattle-poisoning,  etc.,  which  would  be  ascribed 
to  its  use  as  an  in.secticide  ;  it  decomposes  in  this  country'  if  kept 
in  paste  form,  owing  partly  to  the  high  temperatures  ;  and  in 
decomposing  it  forms  soluble  arsenic  which  poisons  the  plant 
at  once,  it  is  expensive,   its  ingredients  are  not  readily   obtained 


A    NEW    INSECTICIDE:    MAXWELL-LEFROY.  130 

and  only  one  firm  in  India  makes  it.  Its  careless  use  might  lead 
to  cases  of  cattle-poisoning.  Especially  in  a  country  where  crops 
are  not  fenced,  where  stray  cattle  abound  and  where  spraying  is 
not  a  general  practice.  The  mere  suggestion  of  using  an 
arsenical  is  repugnant  to  those  not  accustomed  to  the  use  of 
insecticides,  and  this  has  militated  against  its  general  use. 

Unfortunately  there  has  been  nothing  to  replace  it  ;  lead 
arseniate  is  in  constant  use  elsewhere,  and  neither  entomologists 
nor  insecticide  manufacturers  have  found  a  demand  for  anything 
not  containing  arsenic  ;  lead  arseniate  has  not  the  objections  else- 
where as  it  has  here,  and  no  other  stomach  poison  known  could 
replace  it.  This  was  realised  some  years  ago,  and  one  of  the 
first  investigations  taken  up  at  Pusa  was  to  find  a  substitute 
which  had  not  the  objection  arsenic  has  while  still  being  an 
insecticide. 

Tills  incjuiry  has  been  in  progress  for  four  3'ears  ;  in  order  to 
make  it  thorough,  the  work  was  planned  on  a  wide  basis,  in  the 
hope  of  eliciting  some  guiding  principle.  Substances  of  all  sorts 
were  tried,  mineral  compounds,  salts,  organic  compounds,  alkalies, 
etc.  ;  the  work  was  first  done  in  the  insectar}"  on  caterjiillars  in 
captivit}^  and  on  one  uniform  method.  A  number  of  caterpillars 
were  kept  and  fed  in  confinement  ;  twenty  was  the  usual  number  ; 
the  food  was  dipped  in  water  containing  a  weighed  quantit}''  of 
the  substance  under  trial,  precautions  were  taken  to  make  this 
wettino'  even  ;  the  amount  of  food  was  such  that  nearlv  all  was 
normally  eaten  ;  i.e.,  each  caterpillar  got  all  it  wanted,  and 
between  them  practicall}^  all  supplied  was  eaten  daily,  so  that  if 
the  poison  was  unevenly  distributed  on  the  leaf,  the  parts  where 
it  was  thickei-  were  eaten  as  well  as  the  rest,  and  the  averao-e 
effect  was  the  same.  Tiie  method  is  not  an  entirel}'  accurate  one, 
but  is  as  near  accuracy  as  can  be  got. 

The  compounds  tested  were  weighed  in  molecular  propor- 
tions equivalent  to  a  standard  dose  of  lead  arseniate  ;  thus  taking 
I  11).  of  lead  arseniate  in  30  gallons  as  standard,  the  other 
compounds  were  calculated  in  molecular  proportions,  and  not  in 
equal  weights. 


140  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,    II. 

The  estimation  of  poisoning  eftect  was  done  by  observing 
after  how  many  hours  each  caterpillar  died,  if  it  did  die,  and 
taking  the  weighted  mean  of  the  results  ;  thus,  if  of  20  caterpillars 
:3  died  in  6,  3  in  9,  12  in  12,  and  2  in  15  hours  ;  the  average 
period  of  life  after  feeding  poison  was  11  hours;  the  poisoning 
ratio  was  taken  then  as  II.  The  lower  the  fi^'ure,  the  o-reater 
the  poisoning  effect,  and  for  each  substance  we  obtained  a  definite 
fii^ure.  After  a  lono-  series  had  been  done,  it  was  found  that  the 
compounds  fell  into  four  classes  :  those  that  killed  in  24  hours, 
those  that  killed  in  24  to  40,  those  that  killed  faii'ly  regularl}^,  but 
with  an  averao^e  fio;ure  from  40  to  100,  and  those  that  were  irreo-ular 
or  without  eftect.  For  instance,  if  we  fed  Magnesium  Carbonate, 
and  out  of  20,  15  catei'pillars  survived  5  days,  the  average  figure 
becomes  some  thing  over  100,  and  this  compound  was  rejected, 
as  it  was  found  that  usually  the  caterpillars  survived  altogether  ;  in 
an}^  case,  caterpillars  in  4  da3^s'  hard  feeding  would  do  damao-e. 

Having  got  classes  1  and  II  defined,  the  ])raetical  necessities 
of  the  case  were  considered;  for  instance,  Iodoform  is  very  deadly, 
but  useless  as  a  field  insejticide  ;  we  turned  to  the  substances  in 
classes  I  and  II  that  might  be  useful,  and  we  found  that  there 
were  certain  substances  that  might  be  commercially  available  ; 
what  must  such  an  insecticide  be  :*  It  must  be  (a)  insoluble  in 
water,  or  rain  washes  it  off;  (b)  cheap  ;  (c)  stable  and  not  apt  to 
decompose  into  compounds  that  poison  the  leaf. 

Eliminating  from  classes  I  and  II  the  compounds  not  fulfil- 
ling' these  conditions,  tliere  remained  a  sumll  number  of  sub- 
stances,  not  (^f  very  higli  killing  value,  that  niight  be  valuable  as 
"  deterrents"  if  not  as  '•  insecticides."  Thus,  a  plant  sprayed  with 
Copper  Sulphide  might  be  so  distasteful  to  caterpillars  that 
they  would  leave  it  even  if  it  did  not  poison  them.  Tlie  commei'- 
cial  possibilities  of  these  were  investigated,  and  it  was  found 
some  of  them  were  available  as  dry  paints  ;  these  were  tested, 
and  among  them  was  a  particularly  effective  compound  sold  as 
Lemon  Chrome  ;  this  consists  of  Gypsum  and  Lead  Chromate  in 
particular  proportions  to  give  a  lemon  yellow  tint.  Lead  Chromate 
was  accordingly  tested  and  gave  good  results  ;  its  poisoning  action 


A    NEW    IXSKCTICIDE  :    MAXWKLL-LEFROY.  141 

was  high,  and  it  seemed  hkely  to  be  a  commercial  possibility'. 
Up  to  now  all  the  tests  were  insectary  ones,  field  tests  were  then 
made,  first  on  plants  under  control  with  a  definite  number  of 
caterpillars  on,  then,  as  opportunity  offered,  on  crops  attacked  by 
caterpillars.  On  these  field  tests,  it  was  found  tiiat  some  other- 
wise suitable  compounds  injured  tlic  [)laiits,  and  as  a  result  of 
these  tests,  all  other  compounds  but  Lead  Chromate  weie 
abandoned.  Lead  Chromate  offers  distinct  advantaoes  ;  it  is 
easily  made  in  paste  form  ;  it  is  yellow  and  can  be  easily 
seen  on  a  sprayed  plant  ;  it  is  extremely  insoluble  ;  soluble 
chromates  do  not  poison  plants  to  the  extent  arsenic  does,  so 
even  were  it  to  decompose,  it  would  not  be  injurious  ;  it  does  not 
decompose  on  a  leaf;  it  is  not  easily  washed  off;  it  contains  no 
arsenic.  Daring  this  year  we  have  applied  this  compound  to  a 
great  variety  of  crops  ;  we  have  sprayed  them  till  every  leaf  was 
yellow  ;  the  poison  has  remained  on  for  over  three  weeks,  thickly 
on  the  leaves,  which  were  uninjured  ;  sprayed  on  to  crops  attacked 
by  caterpillars,  the  caterpillars  are  killed,  and  the  results  obtained 
have  been  excellent.  We  have  used  this  at  1  lb.  in  32  o-allons  ;  at 
this  strength  it  is  entirely  safe,  poisons  caterpillars  and  acts  as  a 
very  powerful  deterrent. 

In  protecting  plants  from  cater[)illars  and  grasshoppers  there 
are  two  things  to  consider  :  are  you  dealing  witli  a  caterpillar 
which  feeds  specially  on  that  plant,  or  are  you  dealing  with  a 
grasshopper  or  beetle  which  is  not  restricted  to  that  phmt  ;  for 
the  former  you  must  apply  an  insecticide,  a  real  killing  agent, 
that  will  poison  it,  because  it  can  feed  on  nothing  but  that  plant, 
and  all  its  instincts  are  to  do  so  ;  for  the  latter,  a  deterrent  is 
sufficient,  because  it  will  leave  that  sprayed  crop  and  go  else- 
where. In  cei'tain  cases  a  deterrent  is  sufficient  ;  in  others, 
especially  with  caterpillars,  you  nmst  apply  a  really  deadly  com- 
pound in  small  amounts  that  will  actually  kill.  Lead  Chromate 
has  not  the  poisoning  effect  of  Paris  Green  for  instance,  which 
can  be  applied  at  one  pound  in  200  gallons  ;  but  it  has  a  poisoning 
effect  comparable  with  that  of  Lead  Arseniate  and  is,  in  our 
experience,  a  perfect  substitute. 


142  AQllICULTUKAL   JOURNAL   OF    INDIA.  [V,  11. 

Lead  Chroinate  is  made  by  dissolving  in  one  lot  of  water 
Potassium  Bichromate,  in  another  lot  of  water  Lead  Acetate  or 
Nitrate.  The  two  solutions  are  mixed,  and  a  dense  j^ellow 
precipitate  of  insoluble  liCad  Chromate  is  formed,  and  Potas- 
sium Nitrate  or  Acetate.  The  latter  is  soluble  and  is  readily 
washed  out  of  the  precipitate.  We  have  neglected  it  and  pre- 
pared our  Lead  Chromate  by  dissolving  the  lead  salt  in  the  spray- 
ing machine,  dissolving  separately  the  Bichromate  and  adding 
the  solution  to  the  spraying  machine.  The  figures  are  as 
follows  : — 

66'2  o-rammes  of  Lead  Nitrate  combine  with  29 '4  oframmes  of 
Potassium  Bichromate  giving  G4'6  grammes  of  Lead  Chromate  ; 
allowing  for  impurities,  we  found  that  65 '2  grammes  of  commer- 
cial Lead  Nitrate  combined  with  30  grammes  of  Potassium 
Bichromate  ;  in  practice  2  ounces  of  Lead  Nitrate  combine  with 
one. ounce  of  Potassium  Bichromate  giving  two  ounces  of  Lead 
Chromate  ;  this  is  the  actual  amount  required  for  one  kerosene 
tin  of  water  (4  gallons)  at  full  strength  or  for  two  kerosene  tins 
of  water  at  the  usual  strength, 

This  is  the  best  way  to  apply  it,  to  mix  the  two  solutions 
in  the  spraying  machine  and  then  appl}^  it  ;  but  the  paste  can 
be  purchased  and  arrangements  have  been  made  for  the  sale  of 
this  insecticide. 

In  India,  there  is  a  very  large  field  for  the  use  of  insecti- 
cides, but  they  are  as  yet  very  little  known.  For  many  reasons 
they  cannot  be  applied  at  present  to  ordinary  field  crops  ;  but 
from  experiment  farms,  from  those  cultivating  valuable  crops, 
fruit  trees,  or  vegetables  we  get  a  steady  stream  of  enquiries  as 
to  how  to  check  beetles,  grasshoppers,  caterpillars  and  similar 
biting  insects.  To  all  of  these  there  is  but  one  answer  :  apply  a 
stomach  poison  :  now  that  a  non-arsenical  stomach  poison  is 
available,  and  that  a  thoroughly  good  reliable  hand  sprayer  can 
be  bought  at  a  reasonable  price  in  India,  there  is  no  reason  why 
such  pests  should  not  be  dealt  with.  At  Piisa  we  have  occasion 
to  use  stomach  poisons  constantly  ;  against  all  insects  that  injure 
crops  by  biting  the  leaves,  we   use    Lead  Chromate  and  we   can 


A    NEW    INSECTICIDE  :    MAXWELL-LEFROY.  143 

use  no  other  method  that  is  equally  eftective  and  cheap.  The  dis- 
covery of  a  substitute  for  arsenic  removes  one  objection  to 
this  method  of  treatment,  and  we  believe  that  there  is  no 
reason  why  the  use  of  this  insecticide  should  not  entirely  remove 
the  losses  experienced  from  this  class  of  pest  on  the  more  valu- 
able crops  and  on  experiment  farms.  There  is  at  present  no 
commercial  agency  that  advertises  and  pushes  the  sale  of  insec- 
ticides and  machines,  but  we  have  arranged  for  the  sale  of  this 
insecticide  and  will  give  particulars  on  application. 


CATTLE-BREEDING  IN  SIND. 
JBy  G.  S.  HENDERSON,  n.d.a.,  n.d.d., 
Deputy  Director  of  AgrictiUure,  Sind,  Mirjnirlchas. 

Present  Condition  of  Cattle. — Looking  generally  to  this  in 
the  light  of  experience  gained  b}''  touring  through  most  of  the 
representative  tracts  of  Sind,  the  whole  country  might  be  classed 
for  the  purpose  in  view  as  follows  : — 

1.  Karachi  and  West  non-alluvial  country, 

'2.  Thar  or  desert  portion  extending  from  Runn  of  Cutch 
north  to  Ghotki  and  Mirpur  Mathelo  talukas  and  to  the  east 
of  the  Nara. 

3.  Lower  irrigated  Sind  including  all  the  south  alluvial  land 
from  the  Runn  of  Cutch. 

4.  Upper  Sind. 

These  divisions  arc  useful,  as  the  general  conditions  of  cattle 
stock  in  each  individual  division  are  similar,  but  the  divisions 
vary  from  each  other  considerabh\ 

2.  Karachi. — This  is  the  only  part  of  Sind  where  cattle- 
breeding  as  distinct  from  cattle-keeping  can  [)]'operly  be  said  to 
exist.  The  country  round  Karachi  is  non-alluvial  with  promi- 
nent stony  hills  of  lime-stone  out-cropping.  The  rainfall  is 
small,  and  apnrt  from  the  valley's,  there  is  little  cultivation,  and 
that  very  scattered.  Cattle-breeding  is  carried  on  here  chiefly 
with  the  object  of  supplying  the  Karachi  market  with  milk. 
When  too  far  from  Karachi,  (jhcc  is  made.  A  number  of  the 
cattle  owners  are  not  zemindars  and  wander  about  considerably. 
The  principles  of  breeding  are  clearly  understood  ;  the  cattle  are 
carefully  bred  ;  and  the  advantages  of  breeding  from  bulls  descend- 
ed from  a  milky  strain  are  clearly  recognised.  An  excellent  type 
of  dairy  cow  has  thus  been  evolved.     The  cows  when  in  milk  get 


CATTLE-BREEDING    IN    SIND  :    HENDERSON.  145 

8  to  10  lbs.  per  clay  of  concentrated  foods,  and  in  some  instances, 
are  said  to  yield  30  lbs.  or  3  gallons  of  milk  per  day,  an  excellent 
result,  and  a  yield  which  would  shame  no  highly  bred  dairy  cow 
in  England.  They  are  exceedingly  hardy  and  have  a  large  run 
of  pasturage,  though  on  little  of  the  land  could  any  fodder  crops 
be  grown.  It  is  from  the  cattle  round  Karachi  that  Sind  has  got 
its  name  of  beinof  an  excellent  milk  cow.  A  number  has  been 
exported  from  Karachi  to  various  parts  of  the  world,  and  is 
favourably  spoken  of  in  Ceylon  and  Straits  Settlements.  So  in 
this  district,  any  lines  of  improvement  adopted  must  be  in  the 
direction  of  milk  production.  Working  capacity  is  a  secondary 
consideration. 

3.  TIk.iv  or  Desert.— The  chief  natural  feature  of  this  coun- 
try is  parallel  ranges  of  .sand  hills  piled  up  by  the  prevailing 
winds  and  more  or  less  covered  by  spurs  and  typical  desert  vege- 
tation. The  "  bhitts  "  or  ridges  run  from  north-west  to  south- 
east and  are  often  \  mile  broad  and  over  200  feet  high  from 
crest  to  trough.  Some  cultivation  is  done  in  years  of  good  rain- 
fall between  ridges  where  the  rainfall  gathers.  The  villages  are 
very  scattered,  but  each  village  owns  a  big  herd  of  cattle,  and  in 
the  south,  buffaloes.  The  cattle  are  all  mixed  together,  and  bull- 
calves  are  seldom  castrated.  Pasturage  is,  as  a  rule,  plentiful, 
specially  after  the  rains.  The  number  ot  cattle  kept  depends  on 
the  supply  of  water  available.  Tanks  and  wells  are  often  10  miles 
or  more  apart.  If  the  rains  are  defective,  the  cattle  are  often 
brought  up  the  Nara  Valley.  On  the  Runn  itself  large  herds 
of  buffaloes  are  grazed,  (rhct'  is  the  great  export,  and  little 
else  is  carried  fVom  the  desert  stations  of  the  Jodhpur-Bikanir 
Railway.  The  cattle  here  generally  show  admixture  of  Marwar 
or  Cutch  blood.  Light  gray  is  the  prevailing  colour  ;  they  are 
generally  bigger  and  longer  in  the  leg  than  the  typical  Sindi 
with  finer  head  and  longer  horns.  As  a  rule,  the  cows  are  not 
nearly  such  heavy  milkers  as  the  Kamchi  ones,  nor  are  they 
so  well  fed  or  cared  for. 

4.  Lower  Sind. — The  cattle,  on  the  whole,  are  distinctly 
good,  and  quite  suitable    for    the    country.      There    is   a  distinct 

10 


140  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDL\.  [V,   IL 

tendency. to Wcircls  deterioration  in  Upper  Hyderabad,    where   the 
system   of  irrigation   is   mostly    "  Hft.  "     Wiien    tlie    Indus  is  in 
flood,  the  inundation  canals   are  filled,   and    water   is   lifted   from 
these  by  Persian  wheels  or  "  hurlas.  "     On  lower  ground  towards 
the  tails  of  these  canals   '  How  '  irrigation  is  obtained,  and   rice  is 
generally  cultivated.     On  tlie    lift    land,    the    cattle    get    harder 
work,   and   the  natural   grass  gets  dried  up  sooner.     On  the  rice 
land  in  Lar  and  along  the  Nara  Vallej^   generall}^    the  cattle   ai'e 
of  as   good   a  type  as   could  be  desired  under  the  circumstances. 
They  are  a  good  size,  strong  and  both  useful  milkers  and  workers. 
They  are  very  hardy  and    have   remarkable   powers   of  recupera- 
tion  from   periods  of  scarcity.     There  seems  to  be  no  scareitj'  in 
numbers  ;  on  the   contrary,   on   the  Mithrao  Canal,   hundreds   of 
cattle    can    be    seen    watering    every    few    miles,    each   herd   the 
property  of  the  neighbouring  village.     Also  in  Lar  in  the  middle 
of  the  hot  weather,  large  numbers  of  cattle  may  be    met   coming 
up   from   the  low   rice   lands  to  escape  mosquitoes  and  flies.     On 
the  Jamrao  area  the  cattle  are  more    mixed    in    type,    and    there 
arc    many     villages     with    very    poor     cattle,     this    land    being- 
more    recently    settled.       Some    colonists    brought    their  cattle 
with  them  from  the  Punjab,    and    a    few    imported   cattle   from 
Mar  war. 

5.  Upper  Sind. — The  cattle  in  Upper  Sind  and  speciallj^ 
in  Sukkur  are  in  great  contrast  to  those  generally  found  in 
Lower  Sind.  They  are  all  round  of  similar  type,  but  are  very 
considerably  smaller  and  weaker.  Indeed,  it  is  almost  impossible 
to  introduce  an}^  improved  agricultural  implement  into  this  dis- 
trict without  getting  it  first  specially  lightened.  The  cattle 
have  constant  work  here,  and  there  is  great  need  for  the  introduc- 
tion of  a  bigger  and  heavier,  but  still  hard}'',  type.  Selected 
specimens  of  Lower  Sind  cattle  would  do  admirably.  There  is 
much  "  bosi  "  and  "  sailabi  "  cultivation,  i.e.,  flooding  the  land  on 
the  rise  of  the  Indus,  and  thereafter  keeping  the  land  constantly 
ploughed  to  pi'event  evaporation  till  rfthi  crops  are  sown  in 
October  and  November.  Also  much  of  the  hliarif  cultivation  is 
left,  so  the  importance  of  good  work  cattle  is  obvious.     The  type 


CATTLK-T.KEEniNfi    IX    SIXH:    HKXDERSOX.  147 

of  countiy  cart  depends  greatly  on  the  cattle  available.  In 
Ijower  Sind  where  the  roads  are  not  absolutely'  impracticable  for 
wheeled  traffic,  the  cai'ts  used  are  strong,  well-built  and  iioii 
tyred.  In  Upper  Sind,  the  ///"n-//  is  very  knlchd  with  solid 
wooden  wheels  and  wooden  axle,  and  drawn  by  "  bails"  not  much 
bio-o-er  than  good-sized  donkeys.  This  point  is  important  as  the 
Army  Supply  and  Transport  Department  only  register  iron-tyred 
(jh dries  for  mobilisation  purposes. 

fi.  T^^r'f/m//.— Strictly  speaking,  there  is  really  no  system  of 
common  pasturage  in  Sind,  except  perhaps  in  the  desert.  Owing 
to  the  fallow  system  where  a  cultivator  will  only  take  a  crop  off 
\  of  his  holding  in  one  season,  there  is  alwaj's  a  lai'ge  area  to 
run  his  cattle  on.  In  Lower  Sind  especially  when,  as  in  the  last 
few  years,  the  rainftxll  has  been  over  10",  the  waste  land  gives  a 
certain  amount  of  natural  herbage.  In  Upper  Sind,  the  rain- 
lall  is  much  less,  and  the  natural  grass  correspondingl}'  less. 
Where  more  intensive  cultivation  is  adopted,  fodder  crops  will 
have  to  be  grown,  and  these  pulses  and  clover  will  not  only 
supply  constant  and  nutritious  feeding,  but  immensel}^  enrich  the 
soil.  In  fixct,  a  solution  of  the  whole  problem  would  follow 
naturall}^  the  change  of  the  present  irrigation  system,  i.e.,  new 
perennial  canals  designed  to  water  all  the  land  commanded  b}' 
them.  At  present,  the  water  in  the  canals  is  not  sufficient  to 
grow  fodder  crops,  and  all  available  water  is  given  to  food 
crops  and  cotton.  It  has  been  suggested  that  the  waste  lands 
might  be  tlooded  occasionally  to  encourage  natural  grass,  but 
this  could  only  be  done  at  the  expense  of  main  crops.  Pulses 
grow  exceedingly  well  in  Sind,  and  all  the  common  Presidency 
pulses  have  been  successfully  cultivated  at  Mirpurkhas.  Berseern 
or  Egyptian  clover — facile 'pvincei^.^f  of  fodder  crops — tlouri.shes 
exceedingly.  ClimiJa  or  Cow  Pea,  Mafliki,  Muiu/.  Mnttar, 
Kuhhi,  Choiii'd,  LdiK)  and  gram  all  do  well,  so  there  is  no  lack 
of  material  to  work  on, 

7.  Xatuml  ITerl>a(/('  in  Sind. — These  lists  ai-e  by  no  means 
complete.  The  vernacular  names  with  their  English  botanical 
equivalents  are  given  below. 


48  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  11. 

Graases  eaten  by  stock  and  mostly  found  hi  dry  land  are  :  — 

1.  Soreari.     Eragrosiis  minor,  Ilast. 

2.  Gandhir.     Eleusme  flagellifera,  Nees. 

3.  Modise      Cyperiis  conglomeriitus,  liotth. 

4.  Tope.     Eragrostis  ciliaris.  Link 

5.  Banioo  (good  fodder).      Andropogoii  halepensis,  Brot. 
6  Mandhanu.     Elexwne  aristata,  Ehrenb. 

7.  Gum.     P'inicum  turgidum,  Forsk. 

8.  Saen.     Eh'onunis  hirsutns  (coiiiraonesi  grass  in  desert). 
9'f    Bhnit  (1st  kind).     Pennisetmn  orientale,  Rich. 

frih    Bliurt  (2nd  kind).     Cenchrus  catharticus,  Del. 
10      Daman.     Pennisettnn    cenchroides,     Itich. 

Also  the  foilowi  g  whicli  are  found  generally  all  over  Siud  and  especially 
in  irrigated  land 

1 1.  Chuhber  or  Hariali  or  Boub  witli  Punjabis.     Cynodon  dactylon,  Pers. 

12,  Khey  (best  natural   fodder  grass  when  young). 
13       Puttar. 

14.  Muckane. 

15.  Dirce. 

16.  Dub  {not  Doub). 

17.  Knl     (in  wet  land  ;    sliglilly  eaten  by  goats  when  young). 

18.  Kanh     (coarse,  ri>ngh  grass). 

19.  Savri. 

Plants  which  .serve  as  fodder  for  .stock  in  the  desert  and  Sind 
(/enerally  :  — 

1  Backar.     InHqofara  cordifolia,  Heyno. 

■1.  lildrol  Dodko.     Euphorbia  clarkeana,  Hook.  f. 

3.  Hadia  Kharar.     Coi  chorus  trident,  Linn. 

4.  Buk.     ^rua  javonica,  Juss. 

t).  t/a?ia^^e^  (ist  kind).     Polygala  irregularis,  Boiss. 

b'l.  Janalley  (2nd  kind).     Farsetia  Jacquemontii,  ILiok.  f.  an  I  T. 

G.  Itihan.     Polycarpiea  corymbos  i,  Lamk. 

7.  liidhan. 

^.      Vudha..     ladigofera  lini folia,  lletz. 

9.      Yaduck.     Anticharis  linearis,  Hochst. 

10.  Chug.     Crotalaria  burhia,  llam. 

11.  Tooh.     Citrullus  colocynlhus,  8chrad. 

12.  .fl/.toojii  (camels).  Tephrosia  apollinea.  Link. 

13.  Golaro.     Cephelandra  indica,  Naud. 

14.  Sounar.     Boerhaavia  difussa,  Linn. 

15.  Kakoru  ?     Melothria  madraspatana,  Cogniav.v, 

16  Usci.     (Camels  and  goats).     Ileliotropium  ophioglossum  Stocks. 

17.  Khasan.     Ileliotropium  tnberculosum,  Boiss. 

18.  Mungari     Phaseohis  trilobus,  Ait. 

19.  Uckru.     Melothria  madraspatana,  Cognianx. 


CATTLE-BKEEJUNO    IN    81ND  :    HKNPERSON.  149 

•2('.  Suiittir. 

•21.  Dhidii      (Camels)    Indigofem  trigonelloideSy  Jai)h.  aiid  Sjmch. 

2'2.  Mungasur.     Polijgala  irregularis,  Boi.is. 

23.  Wa/io     (Camels).     Trianthema   pentandra,  Linn. 

24.  Jar.     Salvadora  oleoiden,  Dene. 
23.      Vtmgri.     Lepidngalhis  Sp. 

Shrubs  eaten  by  Stock  : — 

1.  Kiiiir  ihicflv  lirciw-sed  liy  goals. 

■2.  .lar. 

3.  Kambooii. 

4.  KlKil)ai  specially  eiten  by  camels.     There  is  a  sweet  and  a  bitter  variety. 

5.  .Ihil. 
6".  Ikar. 

7.  Booh. 

8.  Lai  eaten  by  camels. 

I).  Laiii  from  which  is  made  '  khar '  or  alkali. 

1'^.  Damaho. 

11.  Khiro. 

12.  (iaudhier. 

13.  Lular. 

14.  Kaiidero,  thorny  bush. 

Trees  on  which  stock  sometime  browse  : — 

1.  Babul?. 

2.  Ivunda. 
:3.      I!air. 

8.  Breeding. — As  all  the  cattle  run  together,  and  young 
hulls  are  nut  usually  castrated,  it  follows  that  the  sj^^stem  of  keep- 
ing a  few  bulls  at  stud  would  serve  no  useful  purpose.  In  Lower 
Sind,  there  are  already  a  number  of  excellent  bulls,  and  if  onl}^ 
the  cattle  owners  would  prevent  their  cows  from  breeding  too 
early,  an  age  say  under  3  years,  they  might  very  well  be  left 
alone. 

9.  Suggested  Metliods  of  Improrement :  (1)  Shows. — If 
shows  are  properly  organised  and  systematically  held,  I  think 
they  would  serve  a  useful  purpose.  The  number  should  not, 
however,  be  too  great.  It  is  convenient  to  combine  a  show  with 
.some  local  lair,  as  thei'e  is  then  no  ditHculty  in  collecting  a  good 
attendance  of  visitors.      Wn-  example: — 

[n).  Shikaipuf  (not  Jaeobabad  which  is  essentially  a  horse 
fair,  and  the  same  visitoj-.s  go  to  both,  as  they  are  not  far  apart) 
for  Upper  Sind  ; 


150  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  II. 

(6).      Sehwan  for  Larkana  ; 
(c).      Talhar  for  Hyderabad  '  Lar  ; ' 
(d).     Pithoro  for  the  Nara  Valley  and  the  Thar  ; 
and  possibly  one  for  Karachi.     The  classes  should  be  much  more 
general  and  should  include  milking  competitions,  also  classes   for 
groups  of  young  cattle  the  property  of  one  village.     Along  with 
this,  prizes  should  be  given  for  the  various  local    kinds    of  agri- 
cultural produce,   and  the  occasion  would  be  an  advantageous  one 
for  demonstration  and  exhibits   of   the  Agricultural   Department. 
A    specimen  programme  is    given  below. 

SiKjgested  Pro(jrainme  for  Talhar  S/ioir  [Cattle  Classes)  : — 

1.  Siiidlii  cow  in  calf  or  calf  at  fuot             ...                  ...  ...  1 

2.  Siudhi  bull  or  bullock             ...                  ...                  ...  ...  2 

3.  Other  breeds,  males,  iucliKHii^  buffaloes                    ...  ...  3 

4.  BuHalo  cow  or  heifer              ...                  ...                  ...  ...  4 

b.  Most  thriving  lot  of  young  stock  not   less  than    four,  under 

one  year,  male  or  female,  cow  or    buflalo   and    property    of 
one  village       ...  ...  ...  ...  ...      .o 

6.  Pair  '  bails '  in  r/Zico-//  ...  ...  ...  ...     H 

7.  Milking  competitions,  highest  yield  in  two  milkings,    morning 

and  evening. 

,,^           j  i5o/tt<  /'(j?t' property  of  '  1 1, ui '              ...                 ...                ...  7 

'               Do.                        'zemindar'      ...                  ...                  ...  8 

BuHalo}              Do.                        'hari'               9 

'              Do.                        'zemindar'      ...                  ...                  ...  10 

8.  Uurla  competition.     For  greatest  number  of  turns  of  a  '  liurla  ' 

in  \  of  an  hour.     Drivers  not  to  use  sticks  and  to  stand  3  yards 
away  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...   11 

9.  Sweepstake  Competition  for  best  animal  in   .sliow.      Entry    fee 

Re.  1  ;    judging  to  be  done  on  points  ;    winner  to  get    total 
entry  money   ...  ...  ...  ...  ...    12 

LO.  (2)  ICstablislun^'nl  of  Dairij  Herd  of  Siudhi  Cattle.— 
This  method  would,  no  doubt,  entail  a  considerable  initial 
expen.se,  but  would  be  invaluable  in  finding  out  what  Karachi 
cattle  are  capable  of  Hyderabad  would  be  a  good  centre  for 
starting,  and  the  Local  Fund  Garden  (about  100  acres  along 
with  some  rough  pasturage)  would  ijc  a  suitable  position  ibr 
erecting  the  dairy.  The  young  .stock  could  l)e  easily  distributed 
among  dairy  men,  and  if  up-to-date  plant  was  used  for  butter 
making  and  milk  steriii.sation,  the  dairy  ought  to  })ay  its  way.      In 


CATTLK-BRKEDlNi.     IN    SIM):    HKNDERSON.  lol 

this  cumicclioii,  oxperiiiioiits  could  bo  curriod  out  with  the  Jersey- 
Si  iidhi  cows.  I  am  aware  that  Mr.  Mollison  is  averse  to  the 
introduction  of  foreign  blood  iu  India,  but  as  these  crosses  would 
only  be  given  to  hoitdjide  dairymen,  this  would  perhaps  not  come 
under  his  objection. 

1  i.  (3)  Iniporti/tf/  Oi</ger  Hulls  Into  Sukkiw  District. — There 
seems  to  be  a  demand  for  better  cattle  in  Sukkur  District,  but 
land-owners  do  not  seem  inclined  to  go  to  the  trouble  of 
ti'avelling  about  to  pick  up  better  ones.  As  usual  if  anything 
has  to  be  done,  Government  must  step  in.  I  would  suggest 
that  the  leading  zemindars  in  Sukkur  District  (for  a  start)  be 
personally  approached  and  asked  if  they  will  each  take  one  good 
sized  Lower  Sind  bull  at  cost  price,  which  price  will  include  cost 
in  Lower  Sind  plus  expenses  of  transit,  etc.  Arrangements  could 
be  made  to  buy  these  in  '  Lar  '  or  the  Nara.  If  100  good  bulls 
could  be  broui-ht  into  Sukkur,  the  elfect  would  be  bound  to  be 
quickly  marked.  A  concession  might  be  obtained  from  the 
North-Western  Railway,  if  a  fair  number  were  sent  at  the  same 
time.  It  is  true  that  this  does  not  do  away  with  the  feeding  diffi- 
culty, but  a  good  Sindh  bull  will  stand  a  considerable  amount  of 
bad  treatment,  and  it  is  very  important  to  introduce  a  bigger  type 
of  work  cattle. 

i'l.  Lastly,  while  buying  for  Sukkur  Experimental  Farm, 
notice  was  sent  round  to  the  cultivators  on  some  of  the  iimnda 
tion  canals  in  Mirpurkhas.  They  brought  some  50  or  GO  cattle 
of  all  sizes  and  ages  and  some  good  bulls  were  got  at  prices 
rano-ino-  from  Ks.  40  to  Rs.  00  each.  These  improved  consider- 
ably  after  good  feeding,  and  a  zemindar  in  Sukkur  ottered  Ks.  00 
for  a  bullock  bought  a  short  time  before  at  Ks.  40. 

13.  (4)  Pi-or'uluiij  Drinkinij  Water  in  thr  Desert.  —  It  would 
probably  be  found  possible  to  store  water  in  the  Thar  by  digging 
tanks  between  hint  is  in  suitable  situations.  The  trough 
between  a  [)air  of  hJulis  forms  a  good  catchment  area,  and  a  small 
deep  tank  wuuld  store  a  considerable  amount  of  water.  The 
expense  of  digging  these  would  I»c  sinall.  It  is  simply  a  question 
K)^  water-su[)i)ly  at  present,  as  the  natural  desert  forage  is  useless 


1  52  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  II. 

except  within  reach  of  drinking  water.  Even  if  the  water 
supply  did  not  last  all  the  year  round  a  considerably  increased 
number  of  live  stock  could  be  supported.  It  is  certainly  worth 
the  trouble  and  expense  of  making  a  few  trial  tanks  in  selected 
localities. 


COMPETITION  OF  CULTIVATORS  FOR    CHECKING 
THE  STEM-BORER   OF  SESAMUM. 

By  CHOTABHAT  U.  PATEL, 

£iitomological:{Assii>tant,    Jlaroda  State, 

Thk  chief  aim  of  Entomological  Assistants  working  in 
different  parts  of  India,  is  to  bring  the  methods  of  dealing  with 
crop  pests,  within  the  reach  of  cultivators.  Series  of  efforts 
made  during  the  last  four  years,  to  attain  this  end  by  means  of 
leaflets  and  lectures,  have  failed  in  producing  substantial  results 
in  this  part  of  Gujarat  (Baroda  territory).  I  do  not  wish  to 
trouble  the  reader  with  the  man}-  reasons  for  this  disappoint- 
ment, but  it  will  suffice  to  mention  that  the  Gujarat  cultivator 
requires  to  be  convinced  of  the  successful  effects  of  an}^ 
suggestion,  personally  and  practically,  before  he  can  be  made  to 
follow  it.  I  am  of  opinion  that  if  two  or  three  of  them  are 
specially  urged  to  make  a  beginning  in  giving  effect  to  a  sugges- 
tion in  each  village,  and  are  convinced  of  the  utility  of  the 
work,  by  pointing  out  the  resulting  benefit,  it  is  very  likel}'  that 
others  will  be  tempted  to  imitate  them  without  hesitation. 
During  the  last  rainy  season,  I  had  made  an  effort  in  Baroda 
State  to  induce  a  few  cultivators  of  different  villages  to  follow 
mv  suQfoestions  for  fiorhtingf  ag^ainst  the  stem-borer  of  sesamum, 
in  which  I  have  been  successful.  I,  therefoie,  propose  to  describe 
the  oro^anisation  and  manao-ement  of  the  affair  in  this  article. 

Before  entering  into  this  description,  it  is  necessary  that  I 
should  jzive  at  least  as  much  information  of  the  insect  as  is 
required  for  practical  purposes.  It  belongs  to  the  genus  Oberea 
of  the  family  Cerambicidrr  or  Ijongicorn  beetles.  The  beetle 
is    a    little    less    than    half   an    inch    in    length  ;  as    also  are  the 


154  AGRICULTURAL    .TOURNAL    OP    INDIA.  [V,  II. 

anteiiiijc.  The  colour  of  the  elytra  is  blackish,  and  the  head, 
thorax  and  abdomen  are  buft'  coloured.  In  this  stage  of  its  life, 
it  is  very  active  and  remains  under  the  leaves,  but  sometimes 
the  movements  of  its  antenme  reveal  its  presence.  It  makes 
its  first  appearance  in  July  or  August,  when  the  se.sanmni  [)lants 
are  about  six  weeks  old.  All  the  beetles,  likely  to  emei'ge  for 
multiplication,  finish  theii'  work  in  about  a  month  or  six  w^eeks. 
The  female  lays  her  eggs  singly,  one  on  each  leaf.  It  is  laid 
near  the  mid-rib  on  the  under-surface  of  the  leaf.  The  yellow 
oral)  that  hatches  out,  tunnels  into  the  mid-rib  and  makes  its 
way  into  the  stem  through  the  petiole.  Its  existence  in  the  leaf 
can  be  detected  by  one  or  all  of  the  following   symptonjs  : — 

1.  The  leaf  is  curled  down  or  withered. 

2.  An  irregular  yellow  stripe  is  seen  on  the  u[)per  surface 
of  the  leaf,  near  the  mid-rib. 

3.  A  part  or  whole  of  the  leaf  is  seen  dried  up. 

4.  A  bulb  is  formed  where  the  petiole  joins  the  blade. 

5.  In  some  cases  the  mid-rib  on  the  under-surface,  and  the 
whole  petiole  are  very  nmch  swollen. 

In  ten  to  fifteen  days  after  the  second  sym[)toni  a[)[)ears, 
the  grub  reaches  the  stem  where  it  is  safe  from  all  tra[)s.  After 
getting  into  the  stem  it  bores  its  way  up  and  down,  till  it  roaches 
the  dowmnost  end  of  the  main  root,  where  it  hibernates  till 
next  July.  When  the  leaf,  through  which  it  enters  the  stem, 
falls  off',  it  tunnels  into  the  petiole  of  another  leaf  from  the  stem. 
Presumably  it  does  so  for  respiration.  A  full-grown  larva  is 
about  an  inch  and  a  half  long.  The  colour  of  the  body  is  yellow. 
The  thorax  is  very  much  swollen.  Although  it  looks  motionless 
when  taken  out  of  its  residence,  it  is  very  active  inside.  After 
tlie  harvest  of  th(;  cro[),  it  seals  the  top  of  the  stum[)  with  the 
chewed  wood  and  safely  hiljcrnates  inside.  In  the  middle  of 
June  I  had  examined  thirty-five  stumps  so  attacked,  of  which 
only  two  had  been  destroyed  by  white-ants.  Kr(»iii  this  \  am 
inclined  to  sup[)ose  that  the  stumps,  which  hatbour  or  had  once 
harboured  these  grubs,  are  iimiiuiie  fioiii  the  attack  of  white-ants 
which  leave  no  other  stumj)  uiitoudicd. 


CHECKIXr;    THK    S1*KM-R<  )UER    OF    SESAMDM  :    CHOTABHAI. 


1  55 


From  the  intbrniation  noted  above,  one  can  easily  understand 
that  the  ravages  of  the  insect  can  be  successfully  checked  by 
removino"    the    affected  leaves  before  it  enters  the  sten),  where  it 

o 

becomes  uncontrollable.  If  the  cultivator  repeats  this  thrice,  at 
intervals  of  ten  to  twelve  days  after  the  insect  makes  its  first 
appearance,  his  valuable  cro[)  is  saved.  In  order  to  start  this 
method  with  the  cultivators,  the  following  arrangements  were 
made.  During  the  second  fortnight  of  May,  meetings  were  held 
at  different  places  to  raise  a  force  of  followers  (cultivators). 
The  followino-  statement  shows  the  attendance  and  selection  of 
cultivators  at  ditterent  places  :  — 


Name  uf  llic  iplace  of  iiieeliiig. 

Attendance. 

No,  of 
followers 
selected. 

Serial 
No. 

Xo.   of 
villages. 

No,  of 

oultiva- 

turs. 

TiEMAnKS. 

1 
2 

I.  -Petlad  Taluka. 

Fetlad         

Boria 

Total 

11.— IUkuda  Tauka. 

Baioda 
Sivnieala     ... 
Bajna 

Total 

3 

1 

3U              6 

in           2 

Two    were  selected    for 
each  village. 

4 

40 

l.j 

20 
10 

8 

1 
3 

o 

1 

1 

4 

o 

2 

Ditto            ditto. 

4 

45 

8 

After  explaining  the  life-history  and  method  of  treatment 
of  the  insect  to  them,  they  were  given  to  understand  that  the 
one  who  stood  first  among  the  eight  of  his  taluka,  in  carrying  out 
my  instructions,  was  to  get  a  prize  of  Rs.  25.  In  spite  of  this 
temptation,  it  was  a  very  difficult  task  to  raise  this  force  :  not 
because  they  considered  the  work  to  lie  a  difficult  one,  but 
because  they  are  accustomed  lo  look  at  the  movements  of 
Government  officers  with  an  eye  of  suspicion  from  which  our 
efforts  are  not  cxem[)t.  In  this  state  of  affairs,  the  success  of 
taking  them  into  confidence  is  solely  de[)endent  on  the  organizer's 
kiiiiwlt'dge  of  Iheii-  habits,  as  it  is  the  only  guide  in  dealing  M'ith 
these  conser\  al  i\  (■   nconlc. 


L56 


AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA. 


[V,  II. 


In  the  middle  of  June,  \Yhen  the  monsoon  set  in,  all  the 
sixteen  cultivators  were  leniinded  to  sow  sesamum  in  an  area  of 
half  a  bic/ha  each,  and  the  different  dates  of  sowing-  each  plot 
were  recorded  in  my  ofHee  I  had  also  sown  a  plot  at  ni)'  head- 
quarters for  leference.  In  the  latter  part  of  July  when  I  saw 
the  first  heetle  in  the  reference  plot,  I  went  round  all  the  plots  of" 
the  cultivators.  A  quarter  hUjlia  plot  was  fixed  by  measurement 
foi-  each  to  work,  the  other  half  being  i  eserved  for  comparing  the 


The  Tii.  Stem  Beetle.    On    the  right  the   Egg  and   Chkysalis, 

ox    THE   LEFT   THE   GRUB   AND    BEETLE,     MAGNIFIED. 

result  of  treatment.  In  this  trip  of  mine  they  were  made 
familiar  with  the  symptoms  of  the  insect's  existence,  by  object- 
lesson  specimens,  so  that  they  could  promptly  execute  my 
instructions  on  intimation. 

The  real  work  began  (hi  the  first  and  successive  dates  of 
August.  The  working  day  fixed  for  each  cultivator  was  arranged 
in  such  a  way  as  to  [)eiiiiit  my  personal  inspection  of  the  work 
next   day,    and    at    the    same    time     the    interval    between      two 


CHECKING    THE    STEM-I50RKli    OF    SESAMUM  :    CHOTABHAl.  157 

cuttings  shuukl  not  exceed  twelve  or  thirteen  days.  The  work 
was  finished  in  three  cuttings.  In  order  to  avoid  friction  in  the 
programme,  each  cuUivator  was  reminded  c)f  his  working  day 
on  the  previous  day,  and  in  this  reminder  he  was  also  told  to  be 
present  in  his  field  on  the  day  of  my  inspection,  when  he  had  to 
be  given  practical  training.  All  tlie  three  cuttings  had  been 
thus  managed,  and  I  had  no  difficulty  whatsoever  in  carrying  out 
my  programme.  The  appended  statement  shows  the  details  of 
the  work  done  by  the  cultivators  together  with  the  results. 

The  comparison  of  tlie  plants  that  were  killed  by  the  insect 
in  both  the  [)lots  had  convinced  them  of  the  result  of  their 
work  to  such  an  extent  that  thej^  did  not  even  care  to  compare 
the  outturn.  I  believe  I  have  embodied  suflicient  information 
in  this  statement  to  draw  conclusions  independently,  and 
hence  I  need  not  trouble  the  reader  with  the  comments  on  it. 

This  being  done,  I  had  to  distribute  the  competition  prizes. 
According  to  the  original  arrangement,  only  two  prizes  of  Rs.  25 
each  had  to  be  given  to  the  first  of  each  taluka.  But  with  a 
view  to  create  greater  interest  in  several  places  instead  of  two,  the 
idea  was  changed.  It  was  settled  that  the  one  who  stood  first 
among  the  whole  lot  of  his  taluka  was  to  get  Rs.  10,  and  for  the 
remaining  three  villages  the  first  of  the  two  of  each  village  was 
to  get  Rs.  5.  These  were  distributed  at  night  meetings  held  at 
each  place  for  the  purpose.  The  ntimber  of  audience  at  different 
places  was  100,  75,  25,  20,  20,  20  and  15.  It  was  a  satisfactory 
number  in  proportion  to  the  cultivating  population  of  the 
respective  villages.  At  all  these  places  the  audience  looked  as 
if  they  took  a  keen  interest  in  the  talk.  The  subject  of  conver- 
sation was  the  practical  lesson  regarding  the  origin,  growth, 
damasre  and  destruction  of  the  stem -borer  of  sesamum.  The 
success  in  creating  interest  among  them  was  mainly  due  to  a  prac- 
tical talk  being  supported  by  the  facts  and  figures  noted  from  the 
actual  working  of  their  brother  cultivators,  namely,  the  compet- 
itors. The  greater  majority  of  the  audience  at  each  place  have 
shown  their  desire  to  work  up  the  method  next  season, 
but  the  substantial  result  of  this  effort    can    be    calculated    from 


158  AGKICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   II. 

the  number  of  cultivators  wlio  ina}^  actually  give  effect    to    their 
desire  next  season. 

In  conclusion  I  may  be  allowed  to  suggest  that  anj^one  who 
intends  to  adopt  this  system  of  working  should  1)e  very  careful 
in  replying  to  the  various  queries  that  are  forthcoming  from  the 
cultivators,  which  can  only  be  solved  to  their  satisfaction  if  the 
speakei'  has  a  thorough  knowlege  of  their  habits  and  real  needs. 
This  kind  of  knowledge  can  be  conveniently  acquired  by  freely 
mixing  with  thein.  He  should  also  keep  sutHcient  presence  of 
mind  in  dealing  with  this  conservative  and  uneducated  class  of 
people,  as  the  slightest  carelessness  or  mistake  in  speaking  to 
them  is  enough  to  lose  their  confidence. 


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NOT-ES. 


Entomological  Notes — Eri  Silk. — Lar^re  numljers  of  eo-as 
have  been  supplied  to  enquirers  from  many  parts  of  India  during 
the  last  six  months,  and  short  instructions  in  English,  Hindi  and 
Bengali  are  sent  with  them,  printed  copies  of  which  are  available. 
It  is  necessary  to  impress  on  those  who  are  contemplating  a  trial 
of  this  industry  that  it  is  as  a  cottage  industry  only  that  we  re- 
commend it  at  present,  where  the  spinning  and  weaving  can  also 
be  done.  There  is  as  yet  no  definite  market  for  raw  cocoons  ;  it 
will  not  pay  to  simply  grow  cocoons  and  sell  them,  unless  there 
is  a  definite  market  ;  what  we  recommend  is  the  rearing  of  co- 
coons when  castor  leaves  can  be  had,  and  when  the  climate  is 
suitable,  giving  out  the  boiled  cocoons  for  spinning  by  women 
and  children,  giving  out  the  thread  to  village  weavers  for  weav- 
ing into  plain  eri  cloth  for  sale  in  the  bazaars.  The  spinning  is 
as  important  as  anything  else,  and  if  there  are  not  the  people  to 
do  the  spinning,  as  a  spare-time  occupation  in  their  own  houses, 
the  cultivation  of  eri  silk  should  not  be  gone  in  for  at  all.  Where 
the  spinning  can  be  done  and  a  cottage  industry  is  possible,  suffi- 
cient cocoons  for  the  year  should  be  reared,  either  all  through  the 
year,  or  else  for  the  nine  months  of  rains  and  cold  weather  which 
are  not  excessively  dry  and  hot.  The  cocoons  produced  by  eri 
worms  in  Gujarat,  Baroda  and  some  parts  of  the  Central  Provin- 
ces are  better  than  Bengal  or  Assam  cocoons  ;  the  worm  thrives 
best  where  there  are  no  extremes  of  dry  heat  or  moist  heat. 

The  market  for  raw  cocoons  is  being  investigated,  but  it  will 
be  some  months  yet  before  we  can  estimate  the  possibilities  of 
the  production  of  raw  cocoons  on  a  large  or  small  scale  for  sale  as 
raw  cocoons. 


NOTES. 


161 


The  Pusa  spinning-  iiuiehinu  is  available  for  sale,  we  re- 
cojnmend  its  use  where  spiniiino^  with  the  charhi  is  unknown,  or 
where  the  spinner  will  use  a  treadle  machine.  In  all  cases  it  is 
worth  a  trial,  the  small  cost  of  the  machine  putting  it  within  the 
reach  of  everj'  one. 

The  Deccan  Grasshopper. — For  some  years  past  a  wingless 
grasshopper  has  been  increasing  in  destructiveness  in  the  Deccan  ; 
it  is  now  being  investigated,  and  in  several  districts  measures 
have  been  taken  against  it.  It  is  a  small  grasshopper  which  never 
becomes  winged  ;  it  is  a  '*  Surface  Grasshopper  "  living  on  the 
surface  of  the  soil  and  climbing  up  plants  to  feed  on  the  leaves  or 
on  the  flower  heads  or  grain.  It  is  destructive  particularly  to  juar 
and  bnjra  and  does  a  great  deal  of  harm  if  it  attacks  these  when 
they  are  coming  into  ear.  The  life-history  is  being  worked  out 
in  detail,  l)ut  the  rough  outline  is  known  ;  eggs  are  laid. in  October- 
November  in  the  soil,  remaining  there  till  the  following  monsoon, 
when  they  hatch.  There  is  thus  one  brood  only  a  year,  and  the 
rahi  crop  is  not  attacked  at  all.  The  insect  is  active  onl}"  in  the 
rains  and  must  be  destroyed  early  in  the  rains  before  the  crops 
become  too  tall,  if  it  is  to  be  attacked  successfully  at  all.  At 
present  the  only  method  in  use  is  to  sweep  up  the  hoppers  with 
bags  when  the  crops  are  young,  but  better  methods  will  probably 
be  found  when  the  pest  has  been  thoroughly  investigated. 

A  new  Indi(/o  pest  in  Behar. — During  the  past  season,  a  new 
pest  has  been  reported  from  Java  indigo,  a  plant  which  has  few 
insect  pests  as  a  rule.  This  is  a  small  caterpillar  ( Yjjsolophns 
ochro])hanes,  Meyr.),  which  webs  up  the  leaves  at  the  tip  of  the 
young  shoot,  feeding  on  them  and  checking  the  growth  of  the 
plant.  The  young  plants  were  attacked  during  August,  Sep- 
tember and  October,  and  in  more  than  one  case  a  considerable 
amount  of  damage  was  done.  The  pest  is  a  new  one  to  indigo, 
but  is  well  known  as  feeding  on  lucerne,  and  other  pulses  ;  the 
moth  is  a  very  small  i)rown  insect  (unlikely  to  be  recognised  by 
anj'one  but  an  entomologist),  which  is  conmion  during  the  rains, 
its  active  breeding  season  being  June  to  October.  In  the  present 
case  only  young  plants  a  few  inches  high  have  been    attacked, 

11 


162  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,    II. 

and  this  form  of"  attack  can  be  averted  by  later  sowings.  The  pest 
is  one  that  everyone  sowing  indigo  before  Octobei'  should  be 
on  the  lookout  for,  as  if  taken  in  time  it  can  be  checked.  It  has 
probably  been  widespread  in  the  young  Java  indigo,  but  has  not 
been  noticed,  or  the  loss  has  been  attributed  to  some  other  cause. 

The  Rice  Grasshopper. — For  several  years,  the  rice  grass- 
hopper has  been  destructive  to  paddy  in  Belgaum,  and  though 
some  measure  of  success  in  dealing  with  it  was  obtained,  the 
methods  used  did  not  commend  themselves  to  the  cultivators  who 
adopted  them  only  for  one  season  and  without  the  co-operation 
essential  to  success.  A.  simpler  method  has  been  extensively  used 
this  year  and  has  been  so  far  successful  that  the  cultivators  have 
taken  to  it  and  have  cleared  their  fields  of  the  pest  to  a  very 
large  extent.  Formerly  large  nets  were  dragged  through  the 
crop,  sweeping  up  the  grasshoppers  ;  each  net  required  several 
men,  and  the  work  was  very  heav3^  A  modification  of  the  bag- 
method  was  adopted  this  year,  a  rough  bag  of  gunny,  with  its 
mouth  kept  open  by  bamboos,  being  dragged  through  the  crop  to 
sweep  up  the  hoppers  ;  such  a  bag  requires  only  two  men  to  pull 
it,  while  two  men  go  in  front  on  each  side  to  drive  the  hoppers 
towards  the  bag.  The  work  has  been  so  successful  that  large 
numbers  of  hoppers  have  been  brought  in  by  cultivators  and 
buried  in  pits.  During  the  past  season,  assistance  has  been  given 
with  providing  bags,  but  this  will  be  discontinued,  the  landowners 
subscribing  to  provide  the  bags  required  during  the  next  season. 

Tukra  Disease  in  Mulberry. — Bush  mulberry  in  Bengal, 
grown  for  rearing  silkworms,  is  commonly  attacked  by  a  disease 
called  "  Tukra  "  or  "  Konkra  "  ("  Curled  up  ").  It  is  very  readily 
apparent  as  the  leaves  cui'l  up,  the  growing  shoot  curls  round  on 
itself  and  forms  a  hard  knot,  and  the  affected  bushes  cease  to 
grow  or  to  yield  leaf.  Such  twisted  leaves  are  also  regarded  as 
a  cause  of  Grasserie  and  Flacherie  if  fed  to  worms,  and  in  every 
way  the  disease  is  a  serious  one. 

Up  to  now  the  disease  has  been  a  mysterious  one,  suggest- 
ing a  distinct  fungoid  or  bacterial  disease  and  not  full}'  under- 
stood.  It  has  now  been  shown  to  be  due  primarily  to  the  presence 


NOTES.  163 

of  a  mealy  bug,  the  [)Uiictures  of  the  mealy  bug  leading  directly 
to  *  eui'ling,'  either  on  account  of  some  irritant  injected  by  the 
l)u^^  or  owino:  to  some  other  result  of  its  inincture.  Further, 
tilt'  disease  is  not  caused  by  the  puncture  of  at  least  one  other 
mealy  bug  on  the  same  plant,  whilst  the  puncture  of  the  mealy 
bug  on  cotton,  hibiscus  and  some  other  plants  produces  exactly 
similar  effects  on  those  plants. 

A  plot  of  mulbei'ry  was  planted  in  1908  from  cuttings 
brouoht  from  Berhannnir  and  has  remained  free  from  busf  and 
/'//•/v^  t(>  this  day;  but  in  July  1909,  cuttings  from  this  plot 
were  planted  in  another  field,  and  in  September  became  infected 
with  bug ;  tiikra  has  now  developed,  and  direct  infections  of 
plants  in  the  field  show  that  the  presence  of  the  bug  produces 
tukra  in  a  few  days. 

The  bug  {Dactylopius  nipce)  is  a  small  pinkish  insect, 
covered  in  mealy  wax,  which,  when  j^^oung,  runs  about  the  plants 
and  punctures  the  leaves  ;  when  the  leaves  curl  and  knot,  the 
bug  settles  down  in  shelter  there  and  continues  to  feed,  eventual- 
ly producing  manj'  yo^^^o  ones.  The  twisted  curled  shoot  pre- 
sumably supplies  shelter  and  food  and  is  a  protection  possiblj'' 
from  enemies. 

The  bug  is  the  prey  of  ladybird  beetles  and  of  another  bug 
Geocoris  tricolor  which  feeds  upon  it.  It  is,  however,  not  so 
severely  checked  by  these  enemies  as  not  to  do  damage,  and 
remedies  must  be  adopted  against  it.  There  is  one  effectual  and 
simple  remed}^  which  should  be  enforced  as  soon  as  the  first  tul-ra 
leaf  is  seen  ;  every  fuh',i  leaf  and  shoot  should  be  plucked, 
carefull}'  taken  from  the  field  and  either  at  once  burnt  or  buried. 
The  present  practice  of  plucking  the  tukra  leaves  and  shoots  and 
dropping  them  on  the  field  is  the  worst  thing  possible  ;  every 
meal}'  bug  in  these  shoots  comes  out,  walks  up  another  plant  and 
spreads  the  disease  further.  If  one  wanted  to  get  as  much  tukra 
as  possible,  one  could  !iot  do  better  than  pluck  the  shoots  and 
leave  them  on  the  field.  But  if  the  shoots  are  carefully  picked 
into  a  basket  and  at  once  removed  from  the  field  and  disposed  of, 
the   bug    will  in  time    be    wiped    out.      Insecticides    are    of    no 


164  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  II. 

avail  ill  this  case,  as  tliey  do  not  penetrate  the  curled  u[)  shoots. — 
(H.  M.  Lefroy.) 

*  * 

Rick  in  Larkaxa  District  in  Sind. — In  Larkana  district, 
especially  in  Kamber  tahika,  rice  cultivation  has  reached  a  high 
level.  The  variety  for  which  the  district  is  famous  is  "  Sugdasi," 
an  excellent  quality,  white,  awnless  and  delicately  scented  rice. 
It  seems  to  have  evolved  locally,  and  its  cultivation  in  other  rice 
tracts  of  Sind  has  been  unsuccessful.  There  are  several  forms  of 
"  Sugdasi  ; "  they  all  require  careful  treatment  and  the  best  land. 
"  Suthri,"  a  variety  which  ripens  60  days  after  transplanting, 
is  also  grown  extensively,  especially  where  the  land  is  poorer,  or 
where  the  water-supply  from  the  irrigated  canal  is  either  late  or 
small  in  quantity.  On  the  bad  "  Kalar  "  or  alkali  lands  a  coarse 
red  variety  kiiow^n  as  "  Lari,"  originall}^  from  Lower  Sind,  is 
generally  grown.  It  is  much  hardier  than  either  of  the  other 
two. 

Land  with  a  w^ater-supply  suitable  for  rice  is  permanent!}?- 
kept  for  this  crop,  and  it  is  cultivated  3^ear  after  year  without 
fallowing.  These  lands  depend  on  their  fertility  first  on  growing 
mutter,  gram  and  other  pulses  in  rahi  after  rice,  and  secondly, 
on  the  silt  deposited  on  the  land  from  the  irrigated  water.  The 
pulse  seed  is  broadcasted  in  the  standing  rice  shortly  before  ripen- 
ing, and  after  the  cutting  of  the  crop  the  pulse  receives  no  more 
irrigation  water.  The  system  is  excellent  and  quite  unknown  in 
Lower  Sind. 

All  rice  is  transplanted  from  beds  which  are  carefully 
cultivated  and  '  rabbed '  by  burning  rice  straw  and  farmj^ard 
manure,  etc.  One  guntha  beds  (1/40  acre)  of  seedlings  is  generally 
said  to  be  sufficient  to  sow  an  acre. 

The  irrigation  canals  in  this  district  are  pureh?^  inundation 
and  flow  only  during  the  Indus  flood,  beginning,  say,  at  the  end 
of  June  and  drying  up  in  October.  They  must  deliver  a  large 
quantity  of  silt  on  the  rice  lands  yearly,  as  very  heavy  annual 
clearances  are  necessary,  and  tlie  high  spill  banks  are  a  feature  of 
the  landscape.      From  the  time   of  first  irrigation   the  rice    field 


NOTES.  165 

i.s  kept  t'oiitinually  under  water    with  a  depth  up  to  1  foot  and  on 
no  account  allowed  to  dry  even  for  a  few  days. 

The  yields  per  acre  are  very  high.  First  class  "  Sugdasi  " 
will  give  2  "  Kharar  "  or  over  3,000  lbs.  per  acre  of  unhusked  rice. 
The  reason  why  cultivation  is  so  superior  in  this  district  is 
probably  on  account  of  the  pressure  of  population  which  is  much 
denser  than  in  other  districts.  One  "  hari  "  and  his  family  w^ill 
cultivate  about  8  acres  of  rice,  as  compared  with  30  to  40  acres 
in  other  parts  of  Sind. 

Want  of  labour  at  harvest  is  always  a  difficulty,  and  during 
the  present  season  demonstrations  have  heeu  held  in  the  chief 
centres  with  harvesting  machiner3^  The  rice  is  first  cut  by  a 
manual  reaping  machine,  then  removed  to  the  threshing  floor  and 
threshed  by  the  '  Norag  ',  and  the  resulting  grain  cleaned  and 
delivered  ready  for  market  by  a  winnowing  machine.  These 
operations  can  be  carried  out  simultaneously,  and  the  result  is  a 
o-reat  saving  of  time  and  labour,  as  in  the  ordinary  way  a  cultivator 
ma}'  have  to  wait  weeks  for  a  breeze  for  winnowing  the  grain. 
The  reaping  machine  will  cut  from  4  to  5  acres  per  day — an  acre 
which  would  require  from  20  to  25  ordinary  labourers.— 
(G.  S.  Henderson.) 

*  * 
A  PROMISING   Weed. — The  want  of  oreen    fodder   durino-    the 
dry  weather  is  keenly  felt  in  parts  of  the  Central     Provinces    and 
Berar.      From  December   to    June    grass    is    conspicuous    by    its 
absence.      In  Chhattisgarh  where  the  staple  crop  is  rice,   almost 
the  only  fodder  available    for    cattle    during   this    period    is    rice 
straw.     The  present  degenerated  state  of  the  diminutive  Chhat- 
tisgarh breed  of  cattle  is  no  doul)!  largely    due    to    poor    feeding. 
The  introduction  of  a  good  raOi  fodder  crop    has   been    suggested 
as  one  of  the  possible  ways  of   im])]<)ving    this    l)recd.      A    bulky 
leguminous  crop  that  could  be  grown  aftii-  lice  wouKi,  if  palatable 
as  a  fodder,  exactly  meet  the  wants    of    this    large    division.      A 
crood  deal  of  attpntion    has,  therefore,    been    oiven    to    the    study 
of  leguminous  weeds  with  the  view  of   seeming    one    that     would 
meet  these  re  (iiiircnK  nts.      Two    years    ano    out'    was     discovered 


166  AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL    OP    INDIA.  [V,  II. 

o-rowing  on  a  rice  plot  on  the  Telinkheri  Farm,  which  on  further 
investigation  has  proved  to  be  a  most  promising  fodder  plant. 
This  weed  is  Melilotus  alha  and  has  been  designated  wild  lucerne 
owing  to  its  close  resemblance  to  cultivated  lucerne.  It  ger- 
minates early  in  November,  grows  to  a  height  of  about  three 
feet,  and  is  relished  both  by  horses  and  cattle.  It  was  grown  as  a 
rabi  crop  on  the  Telinkheri  Farm  this  year,  and  bundles  of  it 
were  supplied  daily  to  Government  OtHcers  in  Nagpur  as  a  green 
fodder  for  their  horses  ;  it  was  also  much  relished  by  the  farnj 
bullocks.  Major  Baldrey,  f.r.c.v.s.,  d.v.h.,  f. ii.(;.s.,  Superin- 
tendent, Civil  Veterinary  Department,  who  used  it  for  his  horses 
this  year,  described  it  as  follows  : — "  I  thought  Melilotus  alha  an 
excellent  thing  as  a  green  fodder.  It  should  be  pushed,  I  think, 
in  the  new   irrigated  tracts." 

As  a  green  manure,  too,  it  will,  I  believe,  prove  to  be  of  great 
use  to  the  cultivator  of  the  rice  tract,  who  at  present  applies 
the  ashes  of  his  cattle  manure  to  the  plots  adjoining  the  village, 
while  his  more  remote  rice  fields  are  cropped  continuously  with- 
out manure.  Its  manurial  value  has  not  yet  been  thoroughly 
tested,  but  it  has  been  observ^ed  that  the  rice  crop  this  year  was 
much  better  in  the  plots  in  which  a  previous  crop  of  wild  lucerne 
had  been  ploughed  in. 

Melilotus  alha,  is  a  biennial.  When  once  established  in  a 
rice  field,  it  sows  itself  and,  therefore,  requires  no  further  atten- 
tion. The  seed  lies  dormant  in  the  soil  till  about  the  first  of 
November,  germinating  about  the  time  the  paddy  is  being  har- 
vested. To  get  it  established,  the  seed  should  be  sown  among  the 
standing  rice  towards  the  end  of  October  at  tlie  rate  of  20  lbs  per 
acre.  The  soil  being  still  moist  at  this  time,  the  seed  is  trampled 
in  by  the  feet  of  the  coolies  employed  in  reaping  the  rice.  This 
method  of  sowing  is  well  understood  in  the  rice  tract  of  these 
Provinces,  as  this  is  the  method  commonly  adopted  of  growing  a 
second  crop  (iitera)  after  rice.  When  grown  for  fodder,  it  con- 
tinues to  yield  a  valuable  su{)ply  of  green  fodder  from  January 
till  March.  It  requires  no  irrigation  i(  urown  on  lice  lands  which 
are  fairly  retentive  of  moisture. 


NOTES.  1 67 

Being  a  hardy  plant  with  the  hixuriant  and  [)er8istent  habits 
i>l  a  weed,  it  can  be  grown  with  a  niininiuni  amount  of  attention. 
As  a  fodder  it  should  prove  useful  in  the  dry  season  when  the 
cattle  of  most  of  the  rice  tracts  are  dieting  on  a  scanty  allowance 
of  unnutritious  rice  straw.  The  ease  with  which  it  is  cultivated 
will  be  in  favour  of  its  introduction.  It  is  being  tried  this  year 
as  a  second  crop  after  rice  in  several  villages  of  Chhattisgarh. 
Mr.  Dewar,  Deputy  Commissioner  of  Balaghat,  who  tried  it  last 
season,  speaks  of  it  as  having  proved  a  godsend  to  him  during  the 
dry  weather,  when  no  other  form  of  green    fodder    was    available 

for  his  horses. — (]).  Clouston.) 

* 
*   * 

A(;ricultural  and  Industrial  Exhibition,  Allahabad, 
December  1910,  Agricultural  Court.* — It  is  hoped  that  this 
court  will  contain  an  economic  collection  of  aofricultural  exhibits 
which  will  interest  not  only  the  producer  but  also  the  consumer 
and  the  manufacturer  of  finished  articles  from  raw  products. 

The  court  will  be  under  the  manao-ement  of  the  Agfricul- 
tural  Department,  but  it  is  hoped  that  the  departmental  exhibits 
will  form  only  a  veiy  small  proportion  of  the  whole,  and  ever}^ 
effort  is  being  made  to  secure  exhibits  from  outside  on  the  largest 
})ossible  scale. 

The  attached  scheme  will  show  the  o-eneral  lines  on  v/hich 
it  will  be  run,  but  any  suitable  exhibits  not  specifically  included 
in  the  scheme  will  be  accepted,  and  arrangements  will  be  made 
to  place  intending  exhibitors  in  correspondence  with  the  heads  of 
other  courts  where  their  exhibits  do  not  fall  wiiliiii  the 
scope  of  this  section.  One  of  the  main  features  of  the  agricul- 
tural court,  as  of  the  whole  exhibition,  will  be  machinery  in 
motion  and  working  processes.  Exhibits  of  this  nature  are 
specially  invited  and  every  facility  will  be  afforded  for  showing- 
manufacturing  processes  at  work.  A  special  pamphlet  on 
agricultural  machinery  in  Northern  India  may  be  obtained  by 
manufacturers  or  their  agents  on  application. 

*  .All  communications  concoining  the  Agricultural  Court  sliouKl  be  addressed  to  the  Diput-y 
Director  of  .Agricultur*>,  Central  Circle,  Cawnpore.  and  covers  marked  ••  Exhibition." 


168  AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V, 


II. 


Scheme  (subject  to  possible  modifications  in  detail  to  meet  the  needs 

of  large  exhibitors). 

/. — Aids  to  Production. 

1.  Seeds. — Pure  and  impure  seed,  and  methods    of  storage. 

2.  Manures. 

3.  Cattle. — A  cattle  show  will  probably  be  held  during  a 
part  of  the  exhibition,  and  it  is  hoped  to  arrange  for  the  presence 
throughout  the  whole  or  part  of  the  time  of  some  of  the  typical 
cattle  of  the  province.  The  co-operation  of  landholders  and  other 
gentlemen,  of  associations  and  of  local  committees  is  particularly 
invited.      Suitable  awards  will  be  arranged  for. 

4.  Waterlifts. — -For  irrigation  purposes. 

It  is  hoped  to  show  a  complete  'workiug  collection  of  the 
various  waterlifts  in  use  in  the  province  and  also  a  number  of 
improved  lifts  for  hand,  bullock  and  engine  power. 

5.  Tillage  iinplementi<. — This  section  will  include  tillage 
implements  of  all  types,  both  Indian  and  imported.  Arrange- 
ments will  be  made  to  show  as  many  as  possible  at  work. 

II. — Products  and  their  Utilisation. 

It  is  intended  that  displays  of  produce  should  be  select  rather 
than  comprehensive.  Raw  and  finished  products  will  be  shown 
side  by  side  with  the  working  process  of  manufacture.  Exhibits 
of  working  processes  are  specially  invited,  as  are  also  selected 
exhibits  of  products  raw  or  finished.  Exhibitors  of  working- 
processes  will,  it  is  hoped,  arrange  for  their  own  power  su])ply 
but  where  necessary  this  will  be  arranged  for  from  the  central 
power  station. 

Where  exhibitors  of  machinery  are  U)iable  to  personally 
arrange  for  its  working,  the  department  will  do  so  if  desired  and 
\v\\\  in  every  case  be  happy  to  assist  in  providing  for  a  suitable 
supply  of  raw  material. 

Details  as  to  the  size  of  produce  exhibits  desired  will  be 
furnished  later. 

The  following  list  will  show  the  approximate  scope  of  this 
section.      The  agricultural  court  will  not    include  general   exhibits 


NOTES.  169 

of  food    and    drink     where     the    manufacturing    process    is   not 
exhibited.     These  will  be  ari-anged  for  elsewhere  : — 
Bice— 

(a)  Typical  samples  of  Paddy  (threshed  and  unthre.shed). 

(b)  Rice  hulling. 

{c)  Samples  of  hulled  rice. 
(d)  Rice  starch-making. 

Wheat.— 

(a)  Samples  of  wheat.      (Sheaves,  ears,  bhusa,  grain). 

(b)  Flour  mills  at  work. 

(c)  Samples  of  flour  and  "ata  ". 

(d)  Vermicelli   and    macaroni-making,    with     samples     of 

produce. 
(p)  Biscuit-making. 

Maize.  — 

(a)  Cobs  and  grain. 

(b)  Hulling. 

(c)  Grinding  cobs  for  cattle  food. 
{d)  Grinding  maize  meal. 

Gram. — 

Samples  of  grain  and  meal. 

Gram  crushers. 

Oats. — (Under  cattle  food). 

Oil  seeds. — 

Samples  of  oil  seeds. 
Oil-mills  at  work. 
Oil -cakes  and  oil. 

Linseed,  rape  seed,    til,    castor,    cotton,    dhuan,    safflower, 
popp3%  mahua,  groundnut. 

Svgarcarw. — 

[a)   Samples  ot"  gootl  varieties. 

{b)   Different  methods  of  preparation  of  sugar  and  gur. 

{<')  Sweetmeat-making  (Indian  and  European). 

{d)  Cane  mills  of  difl'erent  types  : — Competitive  trials. 

(Arrangements  will  be  \\vm\v  j'or  a  supply  of  cane). 


170  AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL    OP    INDIA.  [V,  II, 

Cotton. — 

Samples  of  seed  cotton  and  lint    with   growing    plants    of 

different  varieties. 
Cotton  ginning  and  baling. 
Cotton   seed  oil  manufacture. 

Other  Fibres. — 

Sample  of  fibres  such  as  : — Sann  hemp  (Sanai). 
Roselle  hemp  (Patsan). 
Bhabar  grass. 
Munj  grass. 
Agave. 
Ak  Floss. 
Etc.,  etc. 

Exhibits  of  decorticating  inachines  at  work.      Exhibits    of 
manufactured  goods. 

Tobacco. — 

Exhibits    of  raw    produce    and    of  manufactured   tobacco. 
Cigar  and  cigarette  manufacture. 
Spices. — 

A  representative  collection  of  the  spices  of  the  Provinces. 

Fruits^ — 

Exhibits  of  fruits  in  season. 

Vegetables. — 
A  fruit  and  ve'getable  show  will    be   arranged    for    daring 
the  exhibition  if  sufficient  exhibits  offer. 

Dairy. — 

Arrangements  are  being  made  to  exhibit  a   working  dairy. 
Exhibits  of  dairy  machinery  are  invited. 

Miscellaneous  Food  Pi'oducts. — 
Horse  and  Cattle  Food. — 

Fodders  and  fodder  cutters. 

Silos  and  ensilage. 

Oil-cakes. 

Oats  and  gram -crushing  machines. 

Maize-cobs  mills,  etc.,  etc. 


NOTES.  171 

The  Department  w^ill  also  arrange  for  a  number  of  interesting 
scientific  exhibits. 

///. — E.rhihits  of  produce  by  Private  Erhihitors. 

While  it  is  not  proposed  to  make  an  exhaustive  collection  of 
ao-ricultural  produce  for  section  II,  it  is  hoped  that  a  large  number 
of  exhibits  will  be  received  from  landholders'  associations  and 
others  illustrating  the  numerous  and  varied  crops  of  the  province. 


* 


A  Labour-saving  attachment  for  hand-power  machines. — The 
Inspector-General  of  Agriculture,  when  on  tour  in  Burma  in 
December  1908,  was  much  interested  in  the  method  frequently 
employed  by  Burmans  in  working  hand-power  machines  of  all 
kinds  by  means  of  a  simple  attachment.  This  method,  with  a  slight 
modification,  has  been  employed  on  the  Mandalay  Experimental 
Farm  for  a  considerable  time,  in  the  absence  of  other  motive 
power,  for  various  purposes,  but  especially  for  chaff-cutting  ;  and 
although  the  actual  efficiency  has  not  yet  been  tested,  it  is 
generally  agreed  by  those  who  have  seen  the  operation  that  a 
considerable  savino-  of  labour  is  effected.  A  large  number  of 
bullocks  (over  50)  have  to  be  fed  on  chaffed  /oyra?%  and  to  do  the 
work  of  chaffing  by  the  ordinary  handle  would  require  a  great 
deal  of  heavy  daily  labour,  but  by  the  aid  of  this  simple  device  a 
larger  machine  can  be  !nade  use  of,  and  the  work  more  rapidly 
Carrie  out.  At  Mandalay  an  "  Albion  "  (Harrrison  McGregor 
and  Co.)  three-knife,  10^  inch  niouth,  four  horse-i)ower  machine  is 
made  use  of — a  machine  too  large  to  work  b}*  hand  in  the  ordinar}" 
way,  and  it  requires  only  three  men  to  work  it  when  chaffing  /o?6'a?*. 

The  following  notes  and  sketches  may  not  only  l)e  of 
interest  to  readers  of  the  joui-nal,  but,  as  the  attachment  can  be 
made  by  almost  any  local  blacksniith  at  a  low  cost,  they  may  be 
useful  especially  to    those  who   have  to  pay  high  rates  for  labour. 

Each  of  the  three  parts  will  be  described  separately,  and 
although  it  is  adaptable  to  almost  any  hand-power  machine,  as  it  is 
most  generally  made  use  of  in  connection  with  the  chaff-cutter, 
we  will  consider  specially  an  attachment  for  tha'   ;nachine. 


172 


AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL   OF    INDIA. 


[V,  II. 


I.   A    strong  wooden  frame  as  shown  in  sketch,  fig.  I,  is  first 
made,  and  the  chaff-cutter  placed  upon  it  and  fastened    down    in 


Fig.  I. 


the  positions  marked  A  for  the  feet.  If  the  machine  is  a  heavy 
one,  it  will  be  unnecessary  to  fasten  it  down.  The  mouth  of  the 
chaff*-cutter  should  face  towards  the  support  B.  The  size  of  the 
frame  depends,  of  course,  upon  the  machine  ;  and  the  height  of 
the  support  B  and  of  the  bar  C  depends  upon  the  height  of  the 
fly-wheel  shaft. 


n  /■  I  p 
,  ^j.!  I.-^Xhankeo  Shaft 

Flv  Wheel  Shaft  d 


Bearinq    *. 


Fig  II, 


NOTKS. 


173 


ir.  Tilt'  Hy-wbeel  shaft  of  the  cliafr-ciitter  is  prolonged  as 
shown  in  H^\  II.  This  is  generally  effected  l\v  means  of  a 
cranked  rod  of  iron,  of  the  same  tliickness  as  the  Hy-wheel  shaft, 
beino-  fastened  l)y  means  of  a  double  clamp  as  sliown  in  the  figure, 
ur,  if  the  two  shafts  jiav.'  H. it  sui'laces,  by  diiving*  iro)i  "keys' 
(wedges)  beneath  the  ring  or  jacket  D.  In  the  former  method 
the  screws  rt  and  I)  are  sunk  into  holes  in  the  shafts. 

The  i-ing  or  jacket  I)  is  usually  made  of  strong,  heavy,  cast 
iron,  but  other  methods  t)f  connecting  together  the  two  shafts 
could  probably  be  made  to  work  equally  well. 

The  bearing  C  corresponds  to  that  on  the  wooden  bar  C 
in  fig.  I.  The  large  Hy-wheel  F  (or  "velocity  wheel"  as  we 
may  call  it  to  distinguish  it  fi'om  the  fly-wheel  of  the  machine) 
is  '  keyed  '  on  to  the  cranked  shaft  near  the  bearing  C,  but  so  far 
away  that  in  turning  it  will  clear  the  support  B.  This  wheel  is 
usually  an  old  cart  wheel  and  is  often  weighted 
equally  round  the  circumference.  A  large 
heavy  wheel  is,  of  course,  best  as  it  maintains 
a  more  even  velocity  and  carries  the  motion 
better  past  the  two  points  where  no  work  can 
be  applied  to  the  crank  X.  The  cranked  shaft 
is  made  of  any  convenient  length,  but  should 
not  Le  made  too  long.  The  length  of  the 
crank  X  is  usually  from  10  to  12  inches,  but  it 
varies  in  different  machines. 


\CZ 


Wooden  Shaft 


''BrOr 


X  Bearing   or  InoN 


Fk;   III. 


Ropc 


III.  To  the  beai'ing  X  (fig.  II)  is  attached  a  strong- 
wooden  shaft  about  8  to  10  feet  lonor  as  shown  in  fio-.  III.  The 
method   of  attachment    is   also  shown  in  fig.  III.     A  cross-piece 


174 


AGRICULTURA.L    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA. 


[V,  II. 


NOTES, 


175 


attached  to  theother  end  of  this  shaft  serves  as  a  handle  and  is  made 
loni^  enouorh  foitwo  or  three  coohes,  standing  side  hy^sidp,  to  tal<p 
hold  of  and  work  without  interfering  with  the  free  motion  of  ono 
another.  Tlie  handle  end  of  this  shaft  is  suspended  at  a  fonvenient 
working  lieiglit  l)y  means  of  a  rope  (or  sometimes  by  means  of 
twi)  ropes — one  from  each  end  of  the  handle)  to  the  rafters  or 
othei"  over-head  support. 

By    alternately    pushing   and    pulling  on  this  handle  the  Hy 
wheel   is    caused    to   revolve,    and  with  a  well-balanced  "  velocity 
wheel "   a    considerable    speed   is    obtainable    and   can  be  readily 
maintained  if  the  machine  is  not  too  heavily,  hut  evenly,  fed. 

The  writer  is  not  aware  that  this  arrangement  is  in  use  else- 
where in  India,  but  with  a  little  adaptation,  especially  of  dimen- 
sions, it  can  be  made  use  of  for  a  variety  of  purposes.  It  is  here 
made  by  local  labour,  the  cost  is  small,  and  where  coolie  labour 
is  as  expensive  as  it  is  in  Burma,  simple  appliances  of  this  kind  are 
very  useful  and  quickly  repay  the  expense  and  trouble  of  erection. 

N.B.  —  The  figures  except  fig.  lY  are  all  drawn  to  scale  (one 
inch  to  one  foot),  the  measurements  being  taken  from  the 
machine  in  use  on  the  Mandala}'  farm. — (E.  Thompstone.) 


The  Java  Sugar  Industry. — The  imports  of  cane  sugar  to 
India  in  1908-09  were  6,172,039  cwts.  The  figures  for  the  pre- 
vious five  years  are  given  below  : — 


More  than  60%  of  this  comes  from  Java. 

An  interesting  report  on  the  trade  of  Java,  which  has  re- 
cently been  published  b}'  the  Foreign  Ofiice  and  the  Boai'd  of  Trade 
(London),  gives  some  details  of  the  production  of  sugar  in  this 
island.  The  cultivation  of  the  crop  is  largely  under  European 
control.  The  planted  area  in  1907  was  281,750  acres  which 
pi'oduced     1,144,383    tons;    in    1908     the    acreage    increased    to 


176 


AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA. 


[V,  II. 


284,600  and  the  production  to  1,217,390  tons,  giving  an  average 
yield  of  4'28  tons  per  acre.  Less  than  15  3^ ears  ago,  the  total 
output  was  only  half  a  million  tons.  The  steady  increase  both  in 
the  area  planted  and  in  output,  during  this  period,  is  strikingly 
indicated  Iw  the  following  table  published  in  the  Louisiana 
Planter,  dated  the  31st  July  1909:— 


Production  of  Sogak  in 
kilograms. 

Hectares  of  Cane 
planted. 

Production  of   Raw  Sugar 
ill  tons. 

Years. 

Per  hectare. 

Per  100  kill,  of 

cane. 

1894 

77,919 

530,963 

6,814 

10-36 

1895 

77,093 

581,569 

7.543 

9-79 

1896 

73,993 

534,390 

7  222 

10-55 

1897 

75,289 

586,299 

7 ',786 

1006 

1898 

80,337 

725.030 

9,025 

10-21 

1899 

83,4.30 

762,447 

9,1.39 

10-94 

1900 

9(),77.'i 

744,2.57 

8,199 

9-57 

1901 

101,694 

803.7.35 

7,903 

10  16 

1902 

104,167 

897,130 

8,612 

10-77 

1903 

101,754 

952,307 

9.;359 

10-03 

1904 

103,(137 

1,055,043 

10.239 

10-74 

1905 

105,993 

1,039,178 

9,860 

10-37 

1906 

110.752 

1,067,798 

9,611 

10-04 

1907 

113,564 

1,210,197 

]0,().56 

10-04 

1908 

117,579 

1,241,885 

10,562 

1004 

Average  percentage  of  extraction  for  last  ten  years  is 
9-417. 

The  ability  of  the  Java  Sugar  Industiy  to  compete  success- 
fully in  the  sugar  markets  of  the  world  is  attributed  to  the  im- 
proved methods  of  production.  A  large  proportion  of  the  profits 
earned  bj^  planters  is  devoted  to  improvements  in  arrangements 
and  construction  of  factories,  to  extension  of  S3^stems  of  rail 
transport  and  to  erection  of  new  and  improved  machinery.  At 
the  Experimental  Stations,  valuable  work  is  being  done  in  the 
direction  of  propagating  new  species  and  in  rendering  existing 
ones  impervious  to  disease. — (Editor.) 


The  Experimental  Error  in  Field  Trials.  In  the  August 
Number  of  the  Journal  of  tlie  Board  of  Agriculture  (London), 
Mr.  A.  D.  Hall,  Director  of  the  Rothamsted  Experimental 
Station,  draws  attention  to  the  fact  that  in  all  experimental  work 
it  is  impossible  to  arrive  at  ab.solute    correctness    in    results,    and 


NOTES.  177 

that  error  is  inevitable.  As  a  consequence,  perfect  confidence 
cannot  be  placed  in  any  conclusions  drawn  from  experiments,  to 
state  exactly  within  what  limits  such  results  are  likely  to  be 
correct. 

All  field  trials  are  subject  to  a  large  number  of  sources  of 
error.  Those  which  relate  to  mistakes  either  of  observation  or 
of  computation  are,  of  course,  such  as  cannot  be  taken  account 
of  in  calculating  the  "  probable  error "  and  must  be  carefully 
guarded  against.  But  there  are  others,  such  as,  for  instance, 
variations  which  reveal  themselves  in  the  soil  in  the  course  of 
experiments.  In  this  case,  the  results  obtained  will  be  of  no 
scientific  value  and  experiments  will  have  to  be  begun  afresh. 
But  even  in  cases  where  the  soil  may  be  said  to  be  sensibly  uni- 
form, such  as  in  pot  and  other  culture  experiments,  it  is  found 
from  actual  experience  that  various  pairs  of  plots  receiving  the 
same  treatment  do  not  give  similar  yields  year  by  year,  but  vary 
with  considerable  irregularity.  It  is,  therefore,  necessary,  says 
Mr.  Hall,  to  find  out  what  sorts  of  differences  in  the  yields  from 
two  plots  should  be  taken  to  indicate  the  effect  of  the  treatment 
they  have  received,  and  what  must  be  regarded  as  covered  by 
the  natural  variation  due  to  unknown  causes.  As  the  result  of 
the  examination  of  many  series  of  experiments,  he  states  that 
the  mean  error  attached  to  the  yield  of  a  single  plot  is  about  10 
per  cent.,  and  he  lays  down  for  guidance  the  rule  that  nothing 
less  than  20  per  cent,  differences  have  much  significance  in  a 
single  experiment.  "  The  only  way  of  reducing  the  experi- 
mental error  and  obtaining  a  closer  result  is  to  multiply  the 
experiments,  either  by  repeating  them  3'ear  after  year,  or  by  in- 
creasing the  number  of  plots  (not  the  size),  preferably  both, 
because  there  may  be  constant  differences  in  the  soil,  while  the 
season  may  also  induce  variations  in  the  effect  of  treatment."  In 
designing  field  experiments,  Mr.  Hall  considers  that  it  is  useless 
to  include  small  differences  in  treatment  which  are  not  likely  to 
induce  more  than  10  per  cent,  differences  in  the  yield,  unless  the 
experiment  is  going  to  be  repeated  very  widely  or  carried  on  for 
several  years. — (Editor.) 

12 


178  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDL\.  [V,   IL 

NoTKs  ON  THE    Gkrhination    OF  Caxe    Setts. — Most    Suo-ar 
Planters  recognise  the  importance  of  getting    quick    and    regular 
germination  of  their  planting  setts  as  a  preliminaiy  to  securing  a 
good  "  Stand"  of  cane  and  ultimately  a  good  crop.      The    follow- 
ing observations  in  that  direction  may  be  of  interest  as    they  are 
the  result  of  experience  working  on  practical  lines  on  about     1  50 
acres.     The  canes  used  for  planting  were  first  year  canes    chief!}" 
of  the    Red    Mauritius  variet3\      The  soils  on  which  mj'  observa- 
tions were  made  were  of  two  kinds.     One  which  I   will  call  A  is 
a  very  light  sandy  dr}^  land  soil  of  very  low  fertility.     It    is    irri- 
gated b}^  an  Oil  Engine.     The  other  which  I  will  call  B  is  a  very 
stifi',  wet  land,  claj^^  soil  of   fairly   good    analj'sis,    with,  however, 
M,  tendency  to  be  saline.      It  is  iri'igated  by  a  canal.     The  cuttings 
[)lanted    in    both    plots    were  quite  fresh  and  healthy,  apparently 
free  from  disease  and    were   carefully    selected.      Those    showing 
signs  of  being  damaged  in  any  way  were  rejected.      The  setts    in 
Plot  A  were  cuttings  from  the  entire  cane  ;  "  Tops,  "  "  Middles" 
and  "  Butts  "  being  planted    indiscriminately.      The    geiniination 
in  this  field  was  absolutely  perfect.      In  al)out  35  acres  with  about 
8,000    setts    per    acre    planted  not  more  than  3,000  "  Replants  " 
were  required  to  give  a  perfectly  filled  field.     The    setts    in    Plot 
B    were    taken  from    the    "  Tops  "    and    ''  Middles"  of  the  cane. 
The  "  Tops  "  were  planted    separately    from    the  "  Middles  "  but 
in  adjoining  parts  of  the  field.     The  germination    of  the    "  Top  " 
setts  was  fairly  good,  but  there  was  very  high  mortality  amongst 
the  "  Middle  "  setts.     This,  I  think,  was  caused  to  some  extent  by 
a  heav}'  thunder  storm  which  occurred  while  we    were    planting. 
We  were  faced  by  the  work  of  replanting  the    failed    portion    of 
the  field  where  the    "  Middles  "  had  been  planted  and  determined 
to    do    so    with   "  Tops  "  as  far  as  they  were  available.      We  had 
about    two    acres    of    standino-    cane    and  started  cuttinoj  oft'  the 
"  To|is  "  for  planting.      A  few  days  afterwards    we    noticed    that 
the  buds  on  those  canes  which   had  been    topped    were    swelling, 
and  from  theii-  appearance  it  seemed  likely  that  in  such  condition 
they  might  germinate  quickly  if  planted.     The    experiment    was 
tried    and    proved    highly    successful.     The  portions  of  the  field 


NOTES. 


179 


where  those  budded  setts  were  planted  has  now  the  most  even 
stand  of  cane.  With  ordinary  setts  it  was  quite  a  fortnight  and 
sometimes  consideral)ly  longer  before  one  could  say  whether 
oerminatioii  ha<l  successfully  taken  place,  hut  with  the  hudded 
setts,  it  was  possible  to  tell  in  al)()nt  a  week,  the  tender  green 
leaf  appearing  in  many  cases  within  the  week.  The  method  we 
followed  foi-  planting  the  budded  setts  was  [)ushing  them  an  inch 
oi- two  into  the  moist  earth  at  a  slight  inclination.  To  sum  up 
brieHy  what  1  have  noted  in  this  season's  work. 

1st.  "  Tops,"'  "Middles,"  and  "  Butts"  of  canes  may  be 
germinated  successfully  in  dry  land  if  they  ai-e  kept  regularly 
irrigated  and  a  little  castor  cake  is  applied  in  the  rows  before 
planting,  thus  preventing  ini'oads  of  white  ants. 

•2nd.  To  plant  the  "  Middles  "  or  lower  portions  of  canes 
<^n  heavy  cla}'  soil  is  veiy  risky,  and  care  must  be  taken  to  bud 
the  setts  before  planting. 

3r(l.  Budded  setts  are  preferable  to  "  Tops  "  for  planting  if 
considered  from  the  point  of  view  of  germination.  Tops  are  of 
course  more  economical  as  they  are  of  no  use  for  sugar  making. — 

(William  Netlson.) 

* 
*  * 

A(iRicuLTUKAL  Mach IN' KRY. — The  TiiiK'.^  of  Iiifhct  says  :   "The 

successful   competition    of   Indian    wheat    in    the    markets   of  the 

world    will    depend,    to    a    great    extent,    upon    the    crops  being 

handled  cliieHy    and   expeditiously  by  machinery.      Little   of  this 

has    been   done   as  yet,    though    many    unsuccessful    experiments 

with    unsuitable    appai'atus  have  been  made  in  the  Punjab.      One 

of  the  greatest  ditHculties  has   been   to   devise   machinery'    which 

can    be   di-iven    acro.ss    the   iri'igation   ImmU   which    intersect   the 

colli -fields.      This  has  now  been  overcome  and    an  advance   in   the 

right   direction    is    evidently    now    being  made.      The  demand  lor 

maclfmeiy  has  largely  been  stimulated  by  the  shortage  of   labour 

caused    by    plague  and  malaria,  and  the  great  etlbrts  made  b}'  the 

Agricultural  Department  to  introduce  reapers   among  the  Canal 

Colonists   of  the   J'unjab    last    year    met    with    most   satisfactor}'' 

i-esults.     Forty-eight  machines  were  disposed  o\\  and  a   course   of 


180  AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL   OF    INDIA.  [V,  II. 

instruction  arranged  for  those  who  took  them,  and  forty-three  of 
the  new  machines  were  worked  successfully.  The  very  creditable 
all-over  average  of  5*6  or  7  "3  acres  was  the  daily  work  of  the 
machines  during  the  season,  and  with  an  average  cutting  of  72 
acres,  a  hundred  per  cent,  profit,  after  deducting  depreciation, 
was  shown.  One  of  the  most  striking  features  of  the  whole 
undertaking  was  that  the  machines  were  almost  entirely  taken 
up  by  the  Sikhs,  a  curious  point  on  which  it  would  be  interesting 
to  have  some  explanation.  Another  interesting  feature  was  the 
co-operative  purchase  of  several  machines.  The  Agricultural 
Department  of  the  Punjab  have  now  succeeded  in  relieving 
themselves  of  the  work  of  machinery  agents,  which  has  been 
taken  up  by  a  European  firm  of  good  standing,  and  with  the 
financial  success  of  the  machine  proved  beyond  doubt,  they  are 
certain  to  be  adopted  largel}^  in  future,  though  it  is  expected 
that  their  usefulness  will  be  entirely  limited  to  the  Canal 
tracts." 


Poultry  Industry  in  Eastern  Bengal  and  Assam. — An 
interesting  Bulletin  on  Poultry  Industry  in  Eastern  Bengal  and 
Assam  has  been  issued  by  the  local  Department  of  Agriculture. 

In  this  Province,  Mahomedan  families  rear  poultry  at 
considerable  profit.  Fowls,  ducks  and  ducks'  eggs  are  sent  in 
large  quantities  to  Chittagong  and  Burma. 

There  is  considerable  room  for  improvement  in  the  breeds 
kept,  and  this  want  can  be  helped  from  Pusa. 

To  introduce  improvement  in  the  local  breed,  the  Depart- 
ment of  Agriculture  proposes  on  a  small  scale  at  the  Dacca 
farm  to  breed  and  distribute  male-birds  of  the  Langshan  and 
Chittagong  kinds  and  to  supply  eggs  of  these  pure  breeds. 

Pusa  has  got  19  pure  English  breeds  of  cocks  and  hens, 
geese,  ducks  and  turkeys  and  can  supply  Provincial  Departments 
of  Agriculture  with  birds. 

I  am,  however,  not  inclined  to  believe  in  the  usefulness  of 
keeping  pure  English  fowls  in  India. 


N0TE3.  181 

I  recommend  that  crosses  should  bo  produced,  and  that  the 
cross  bred  birds  should  be  of  medium  size  and  good  layers,  be- 
cause we  do  not  usually  want  big  fowls  in  India  for  the  table. 

Large  eggs  are,  however,  essentially  required. — (Editor.) 

♦  « 
* 

Plantain  Fibre. — An  industry  in  plantain  fibre  is  making 
considerable  progress  in  the  Madras  Presidency,  and  there  is 
considerable  room  for  extension  in  other  parts  of  India.  The 
chief  work  has  been  done  latterly  by  the  Christian  Colony  of 
Malrosapuram,  Chingleput,  the  Tanjore  Industrial  and  Agri- 
cultural Association  and  the  Cachar  Industrial  and  Agricultural 
Association. 

Mr.  Proudlock,  Superintendent  of  Parks  and  Gardens,  Nil- 
giris,  was  really  the  pioneer  of  the  industry  in  India  and 
invented  a  very  cheap  and  serviceable  machine  for  extracting  the 
fibre.  The  fibre  is  very  suitable  for  making  ropes  though  not  as 
strong  as  Bombay  hemp  (Hibiscus  Cannahinus). — (Editor.) 


REVIEWB. 


Handbook  of  the  Destructive     Insects    of  Victoria,   Part  IV, 

BY  C.   French,  Government  Entomolocist, 

This  volume  is  a  continuation  of  the  author's  well-known 
series,  in  which  are  described  the  injurious  insects  of  Victoria, 
Part  I  was  issued  in  1891,  an  edition  of  8,000  copies  being  now 
exhausted  ;  the  author  hopes  to  add  Parts  V  and  VI.  In  the 
present  volume  twenty  insects  injurious  to  crops  or  forest 
trees  are  discussed,  fourteen  birds  useful  to  agriculture  are  figured, 
an  appendix  dealing  with  spraying  materials  is  added,  and  the 
volume  starts  with  a  copy  of  the  Vegetation  Diseases  Act,  189G, 
the  Act  to  amend  it  (190(3),  and  a  report  from  the  Chief  Fruit 
Inspector.  The  last  three  are  interesting  documents  and  illus- 
trate the  value  put  in  other  countries  on  checking  crop  pests. 
The  Act  of  1896  starts  by  saying  that  "  no  person  shall  sell  or 
attempt  to  sell  or  expose  for  sale  or  cause  to  be  sold  or  exposed 
for  sale,  any  diseased  tree,  plant  or  vegetable  ;"  the  penalty  is  a 
fine  not  exceeding  ten  pounds.  In  the  Colonies  these  matters 
are,  as  they  should  be,  taken  seriously,  and  a  person  who  distri- 
butes diseased  plants  is  as  much  a  criminal  as  he  wlio  carries 
about  an  infectious  disease. 

The  greater  part  of  the  volume  discusses  pests,  the  notorious 
fruit-fly  pest,  first  of  all.  Many  remedies  for  the  fruit-fly  are 
mentioned,  but  there  is  nothing  really  effectual  to  be  done.  Of 
the  remaining  pests,  few  have  equivalents  in  India,  and  most  are 
peculiar  to  Australia.  The  "  Common  Bean  Butterfly  "  is  repre- 
sented in  India  by  a  very  closely  allied  insect  (Catoclrryfiops 
cnejusj,  also  attacking  pulses  The  author  recommends  spraying 
the  beans,  when  quite  small,  with  (piassia  ;  this  should  be  repeat- 
ed "at  intervals  accordino-  to  the  time  of  the  vear.  " 


RB  VIEWS.  183 

Another  pest  of  interest  to  us  in  India  is  the  Banded 
Pumpkin  Beetle  ( Aalacophor(i  hilaris)  represented  in  India  b}'^ 
Aulacopliora  foveicollis  and  A.  excarata,  which  work  in  a  pre- 
cisely similar  way,  attacking  yountj;-  puni[)kin,  (^-ourd,  cucumber 
and  other  cucurbitaceous  plants.  It  is  noteworthy  that  though 
in  India  and  Austi'alia  it  is  known  where  the  beetle  la^-s 
eggs,  it  is  not  known  what  happens  after,  and  no  one  has 
found  where  the  grub  of  any  Aalaeophora  really  lives  ;  till 
that  is  found  out,  remedie.s  must  be  directed  at  the  beetle  which 
alone  is  destructive.  Mr.  French  recommends  tar  water  and 
quassia  chips  as  preventives,  sprayed  on  to  the  plants,  and  gives 
particulars  of  many  other  methods  used  in  Victoria.  Another 
pest  common  to  India  and  Australia  is  the  bot-fly  of  the  horse, 
for  which  the  author  quotes  several  remedies. 

The  coloured  plates  form  a  very  prominent  feature  of  the 
book  and  are  both  well  painted  and  well  printed.  If  there  is  a 
fault  in  the  volume,  it  is  that  the  author  has  no  plan  in  dealing 
with  each  pest,  but  quotes  or  jots  down  snippets  of  information  ; 
above  all,  under  prevention  and  remedies,  a  host  of  methods  are 
quoted  from  persons  who  cannot  be  experts,  whilst  the  opinion 
of  the  author  himself  is  hidden. 

We  hope  the  volumes  will  be  continued  into  Parts  V  and  VI, 
completing  this  series  which  covers  the  pests  not  of  Victoria  alone, 
but  very  largely  of  the  Australian  continent  ;  there  is  no  other 
such  comprehensive  work  of  reference  on  xAustralian  pests,  and 
we  congratulate  the  author  on  the  success  of  this  series  and  shall 
lo<')k  for  its  (continuation. — (H.    M.  Lkfroy.) 

« 

Thk  Silk    Industkv  of  Japan,   hy   I.    Honda.  Director,   Imperial 
Tf)KYo  Sericijl'I'I'ral  Institute.    r.>09. 

This  volume  is  published  by  the  Imperial  Sericultural 
Institute  to  give  foi'eigners  an  idea  of  the  Japanese  silk  industry. 
India  has  ;i  dyin.L;  silk  industry  ;  Japan  a  steadily  increasing- 
one  ;  and  the  present  volume  is  of  very  great  interest  to  anyone 
concerned  with  sericulture  in  India. 


184  AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  II. 

We  cannot  here  deal  with  this  vohime  as  it  should  be  dealt 
with  ;  we  can  only  emphasise  some  of  the  salient  points  and 
contrast  Indian  with  Japanese  sericulture.  The  author  dates 
the  introduction  of  silk  insects  from  China  back  1,620  years.  He 
recounts  the  efforts  of  successive  Emperors  and  shows  how  the 
industry  was  built  up.  At  a  later  date,  the  law  restricted  the 
use  of  silk  clothing  to  the  samurai,  and  as  there  was  no  export, 
the  trade  was  restricted  ;  the  opening  of  harbours  to  foreign 
trade  stimulated  the  industry  ;  the  immense  demand  for  eggs  in 
Europe  at  the  time  of  the  pebrine  epidemic  (1860-70)  stimulated 
the  trade  still  more,  but  with  the  introduction  of  Pasteur's 
methods,  the  demand  for  eggs  ceased.  In  a  separate  chapter 
the  author  describes  the  efforts  made  by  Government  at  the 
present  time  to  foster  sericulture  ;  one  of  the  most  important 
is  the  Regulations  for  the  Prevention  of  Silkworm  diseases, 
which  brings  "all  silkworm  e^^  producers,  silkworm  rearers, 
raw    silk    producers,    and    those    engaged    in  stifling    and  dr3nng 

cocoons ^. under  the  control  of   this    law."     The    regulations 

prescribe  for  the  examination  of  seed,  and  there  are  in  Japan 
132  offices  which  see  that  the  regulations  are  complied  with. 
The  Government  also  started  a  Conditioning  house,  in  which 
any  silk  could  be  tested  and  conditioned,  so  that  it  could  be  sold 
on  a  certificate,  as  is  done  in  France. 

There  are  in  Japan  hundreds  of  Sericultural  Associations, 
the  foremost  being  the  Sericultural  Association  of  Japan  with  a 
membership  of  60,000  ;  its  scope  is  extremely  wdde,  and  there 
are  very  many  minor  associations  which  foster  sericulture 
throughout  Japan. 

In  1876,  the  export  of  Japanese  silk  to  America  commenced, 
and  it  has  steadily  increased  to  the  present,  America  being  a 
very  great  market.  The  author  details  the  efforts  of  Govern- 
ment to  foster  the  industry ;  these  led  to  the  foundation  of  a 
Sericultural  Institute  in  1896,  followed  by  a  Filature  Department, 
Sericultural  Schools,  and  two  Conditioning  Houses ;  the  sale 
and  use  of  seed  was  regulated,  and  Pasteur's  methods  of  examina- 
tion made  compulsory,    so  that  pebrine  and  similar  diseases  have 


REVIEWS.  185 

not  attained  tlie  importance  in  Japan  that  they  have  elsewhere. 
The  author  discusses  the  present  state  of  sericulture.  A  total 
of  1,421,030  families  were  engaged  in  silk  rearing  in  1907  ;  of  the 
production  of  eggs,  he  states  that  the  produce  of  88,740,558 
moths  were  used  for  cellular  reproduction  and  534,921,000  for 
industrial  reproduction  ;  the  production  of  cocoons  is  given  as 
109,199,260  kilogrammes  (equals  approximately  seers,  or 
2,729,981*5  maunds),  and  the  production  of  raw  silk  as  7,031,095 
kilogrammes  (roughly  190,7  77  maunds).  The  area  under  mul- 
berry varies  from  3 1*5  percent,  of  the  land  to  O*]  per  cent,  in  the 
ditierent  prefectures  ;  univoltine  and  bivoltine  worms  are  cultiv- 
ated, and  there  are  three  principal  brood.s,  the  spring,  summer, 
and  autumn,  the  last  obtained  by  keeping  the  eggs  in  caves  which 
remain  cool  and  so  delay  the  hatching  of  the  eggs 

The  author  then  enters  into  technical  details  of  the  processes 
of  silk-rearing,  reeling,  etc.,  but  his  descriptions  are  not  such  as 
would  help  anyone  actually  engaged  in  sericulture  in  India. 
He  gives  an  impression  of  the  immense  amount  of  care  and 
trouble  given  to  the  work  by  all  concerned  in  it. 

In  the  final  chapter  he  shows  that  Japan's  production  is 
35  per  cent,  of  the  world's  output.  The  efforts  of  Government 
are  directed  to  increasing  the  export  of  raw  silk  rather  than  to 
that  of   manufactured  products. 

Contrasting  the  silk  industry  of  India  with  that  of  Japan, 
the  two  salient  points  are  that  Japan  has  a  climate  admirably 
suited  to  sericulture,  and  secondly,  that  the  care  given  by  all 
classes  of  the  community  is  far  greater  than  that  given  in  India  ; 
as  a  rule,  Indian  silk  is  badly  and  carelessly  reared,  unevenly  reeled 
and  put  on  the  market  without  an^^  care  ;  no  eftbrts  on  the  part  of 
Government  would  counteract  the  state  of  rearinof  and  reelinof 
in  India,  and  the  result  is  that  India  is  an  importing  country,  buy- 
ing large  (quantities  of  silk  that  could  be  produced  in  the  country. 
A.t  the  present  time,  the  production  of  raw  silk  is  not  very 
large  and  is  steadily  decreasing  in  India  ;  very  largely  is  this 
due  to  the  primary  f\ictor  of  climate  ;  but  it  is  also  due  to  bad 
methods.     There    is    no    question  that  a  very  large  area  of  India 


186  AGRICDLTUKAL    JOURNAL   OF    INDIA.  [V,  11. 

can  produce  excellent  silk,  rearing  one  crop  yearly  from  tree 
mulberry  at  the  end  of  the  cold  weather  ;  but  if  this  production 
is  to  be  such  as  can  be  used  in  India  or  expoited,  vei'y  much 
o-reater  care  must  be  taken  in  rearing,  reeling  and  finishing  than  is 
taken  at  present.  Sericulture  is  an  art  requiring  infinite  pains  in 
ev^ery  detail,  and  the  present  tendency  is  for  sericulture  in  India 
to  become  extinct,  the  finer  products  of  China  and  Japan 
replacing  the  inferior  products  of  India  in  the  world's  markets 
and  even  in  India  itself. 

Iwajiro  Honda's  book  may  be  commended  to  the  notice  of 
those  interested  in  sericulture  ;  it  shows  what  has  been  done 
in  silk  production  by  a  people  situated  in  circumstances  not 
very  dissimilar  from  those  of  the  population  of  a  large  area  of 
Northern  India  ;  silk  production  is  practicable  in  India  on  the 
best  lines,  if  sufficient  care  and  attention  to  detail  were  to  be  given, 
and  if  the  efforts  of  the  people  themselves  rendered  fruitful  those 
of  the  Goverinnent,  as  has  happened  in  Japan. — (H.  M.  Lefroy.) 


The  Ring  Disease  of  Potatoes,  a  preliminary  Report  by  Leslie 
C.  ColExMan,  M.A.,  Ph.D.,  Mycologist  and  Entomologist  to  the 
Government  of  Mysore.  Department  of  Agriculture, 
Mysore  State,  Mycological  Series,  Bulletin  No.  I,  1909. 

This  is  the  first  of  a  series  in  which  it  is  intended  to  publish 
the  results  of  investigations  conducted  by  the  Agricultural 
Department  of  Mysore  State.  Each  bulletin  will  deal  with  a 
single  subject  or  with  several  closely  related  ones,  and  will  be 
published  as  soon  as  the  investigations  have  been  completed  or 
have  reached  a  stage  such  that  the  results  obtained  are  likely  to 
be  of  practical  value. 

The  present  bulletin  has  been  written  expressly  for  the 
information  of  those  interested  in  potato  cultivation  in  Mysore. 
It  is,  however,  of  much  wider  inteiest,  since  the  disease  dealt 
with  occurs  over  a  considerable  part  of  India,  indeed  probably  to 
a  greater  or  less  degree  wherever  potatoes  are  grown.  In 
Mysore  it  is  well  kn(»wn  to  [\iv  cultivat(»r.s,    who    oftuii    attribute 


REVIEWS.  187 

it  to  bad  seed  or  to  "  sourness  ''  of  tlie  soil  and  do  not  realise 
that  it  is  a  definite  disease.  In  Bombay,  where  it  has  long-  been 
known,  it  is  termed  Bamjdi  blight. 

It  is  readily  recognised  by  the  sudden  "  wilting  "  or  wither- 
ing of  the  potato  plants  in  an  affected  field.  If  the  tubers  from 
one  of  these  wilted  plants  be  cut  through,  some  of  them  are 
almost  certain  to  show  a  brown  ring  in  the  flesh,  a  short  distance 
below  the  surface.  This  ring  indicates  the  position  of  the 
vessels  of  the  tuber,  which  are  found  in  diseased  cases  to  be 
choked  by  enormous  nunil)ers  of  shoit  rod-shaped  bacteria. 
Besides  the  destruction  of  plants  in  the  field,  it  is  also  found  that 
the  tubers  from  aff'ected  fields  are  ver^^  liable  to  rot  when  stored, 
part  of  the  rotting  being  certainly  due  to  the  presence  of  these 
bacteria  in  the  potatoes  at  the  time  of  harvest.  The  vessels  of 
the  stem  in  wilted  plants  are  also  plugged  with  masses  of 
bacteria.  This  prevents  the  passage  of  water  from  the  roots  to 
the  green  parts  of  the  plant,  and  as  soon  as  a  large  number  of 
vessels  become  affected  the  plant  withers,  even  though  the  soil 
may  contain  plenty  of  moisture. 

The  author,  after  describmg  the  chief  characters  of  Baiu/di 
blight,  furnishes  proof  that  the  bacteria  present  in  the  vessels 
are  the  real  cause  of  the  disense.  This  proof  has  been  obtained 
by  direct  infections  of  health}''  plants  with  pure  cultures  of 
the  bacterium,  the  result  being  the  production  of  wilting 
and  the  formation  of  tho  characteristic  brown  rino'  in  the 
tubers. 

The  source  of  infection  was  next  taken  up  and  elucidated  by 
carefully  planned  experiments.  Two  chief  sources  of  infection 
occur.  First,  the  use  of  previously  diseased  seed  ;  if  the  seed  is 
from  badly  diseased  tubers,  it  often  rots  in  the  field  without 
jijerminating  ;  whereas  if  only  slightly  diseased,  the  plants  grow, 
but  most  of  them  eventually  wilt  without  reaching  maturity. 
Second,  the  presence  of  the  bacteria  in  the  soil  in  which  the 
potatoes  are  grown  :  quite  healthy  seed  .sown  in  a  soil  which  had 
a  sliort  time  [)reviously  borne  a  diseased  cro[),  gave  a  crop  which 
was   badly  diseased,  while  the  same  seed  in  a   plot  near  bv.    where 


188  AGRlCDLTtRAL   JOURNAL   OF   INDIA.  [V,  II. 

potatoes  had  not  previous^  been  grown,  ge^ve  a   crop    quite    free 
from  disease. 

It  was  found  during  these  experiments  that  diseased  seed 
may  occur  without  the  warning  brown  ring  in  the  tuber  being 
visible. 

The  exact  mode  of  infection  is  not  yet  definitely  known. 
A  similar,  if  not  identical,  potato  disease  in  the  United  States 
is  said  to  be  chiefly  carried  by  insects,  which  feed  on  diseased 
plants,  getting  some  of  the  bacteria  on  their  mouth  parts  during 
the  process,  and  then  inoculate  healthy  plants  by  feeding  on 
them  subsequently.  The  insects  tested  in  Mysore  did  not  convey 
the  disease  in  this  wa}^  and  it  appears  to  be  unlikely  that  insects 
have  much  to  do  with  it  The  method  of  infection  is  being- 
farther  studied. 

Besides  the  potato,  brinjals  and  tomatoes  have  been  success- 
fully inoculated  with  the  bacillus,  the  result  being  wilting  just 
as  in  potatoes. 

The  following  are  the  chief  recommendations  for  treatment 
made  by  the  author  : — 

1.  Seed  should  be  obtained  from  fields  where  the  disease 
does  not  exist. 

2.  As  an  additional  precaution,  where  the  seed  is  cut 
before  planting,  all  pieces  that  have  the  least  trace  of  brown 
spots  or  a  brown  ring  should  be  discarded. 

3.  Potatoes,  brinjals  or  tomatoes  should  not  be  planted  in 
land  which  has  shown  the  disease,  for  at  least  a  year.  Probably 
it  w^ould  be  better  to  wait  for  two  years. 

4.  A  means  of  checking  the  disease  that  would  probably 
prove  very  effective  would  be  the  introduction  of  a  disease- 
resisting  variety  of  potato  into  cultivation.  Attempts  are  in 
progress,  with  the  co-operation  of  the  Government  Botanist,  to 
secure  such  a  variety. 

The  bulletin  should  be  read  not  only  by  those  concerned 
with  potato  cultivation,  but  by  all  mycological  students  in  India, 
as  a  clear,  easily  followed  and  interesting  account  of  a  parasitic 
disease,  the  methods  followed  in  its  investigation,    the   ascertain- 


REVIEWS.  189 


ing    of    its    cause,    and    bow    to    combat  it.     It  is  profusely  and 
excellently  illustrated. — (E.  J.  Bitleh.) 


Drainage  of  Irrigated  Lands.     United    States   Department   of 
Agriculture  Farmers'  Bulletin  371. 

This  bulletin  deals  with  results  obtained  in  draining  lands 
which  have  been  water-logged  under  irrigation  cliiefiy  in  the 
State  of  Utah.  Some  ten  areas  have  been  dealt  with.  They 
were  all  badl}'^  water-logged  mostly  with  accumulations  of  seepage 
water  and  usuall}'  accompanied  with  the  natural  accumulations 
of  alkali.  They  were  chiefly  low-lying  lands  in  which,  after 
being  under  irrigation  for  some  3'ears,  drainage  from  higher  land, 
or  in  some  cases  seepage  from  the  irrigation  cut  itself,  had  caused 
either  total  or  partial  reduction  of  fertility. 

The  system  adopted  consisted  in  running  long  lines  of  tiled 
drains  to  cut  off  the  source  of  seepage  water  and  leading  to 
open  ditches  to  the  nearest  outlet.  Generallj^  4"  to  5"  tiles  were 
employed,  in  some  cases  leading  into  8"  and  10"  tiled  drains. 
One  area  had  long  wooden  boxes  instead  of  tiles,  but  this 
proved  expensive  and  tinsuccessful. 

Cost  of  the  operations  nattirally  varied  accoiding  to  local 
circumstances,  but  averaged  B13  to  $15  per  acre. 

An  unqualified  success  has  been  claimed  in  nearly  every 
case,  but  as  the  lands  seem  to  have  been  usually  nothino:  but 
bogs  for  a  portion  of  the  year,  this  is  not  surprising. 

The  S3'stem  of  laying  single  main  lines  of  4"  tiles  up  to 
3,000  feet  long  would  certainly  be  condemned  by  an  English 
drainer.  So  naturally'  trouble  was  caused  by  tiles  sinking  in 
soft  places,  and  dirtieulties  in  getting  the  proper  bed  slope 
occurred. 

In  one  case  the  whole  system  was  choked  up  by  the  irriga- 
gation  water  gaining  entrance  into  the  drainage  tiles  direct. 
This  is  a  contingency  which  might  easily  occur. 

On  the  whole,  the  results  of  the  experiments  do  not  seem  to 
prove  the  superiority  of  tile  drains  over  open  drains  for  irrigated 


190  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL   OF    INDIA.  [V,    II. 

land.  If  irrigation  canals  are  properly-  protected  b}^  drains  to 
prevent  excessive  seepage,  there  should  be  no  difficulty  in  prevent- 
ing water-logging  and  its  attendant  evils  by  means  of  inexpen- 
sive and  easily  constructed  field  ditches. — (G.  S.  Hendekson.) 


L18T  OF  AGKUJUJ/rUKAL  PUBJJCATlUNS 

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3  1st  JANUARY   1910. 


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Where  published. 


12 


13 


14 


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cuttuie  by  the  work  of  the 
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Potatoes— Cultivation,  Manuring, 
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supply  in  Bengal  — LeaHet  No.  (i 
of  1909. 

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General  A (jfuuKu re— couth 


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General  Agriculture — contd. 


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Messr.s.  Thacker,   Spink 
Co.,  Calcutta. 


No. 


LIST    OF    AQRICDLTURAL    PUBLICATIONS. 
LIST  OF  AGRICULTURAL  PUBLICATIONS— concW. 


195 


Title. 


Author. 


Where  published. 


69 


The  Wilt  Disease  of  Pigeon- Pea 
iind  Parasitism  of  Neocosnio- 
spora  Vasinfecta  Smith.  Me- 
moir of  the  Imperial  Depart- 
ment of  Agriculture,  Vol.  II, 
No.  IX.     Price,  Rs.  H. 


Mycology. 

E.  J.  Butler,  M.B.,  F.L.S., 
Imperial  Mycologist, 

Piisa. 


Messrs.  Thacker,   Spink  & 
Co.,  Calcutta. 


70 


71 


Economic  Botany, 

Second    Report    on    the      Fruit    Albert        Howard,       m.a. 
Experiments  at  Pusa.    Bulletin  i     (Cantab.),  a.k.c.s.,  k.l..s., 
No.     16     of    the     Agricultural  !     Imperial  Economic  Bota- 
Research        Institute,       Pusa.  i     nist,  Pusa. 
'    Price,  annas  6  ' 


The  Milling  and  Baking  Quali- 
ties of  Indian  Wheats  No.  '2. 
IJulletin  No.  17  of  the  Agricul- 
tural Research  Institute,  Pusa. 
Price,  annas  6. 


Ditto  and  Gabrielle  L.  C. 
Howard,  m.a.,  Associate 
and  late  Fellow  of  Newn- 
ham  College,  Cam- 
bridge. 


Government     Printing, 
India,  Calcutta. 


Ditto. 


The    Red    Cotton     Bug. 
vators  Leaflet  No.  19. 


Culti- 


Entomology. 

Department    of 
ture,  Burma. 


Agricul- 


Government  Press,  Burma, 
Rangoon. 


3. 


*V 


Tlie    Edible    Muslnj^ooiti, 


Bvdii ,  LiilxT  Xondcnu. 


Explanation  of  Plate  XIV. 
Edible  nvushroom,  Agaricus  campestiis,   Liyin. 

Figs.  1,  2   ami  •}.  "  Buttons  "  at  various  stages. 
Fig.     4.      Cap  swelling. 

5.     Cap  well  formed  :  veil  bursting  from  the  edge  of  the  cap 
,,        6.      Mature    mushroom  showing  origin  from  underground  mycelium. 
„        7.     Section  showing  the  thick  tleshy   cap  ;    gills  of   unequal  length  ;  and 

ring  cut  through.       x  i. 
,,        8       Cap  just  opened  showing  the  light  pink  tint  of  the  gills.       x  A. 
,,        9,     Cap  opened  some  hours  showing  the  dark  tint  of  the  gills.       x  A. 
,,      10.      Top  of  a  cap  showing  the  flaky  appearance  of  some  varieties.       x  ^. 
,,      11.      Section  across  a  gill  showing  the  position  of  the  filaments    of   which 

the  gill  is  composed        x  80 
„      12.      Small  portion  of  fig.  11,  highly  magnified        x  350. 
,,      13.     Spores.      X  750. 


yf  9 


THE  EDIBLE  MUSHROOM: 
A(;A Ulcus   CAMPESTRIS,   LINN. 

I5y  W.   McRAE,  M.A.,   li.sc, 
Snpermimerari/   Mycologist^   Fasa. 

After  the  first  break  in  the  rains  when  the  air  has  become 
inoist  and  steamy,  countless  fungi  ma^-  be  seen  springing  up 
everywhere  throughout  the  jungle  and  on  pastures,  lawns  and 
rubbish  heaps.  In  places  where  decayed  or  decajnng  vegetable 
matter  abounds,  such  as  on  an  old  stump  of  a  trie,  on  an  old  log 
of  wood,  or  in  fields  where  cattle  manure  has  been  spread,  these 
fungi  find  their  most  favoured  habitat.  Passing  over  those 
that  attract  us  by  their  symmetr}?^  of  form  and  beauty  of  colour, 
let  us  for  a  moment  interest  ourselves  in  those  that  are  esteemed 
as  articles  of  food. 

The   number   of  funo-i   that  can  be  eaten  without  evil  conse- 

o 

quences  is  fairly  large,  and  of  these  some  have  quite  a  pleasant 
flavour  and  are  much  appreciated.  The  best  known  one  is  the 
edible  mushroom.  Before  describing  this  species  more  particu- 
larly, it  might  be  better  for  us  to  have  a  brief  account  of  the 
family  to  which  it  belongs  in  order  that  we  may  more  easily 
understand  the  succeeding  remarks  upon  distinguishing  this 
particular  species  from  others  which  are  either  of  less  culiiiaiv 
value  or  are  even  poi.sonous. 

The  mushroom  is  a  member  of  the  group  of  fungi  called 
Agaricaccic,  whose  common  character  is  the  possession  of  thin, 
Hat,  knife-like  blades  of  tissue,  called  gills.  Everyone  knows  the 
external  appearance  of  a  mushroom,  a  stalk  l)earing  a  cap  on 
whose  under-surface  the  gills  are  situated.  The  stalk  may  be 
attached  to  the  centi'f'  of  the  cap,  and  the  gills  then  radiate 
from    the   centre    to   the  margin,  or  the  stalk  may  be  attached  to 

14 


198  Af;RTCULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   HI. 

the   side    of   the    cap,    and    the  gills  then  radiate  outwards  from 
this  point. 

All  the  gills  extend  from  the  edge  of  the  cap  right  to  the 
stalk,  or  only  some  do  so.  In  the  latter  case  some  gills  extend 
about  two-thirds  or  one-half  of  the  way  towards  the  stalk,  while 
others  just  extend  inwards  a  veiy  short  v/ay. 

If  we  carefully  remove  some  of  the  leaves  and  soil  from   the 
base    of  the    stalk,  there    will    be    exposed    a   number    of    white 
threads,   some   thick   and   others   thin,   formino-   a  tanofled,  felted 
network  round   the  leaves   and   soil-particles  somewhat  after  the 
manner  of  a  stout  spider's   web.     This   is   called   botanically    the 
mycelium  ;  and  in  the  common  language  of  mushroom  growers,  the 
spawn.     This  is  the  part  of  the  fungus  that   absorbs  water  and 
food   from   the   decaying  matter  in  the  soil,  while  the  part  which 
we   call  the   mushroom   is   simply   the  fruit  of  the  fungus.     The 
mycelium  grows  rapidly  during  wet   weather  and  becomes  well 
nourished,  then  at   certain    parts    of  its    web    young    mushrooms 
are  produced.     It  may,  however,  lie  dormant  in  the  soil  during 
the  hot  weather,  and  whenever  the  soil  becomes   suitably   moist 
on  the   advent  of  the    rains,    it    begins  its  activity   again.     At 
certain    places    on   the    mycelium   little    rounded    swellings   may 
be   seen,    which    vary    in    size    from    a    pin    head    to    a    walnut. 
The}"  gradually   enlarge   and   break  through  the  surface  of  the 
soil  becoming  what  are  called   "  buttons,"    which  are  simply   the 
young  unexpanded   mushrooms.     The   outer   coat  of  the  button 
ruptures  and  exposes  the  young  mushroom.     Remnants  of  this 
coat  may  be  left  at  the  base   of    the   stalk    in    the    form    of  a 
cup,  or  there  may  be  no  trace  of  the  coat  left  there.     In  addition, 
a  thin  veil  of  tissue  may  be  drawn  over  the  gills  from   the   edge 
of   the   cap  to  the  stalk,  hiding   them   from  sight,  but  it  is  torn 
before  the  spores  are  ripe  (Plate  XIV,   fig.  5)   and  may   leave  a 
portion  surrounding  the  stem  in  the  form  of  an   irregular  ring,  or 
the  veil  may  entirely  disappear  leaving  no  trace  of  a  ring.     In  the 
earlier  stages  growth  goes  on  slowly,  but,  after  the  nodule  is  well 
formed  and  just  before  it  breaks  through  the  ground,  the  advent 
of  a  warm  moist  evening  and  night  will  cause  the  button  to  grow 


THK    KDllU.K    MUSHROO^r  :    MCRAE.  199 

at  an  enormous  rate,  and  it  usually  recjuires  onl}^  a  single  night 
for  a  button  to  burst  through  the  surface  of  the  ground  and 
expand  its  cap.  From  the  first  beginnings  of  the  swelling  to 
the  final  maturity  of  the  mushroom  it  occupies  nearly  a  week,  the 
exact  time  depending  on  the  temperature  and  moisture  of  the  air. 

When  ripe,  the  surfaces  of  the  gills  are  covered  with  little 
round  bodies  called  spores  which  correspond  to  the  seeds  of  higher 
plants.  If  a  fresh  mushroom  is  taken  and  laid  with  its  gills 
downwards  on  a  piece  of  white  paper  for  an  hour  or  so,  and  then 
carefully  lifted  up,  radiating  lines  of  fine  dust  will  remain  upon 
the  paper.  This  dust  is  composed  of  very  minute  spores  that  have 
fallen  from  the  surfaces  of  the  gills.  The  spores  are  the  repro- 
ductive bodies  of  the  plant,  and,  if  placed  in  damp  air  on  a  soil 
containinof  suitable  food,  will  orerminate  and  send  out  fine  colour- 
less  threads  which  eventually  will  grow  into  the  mycelium  that 
bears  the  mushroom  heads.  Each  individual  spore  is  so  minute 
that  it  cannot  be  seen  with  the  naked  eye,  but,  when  many  of 
them  lie  together  in  a  mass,  they  become  visible.  Their  colour 
varies  with  the  different  kinds  of  agarics  ;  it  may  be  white, 
yellow,  brown,  purple  or  black. 

Now  that  we  know  the  general  forms  of  the  mushroom  family, 
we  .shall  study  more  minutely  the  characters  of  the  one  we  are 
more  particularly  interested  in,  viz.,  the  edible  nmahvoom,  Agar icus 
cainpestrls.  The  upper  part  of  the  cap  of  this  species  is  some- 
what flattened  downwards,  but  it  does  not  usually  become  quite 
tlat.  When  in  the  button  stage  the  cap  is  hemispherical.  It 
is  white  or  whitish  in  colour,  and  its  surface  may  be  either  silky 
or  dull.  The  skin  of  the  cap  can  be  easily  peeled  off.  It  often 
projects  a  little  beyond  the  edge  of  the  cap  all  round  and  is  slightly 
folded  inwards  (Plate  XIV,  fig.  8),  but  in  localities  this  is 
not  so.  The  Hesh  is  thick  towards  the  middle  of  the  cap  and  thin 
towards  th.'  rim  (Plate  XIV,  fig.  7).  The  gills  themselves  do  not 
actually  touch  the  stalk,  but  are  more  or  less  free  from  it;  they 
never  are  attached  to  it  nor  run  down  it.  They  lie  close  together 
and  in  the  young  condition  are  of  a  pale  salmon-pink  colour  which 
soon  changes  to  flesh  colour,  then  light  brown,   becoming  darker 


200  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    TXDTA.  [V,   IH. 

and  darker  till  of  a  deep  dark  brown.  This  discolouration  is  due 
to  the  rapid  formation,  all  over  the  surface  of  the  gills,  of  spores 
whose  colour  is  purplish  l)rown.  When  the  spores  are  few,  the 
gills  appear  pink,  but  as  they  rapidly  increase  in  number,  their 
colour  becomes  predominant,  and  the  gills  gradually  become 
darker  in  tint.  The  cap  is  from  2  to  5  inches  in  diameter.  The 
stalk  is  from  2  to  4  inches  long  and  varies  considerably  in  thick- 
ness. Some  varieties  have  a  stalk  from  f  to  -g^  inch  thick,  while 
others,  including  the  cultivated  variety,  reach  a  thickness  of  about 
an  inch.  The  stalk  is  solid  and  consists  of  firm  tissue  towards 
the  outside  and  loose  felt-like  tissue  in  the  interior.  A  thick, 
fixed  ring  always  surrounds  the  stalk  and  is  usually  situated 
above  the  middle. 

There  is  a  considerable  amount  of  variation  in  the  colour 
and  thickness  of  both  cultivated  and  wild  mushrooms.  The 
skin  is  often  smooth  and  dull  white,  but  it  may  be  very  slightly 
rouo'h  or  even  checked  and  have  a  light  brown  tinge  which  deep- 
ens in  tint  after  the  mushrooms  have  been  plucked  an  hour  or  two. 
The  mushroom  gathered  for  the  table  is  usually  from  2  to  3 
inches  in  diameter  with  a  .stalk  about  2  or  3  inches  high  and  f 
inch  thick.  In  some  rich  pastures,  however,  varieties  and  indivi- 
duals occur  of  a  larger  size.  Though  harmless,  these  larger  varie- 
ties are  somewhat  coarse  and  indigestible  and  are  not  counted  such 
delicacies  as  the  smaller  ones.  Indeed,  the  stage  at  which  they  are 
supposed  to  possess  the  most  delicate  flavour  is  when  they  have 
]ust  burst  open  the  veil,  and  the  pink  gills  become  visible  (Plate 
XIV,  fig.  5).  The  odour  of  fresh  mushrooms  is  very  slight  and 
is  rather  pleasant;  often,  however,  the  odour  is  quite  imper- 
ceptible. 

The  edible  mushroom  occurs  most  frequently  on  lawns,  in 
pastures  ^nd  especially  in  weedy  fields.  It  never  grows  in  woods 
except  in  open  grassy  glades,  nor  does  it  occur  on  or  near  stumps 
of  trees. 

Mushrooms  should  be  gathered  in  the  early  morning  and, 
as  they  are  particularly  liable  to  the  attention  of  insects,  it  is 
iidvisable    they    should   be    cooked    and    eaten    soon    afterwards. 


THK    KI>ir.LK    MUSHlv'OOM  :    MCRAK.  201 

They  shoukl  be  cut  sufficiently  far  above  ground  to  escape  all 
signs  of  dirt  on  the  stalks.  The  mushrooms  should  then  be 
laid  stalk  upwards  in  a  basket,  and  if  many  are  to  be  gathered, 
it  is  well  to  have  several  movable  shelves  to  the  basket  so  as 
to  take  off  the  strain  of  their  weight  and  prevent  their  being 
crushed.  Care  should  be  taken  to  reject  such  as  have  become 
l)urrowed  by  Hy  larva)  or  beetles.  It  is  easy  to  determine 
whether  a  mushroom  is  wormy  or  not  by  breaking  off  the  stem 
close  to  the  cap  and  observing  if  there  are  little  holes  through 
which  the  larva3  have  passed  upwards  into  the  caps.  But,  of 
course,  on  this  score  one  must  not  be  over-particular,  for  almost 
every  mushroom,  long  before  it  has  expanded,  has  been  charged 
by  tiies  and  gnats  with  a  store  of  eggs  which  will  manifest 
themselves  only  too  obviously  if  the  mushrooms  be  kept  a  few 
hours  too  long  without  being  cooked,  when  they  degenerate 
into  a  black  slimy  mass  full  of  wriggling  white  larvne.  When 
mushrooms,  however,  in  the  fair  and  pleasant  stage  are 
well  cooked,  what  eggs  may  be  present  are  rendered  quite 
harmless. 

Characters  of  an  edible  mushroom  : — 

It  grows  on  grassy  places  or  on  rubbish  heaps. 

It  is  of  small  size  (2  to  4  inches  across  the  cap). 

The    gills    are    free  from  the  stem,  and  at  first  are  jjink  in 
colour. 

The  spores  are  deep  purple  black  or  dark  brown. 

Tiie  stalk  is  solid  and  has  a  fixed  rinor. 

o 

These  characters  must  all  be  taken  together,  and  unless  a 
species  of  nuishroom  has  all  of  them,  it  is  probablv  not  the 
ordinary  ctlible  mushroom.  The  foregoing  description  with 
the  plate  shown  w  ill  be  sufficient  to  enable  anyone  to  decide 
wliethcr  a  given  species  of  mushroom  is  the  connnon  edible  one 
or  not.  or  course,  several  other  members  of  the  mushroom 
family  are  edible  or  harndess,  but  we  leave  them  out  of  account 
at  present.  A  few  general  hints  may  now  be  given  which  will 
enable  one  to  avoid  poisonous  ones,  though  by  following  them  one 
will  also  exclude  many  that  are  edible. 


202  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   III. 

1.  Av'oid  every  mushroom  having  a  cap  or  suggestion 
of  a  cap,  at  the  base  of  the  stalk.  The  distinctly  poisonous 
ones  are  thus  excluded. 

2.  Reject  those  having  an  unpleasant  odour,  a  bitter  or 
unpalatable  flavour  or  a  tough  consistency. 

3.  Reject  those  with  a  milky  juice.  Several  species  of 
this  kind  are  edible,  but  they  ought  to  be  known  thoroughly 
before  being  classed  as  such. 

4.  Reject  those  that  are  very  brittle  and  whose  gills  are 
nearly  all  of  equal  length,  when  the  flesh  of  the  cap  is  thin  and 
especially  when  the  cap  itself  is  of  a  bright  colour. 

5.  Be  careful  to  choose  buttons  that  are  not  deep-seated 
in  the  soil  but  are  at  the  surface. 

6.  Exclude  those  infected  with  worms  or  that  have  begun 
to  decay. 

The  following  is,  perhaps,  the  most  general  way  of  cooking 
mushrooms.  Peel  off  the  skin,  remove  the  stalks  and  place  in  a 
def/chi  with  butter  and  let  them  stew  over  a  brisk  Are  ;  when 
the  butter  has  melted,  squeeze  in  the  juice  of  a  lemon  ;  after  a 
while  add  salt,  pepper  and  spice.  Let  them  simmer  for  about 
half  an  hour  and  then  add  yolk  of  egf!;  to  bind  them  :  then  pour 
over  some  pieces  of  toast  or  bread  previously  fried  in  butter. 
They  may  also  be  made  into  soup,  omelette  or  pudding,  and  a 
cook  will  easily  think  of  other  or  more  savoury  ways  of  dressing 
them  so  as  to  bring  out  their  peculiar  flavour  and  aroma. 

One  sometimes  hears  it  stated  that  mushrooms  constitute  a 
wholesome  and  delicious  food  of  high  nutrient  value,  but  chemical 
analysis  hardly  bears  this  out.  The  composition  of  the  common 
mushroom  is  shown  in  the  following;  table  :  — 


Water 

...       91-30 

91-98 

Protein 

2-25 

£•69 

Total  nitrogen 

... 

-60 

•67 

Albuminoid  nitrogen 

... 

•36 

•43 

Non-albuminoid  nitrogen 

... 

•24 

•24 

Fat 

•20 

■17 

Carbohydrates 

4-95 

3-23 

Fibre 

•80 

•61 

Aah 

•50 

1  32 

THE    EDIBLE    .MUSHROOJL  :    MCRAE.  203 

The  first  analysis  is  taken  from  IJ.  S.  Dept.  of  Agri- 
culture, Farmer's  Bulletin  No.  79,  and  the  second  was  made  at 
Pusa  under  the  direction  of  Mr.  H.  E.  Annett.  From  this  it  is 
evident  that  the  mushroom  consists  largely  of  water  with  only 
small  quantities  of  protein,  fat,  and  carbohydrates  and  must  be 
regarded  more  as  an  excellent  condiment  than  as  a  nutritious 
food. 

France  is  the  country  in  which  the  cultivation  of  mushrooms 
is   carried  on  most  extensively.     In  the  region  round  Paris  there 
are    old    building-stone    quarries    with    tunnels    and   caves   often 
miles    in    extent    and    reaching    to    a   considerable    depth  below 
ofround.     On  the  floors  of  these  tunnels  well-rotted  stable  manure 
is  laid  and   sown  with  mushroom  spawn.     The    air  is    kept  con- 
stantly damp,  but  well-ventilated  and  good  crops  are  raised.    About 
six   pounds  of  mushrooms  per   square   yard  is  considered  a  good 
yield.     In  1901,  almost  125,000  maunds  of  mushrooms  were  sold 
in  the  central  market  of  Paris.     Of  this  quantity  about  one-third 
was  consumed  in  the  fresh  state  throughout  the  city,  while  the  rest 
was  preserved  as  tinned  mushrooms  or  was  used   in   the   prepara- 
tion  of  ketchup.     These  figures  indicate  convincingly  the  extent 
of  the  mushroom  industry  in  Paris.     Edible  mushrooms  are  found 
in  other  parts   of  the   world  besides   Europe.      "  In   many  parts 
of  India,  especially  the  Punjab,  the  true    mushroom   is   abundant 
in   the   fields.     It   is   universally  eaten  by  the   natives,  fresh  or 
dried    in    the    sun.      It    is   apparently   a   very   common   plant  in 
Afghanistan."*     "  The  common  mushroom,"  says  Dr.  Stewart,  "  is 
abundant  in   cattle-fields   in   many   parts   of  the    central  Punjab 
after  the  rains,  and  is  also  frequent  in  the  desert  tracts  of  central 
and  southern   Punjab.     It   is  largely  eaten  by  the  natives,  and  is 
described  as  excellent  and   equal   to  the  English   mushroom  by 
those  Europeans  who  have  eaten  it.      It  is  also  extensively  dried 
for  future   consum[)tion,  and   is  said  to  preserve  its  flavour  toler- 
ably well.     ^lushrooms  are  largel}'-  used  in  Europe  in   the   manu- 
facture of  ketchup.      A  trade   in   Punjab  mushrooms  might  pos- 


•  Watfs  Dirtionaii/  of  Eroiwmir   Picdnrtx  of  India.     FUNGi,  p.    131. 


204  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  UL 

sibly  be   established   were   they   to   be    improved    in   quahty    by 
cultivation." 

There  might  be  a  ver}^  good  market  for  the  fresh  article  in  a 
few  of  the  larger  cities  in  India,  if  the  product  became  a  certain 
factor  on  the  market.  Further  enquiries  will  be  made  on  this 
subject,  both  with  regard  to  the  mushrooms  both  of  the  ordinar}^ 
edible  variety  we  have  just  spoken  about,  and  also  other  edible 
varieties  such  as  the  truffles,  morells,  and  puffballs. 


Explanation  of  Plate  XV. 
Haii'y  CaterpillavH  on  Cumhu  (Pennisefum  typhoideum). 

The  full-grown  caterpiliarn  auci  the  moth  in  the  resting^  attitude  are  shown 
on  the  plant,  the  ohrys;ili^<  aiid  moti)  at  the  side 


HAIKY    CATERPILLARS    IN    THE    SOUTH 
ARCOT  DISTRICT,  MADRAS. 

I'.v  Y.  RAMACHANDRA  RAO. 

Assistant  in  Eidomulojy,  CoUeije  of  Agricnhuv,  Cuimbatnre,   JLidrat^. 

Hairy  eatei-pillar.s,  locally  known  as  "  kamljli-puchi.s,"  arc 
of"  common  occiui'eiice  in  the  South  Aicot  District.  "  Kamljli 
puchi  "  is,  liowever,  a  generic  term  applicable  to  caterpillars  with 
a  woolly  coat  belonging-  to  several  ditl'erent  families  of  moths, 
such  as  the  Lymantriids,  Lasiocam.pids  and  Arctiids,  but  accord- 
ing to  general  usage  the  term  seems  to  be  restricted  to  the 
following  injurious  species  of  the  sub-family  Arctiinre,  viz.  : — 
Pericallia  ricini,  Amsacta  lactinea,  J.  alhistriga  and  A.  moorei. 
The  first — Pericallia  ricini  — is  chiefly  a  pest  of  vegetable  gardens, 
attacking  castor,  a(/athi,  plantain,  sunflower  and  the  various 
kinds  of  o'ourds.  The  second,  Amsacta  lactinea,  does  not 
usually  occur  in  considerable  numbers.  It  is  generally  the  last 
two  species  that  are  responsible  for  the  great  and  yearly  damage 
sustained  by  the  crops. 

Alono- the  southern  bank  of  the  (jiadilam  river  there  stretches 

o 

a  low  table  land,  several  miles  wide,  of  poor  red  soil,  differing 
markedly  in  character  from  the  rich  alluvial  clay  to  the  north  of 
the  river.  The  plateau  is  made  u[)  mostly  Of  a  ver^^  stiff  red 
clay  loam  of  great  thickness,  resting  on  a  substratum  of  gravel. 
The  surface  layer  has,  owing  to  the  effects  of  weathering  and 
cultivation,  assumed  a  soft  and  sandy  character.  The  chief  crops 
cultivated-  are  riimhu  [Pcaniset/iim  typ]ioi,deum)  and  groundnut. 
Red  gram,  castor  and  pulses  are  the  only  other  crops  raised 
and  are  oenerallv  urinvn  alono-  the  borders  of  cunibu  fields. 
Thunder-showers  received  in   Afay  and  early  June  are  utilised  for 


206  AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  lit. 

ploughing,  and  in  the  monsoon  showers  at  the  end  of  June  and 
during  July,  cumbu  and  groundnut  are  sown.  Sometimes  cumhu 
and  groundnut  may  be  grown  separatelj^,  but  in  the  generalit}^  of 
cases  cumhu  is  raised  first,  and  when  the  crop  is  about  a  month 
old,  oToundnut  is  dibbled  in  durino-  the  second  hoeinfr-  Weedino- 
is  given  only  twice  to  the  cumhu  crop — the  first  15  days  after 
sowing  and  a  second  a  fortnight  later  combined  with  groundnut 
dibbling.  The  millet  is  harvested  in  about  two  months  and-a-half, 
and  groundnut  and  pulses  remain  on  the  field  for  about  two  or 
three  months  more. 

This  tract  is  one  of  the  ideal  homes  of  the  hairy  caterpillar 
in  South  Arcot.  The  pest  here  appears  regularly  every  year  and 
attacks  both  cumhu  and  groundnut.  Increasing  enormously  in 
certain  years,  it  does    immense  damage  to  the  crops. 

1.  Life  History. — Two  species  are  concerned  in  the  attack, 
viz.: — Amsactct alhistriga  and  A.  nioorei.  Amsacta  cdhistrigais  a 
moth  of  moderate  size.  The  forewings  are  pale  brown  with  a  few 
white  streaks,  and  the  hindwings  are  white  with  black  spots. 
There  is  a  yellow  band  on  the  head,  as  also  a  yellow  streak  along  the 
anterior  edge  of  the  forewing.  The  upper  surface  of  the  body  is 
yellow  with  dorsal  and  central  series  of  black  spots  ;  the  lower 
surface  is  dull  white.  In  the  other  species  yellow,  wherever  it 
occurs  in  the  first  species,  is  replaced  by  crimson,  but  otherwise 
both  the  species  resemble  each  other.  It  is,  however,  evident 
that  they  are  separate  since  the  one  has  never  been  noted  pairing 
with  the  other.  However,  as  the  eggs,  caterpillars  and  pupae 
as  well  as  their  habits,  are  quite  similar,  their  life-histories  can 
be  considered  together. 

These  moths  generally  lay  on  an  average  600 — 700  eggs  each, 
but  in  one  case  a  single  moth  was  noted  to  have  laid  1,232  eggs 
in  the  course  of  four  days.  The  eggs  are  globular  in  shape  and 
bright  yellow  in  colour,  and  are  laid  in  flat  masses  on  the  lower 
surface  of  leaves  in  the  case  of  cumhu,  and  on  the  lower  or 
upper  surface  indifferently  in  the  case  of  groundnut  and  species 
of  Sida  (weeds  common  in  waste  lands  and  fields).  They  are 
also  laid  on  some  of  the  grasses  and  on  castor  leaves. 


MAIRY    CATKRPILLARS :    KAMACHAXDKA    RAO,  207 

They  hatch  in  3—4  days  into  tiny  caterpillars  of  dark  gray 
colour  which  first  feed  together  in  a  group  on  the  green  matter 
of  the  leaves  on  which  they  happen  to  hatch  out  and  reduce  them 
to  papery  tissue.  On  finishing  them  they  seek  out  other  leaves. 
As  they  grow  in  size  they  begin  to  move  about  in  search  of 
food.  Young  caterpillars  of  a  week  or  two  weeks'  growth  are 
generally  of  a  brownish  black  colour  with  a  faint  interrupted 
yellow  line  along  the  middle  of  the  back.  Older  ones  turn 
reddish-brown  with  black  patches  at  either  end  of  the  body. 
Some  specimens  are,  however,  wholly  red  brown  without  any 
black  patches.  The  full-grown  caterpillar  is  about  2  inches  in 
length,  and  is  a  very  active  creature,  capable  of  moving  long 
distances  in  search  of  food  (Plate  XV).  In  a  carefully  observed 
case  ten  moults  were  noted  to  be  underofone  from  the  time  of  hatch- 
ing  to  pupation.  Under  artificial  conditions  in  the  breeding  cages 
the  caterpillar  period  was  found  to  range  between  42  and  50  days, 
but  in  nature  the  duration  may  be  considerably  less.  When  full- 
grown,  the  caterpillars,  taking  advantage  of  a  tnnely  rain,  seek 
out  places  with  a  soft  and  loose  soil  in  the  field  bunds  and  burrow- 
down  to  a  depth  of  4  to  7  inches.  There  they  prepare  cocoons, 
change  to  chrysalides  and  lie  quiescent  in  most  cases,  awaiting 
the  rains  of  next  July.  In  some  cases,  however,  they  may 
emerge  as  moths  in  about  a  fortnight,  so  as  to  give  rise  to  a 
second  generation  during  the  year  (Plate  XV). 

The  moths  have  been  observed  to  mate  on  the  very  night 
of  emergence,  after  which  the  male  generally  dies.  The  female 
lays  eggs  on  the  2nd,  3rd,  and  sometimes  even  on  the  4th  night 
after  emergence  and  is  then  dead. 

2.  Time  of  Emergence  of  Moths. — In  South  Arcot  the  south- 
west monsoon  makes  itself  felt  mostly  as  a  series  of  thunder- 
showers,  varying  in  amount  from  J  inch  to  3  inches  received 
generally  towards  sunset.  By  the  beginning  of  July  the  ground 
is  thoroughly  wetted,  and  pupa3  begin  to  develop  gradually  into 
moths.  According  to  the  present  year's  experience  they  seem 
to  be  ready  to  emerge  by  the  3rd  week  of  July  and  seem  to 
await  for  a  pretty  heavy  rain  for  rendering  the  soil  soft  enough 


208  ArailCULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,    III. 

to    allow    theni  to  come  up.      The  moths  emerge  on  the    first  or 
the   second  night  following  such  heavy  showers. 

During  the  ye-a,r  1909,  a  heavy  rain  amounting  to  about  1 
inch  was'  received  at  the  village  of  Panicuppam,  on  the  night  of 
22tid  Jul}^  and  the  next  night  about  200  moths  were  trapped  at 
a  single  light  trap  set  up.  Tlie  emergence  was  not,  however,  of 
any  considerable  extent.  Later  on,  on  the  8th  August  a  fall  of 
rain  amounting  to  about  Ik  inches  was  received  at  about 
8  P.M.  Larii'e  numbers  of  moths  were  noted  to  emero-e  from 
the  soil  at  about  4-o0  p.m.  on  the  next  day  but  one,  i.e.,  on  the 
10th  August.  It  may,  therefore,  be  noted  that  the  pest  emerged 
in  two  separate  batches  in  1909,  but  it  is  not  certain  whether  such 
is  the  case  everj^  year. 

3.  Natural  Enemie.s. — A  tachinid  lly  and  a  small  braconid 
wasp  have  been  reared  from  the  caterpillars. 

No  birds  have  been  noted  pre^nng  upon  this  pest. 

4.  Remedial  Measures. — 1.  The  eofa-masses  are  well  known 
to  the  ryots  of  this  tract,  and  advantage  can  be  taken  of  the  two 
weedings  given  to  the  cumlm  and  groundnut  crops  for  picking 
out  the  egg-masses  and  just-hatched  caterpillars. 

2.  In  a  virulent  attack  trenches  may  be  dug  to  prevent  the 
caterpillars  from  marching  from  field  to  field. 

3.  The  pup;\3  generally  occur  together  in  large  numbers  at 
a  depth  of  between  4  and  7  ijiches  at  the  base  of  live  hedges  in 
Held  bunds  or  under  trees.  A  hand  hoe  is  sufficient  to  expose 
them,  and  if  the  ryot  makes  it  a  point  to  search  for  and  destroy 
them  before  commencing  sowing,  a  good  deal  of  future  trouble 
would  bo    saved. 

4.  The  njols  of  this  tract  generally  know  by  experience 
when  the  pest  will  emerge.  It  generally  appears  during  the 
latter  half  of  July  or  the  first  half  of  August  oji  -the  first  or  the 
second  night  following  a  tolerably  heavy  fall  of  rain.  Foi-  about 
a  week  following  the  A-e^y  of  heavy  rain  a  light  ti-ap  should  be  set 
u})  in  each  field  and  kept  burning  from  7  p.m.  to  (i  a.m.,  when 
the  moths  that  have  emerged  will  be  attracted  to  the  light  and 
be  killed.     The  light  trap  consists  of  (l)  a    glass-sided    tin    lamp 


riAIKV    CATKKI'ILLAHS  :     RA:\I  \f  11  A  \I>I{  A     RAO  209 

fed  with  a  mixture  of  kerosene  and  cocoanut  oil  for  attraetini^ 
tlu'  moths;  and  (2)  a  wide  tin  tray  filled  witli  water  and  a  little 
kerosene  for  trapping  them.  The  tray  is  placed  on  a  slightly 
elevated  place  in  the  fields,  such  as  a  heap  of  earth,  and  the 
lamp  is  either  suspended  over  it  by  means  of  a  sepai-ate  stand 
or.  more  simply,  placed  over  a  stone  in  the  middle  of  the 
tray. 

With  mutual  co-operation  among  the  ryots  the  pest  can,  by 
the  adoption  of  the  light  trap  method,  be  effectively  kept  in  check 
in  places  where  it  appears  year  after  year. 

.").  fjifjht  Trap  Experiments  and  Results. — Panicuppam  is  a 
small  villao-e  in  the  Cuddalore  Taluk  of  South  Arcot,  and  is 
about  2  miles  from  Panruti  and  8  miles  from  the  Palur 
Aofricultural  Station.  Most  of  the  inhabitants  are  Roman 
Catholic  Christians,  and  there  is  a  small  church  in  the  villaofe, 
until  lately  looked  after  by  the  Rev.  Mr.  Prudent.  Being  the 
place  whence  the  pest  was  originally  reported,  the  light  trap 
experiments  were  located  in  that  village. 

In  order  to  have  a  fair  trial  of  the  efiScacy  of  light  traps  the 
following  arrangements  were  made  in  December  1908  by  the 
Government  Botanist  in  consultation  with  the  Deputy  Director 
of  Agriculture,  Southern  Division.  Several  sets  of  light  traps  of 
as  simple  and  inexpensive  a  nature  as  possible  were  to  be  read}^ 
packed  at  the  Palur  farm,  for  being  removed  to  the  locality  at  «, 
moment's  notice.  Immediate  information  of  the  emergence  of 
moths  was  to  be  arranged  lor  with  the  rijofs  at  Panicuppam,  on 
I'eceipt  of  which  an  Assistant  Manager  was  to  set  out  for  the 
scene  of  action  and  attend  to  the  experiments  until  an  Assistant 
from  Comibatore  relieved  him. 

<).  The  First  Enienjenee. — According  to  the  above  arrange- 
ment, the  appearance  of  moths  was  reported  to  the  Palur  Farm 
AEanager  on  the  24th  July  by  the  headman  of  Panicup[)am  :  and 
an  Assistant  Manager  was  sent  to  the  village  at  once  with  9  sets 
ot  traps,  and  an  Assistant  was  also  wired  for  from  Coimbatore. 
On  July  22nd,  a  heavy  s1iow(m-  amounting  to  1  inch  wns  i-eceived 
in  the  villaiie. 


210 


AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDL\. 


[V,  in. 


On  23rd  July,  night,  in  a  single  trap  set  up  by  the  Rev. 
Mr.  Prudent,  200  moths  were  noted. 

On  24th  July,  night,  9  traps  were  set  up  by  the  Assistant 
Manager  with  the  following  results  :  42,  10,  22,  25,  G,  8,  25,  6, 
and  11,  making  155  in  all. 

On  25th  July,  night,  G  more  lights  were  added,  making  in 
all  15.  The  following  is  a  statement  of  results  from  the  25th 
to  the  29th  :— 


X  umber  of  moths  trapped. 

Total 
of  each 

X 

a 

Date 

1 

1 

< 

I      II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI  XII 

XIII 

XIV 

XV 

day. 

July  25,  night 

6 

4 

3 

3 

1 

2 

0 

4 

33 

,,     2C       „ 

0 

3 

4 

2 

1 

17 

„     27       „ 

„     28       „ 

29       ,, 

1 

1 

•• 

1 

■■ 

•• 

.. 

2 
1 

111 

It  is  thus  seen  that  the  emergence  was  not  of  any  consider- 
able extent ;  in  spite  of  200  moths  obtained  on  the  first  night  and 
155  in  all  on  the  second,  the  catches  diminished  very  rapidly  later 
on  until  on  the  28th  no  moth  was  trapped.  The  experiment  was, 
therefore,  stopped ;  and  as  there  were  numbers  of  pupa3  yet 
unhatched  in  the  soil,  and  as  the  people  were  of  opinion  that 
another  emergence  would  soon  occur,  the  light  traps  were  left 
under  the  custody  of  the  village  inonujar,  with  instructions  to  set 
them  up  after  the  very  next  heavy  shower  and  report  the  matter 
to  the  Palur  farm  manager. 

7.  TJte  Second  Emergence. — According  to  the  report  of  the 
momgar,  on  August  8th,  at  about  8  p.jl,  a  shower  amounting 
to  Ij  inch  was  received. 

On  August  9th,  night,  in  traps  set  up  during  the  night, 
about  10 — 12  moths  were  found  at  each  light. 

On  August  10th,  numbers  of  moths  were  found  emerging  from 
the  soil,  from  4-30  p.m.  onwards,  and  the  lights  were  forthwith 
set  up. 


HAIRY    CATERPILLAKS  :    RAMACHANDRA    RAO. 


211 


An  Assistant  Manager  proceeded  from  the  Palur  farm  and 
looked  after  the  experiments.  The  following  are  the  results 
reported  by  him  : — 


■ 

Number  of  moths  trapped. 

Total 

\A 

Date. 

of  each 
day. 

1 

II 

III 

,v  I  V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 

XIV 

XV 

s 

H 

A 

August  10.  night  .. 

75 

SCO 

450 

700 

150 

1,300 

96 

GOO 

100    Xot'set 

up 

Xut 

set 

up 

3,771 

11       „       .. 

12 

•200 

•200 

64 

170 

50 

400 

120 

200 

150    "0 

1,636 

l-J        „       .. 

20 

7:, 

200 

250 

200 

Via 

200 

150 

175 

30 

2 

1 

100 

•  . 

2 

1,525 

la       ,,      -. 

2 

5 

55 

90 

1 

3 

15 

60 

12 

73 

30 

13 

75 

25 

tl'O 

559 

The  Assistant  Manager  also  reported  that  no  moths  were  to 
be  found  in  the  neighbourhood  of  all  those  places  where  light 
traps  had  been  set  up,  and  that  this  fact  convinced  some  of  the 
ryots  that  in  case  lights  could  be  set  up  all  over  the  tract,  the 
pest  might  even  be  exterminated  altogether. 

8.      Cost  of  the  Aj^jjctratus. — 

As. 
The  tin  lamp  with  glass  sides  ...  ...  ...       g 

The  tin  tray      ...  ...  ...  ...  ...       6 

Cost    of  lighting   for    each    day    comes    to  about  9  pies  per 

lamp. 


SCHOOL  GARDENS. 

By  .A1.  E.  COUCHxMAN,  i.c.s. 
Director   of  Agriculture,     Madras. 

Ix  coiiiiectioii  witli  the  annual  "  College  Daj^ "  celebration. 
Mr.  M.  E.  Couchman,  r.c.s.,  Director  of  Agriculture,  Madra.':;. 
delivered  an  interesting  and  instructive  address  on  "School 
Gardens "  t.^  the  students  of  the  Madras  Teachers'  College  at 
Saidapet.      In  the  course    of  his  address  he  said  : 

"  The  general  ground  on  which   I   base  my  appeal    for    more 
school  gardens  is,    I    need    hardly    tell    you,    that    I    reo-ard    the 
Educational  Department  as  an  undeveloped  adjunct  of  the    more 
important    Department    of    Agriculture.      In     order     that     the 
Agricultural    Department    ma}^     experience     less     difficult}^     in 
persuading  the  next   generation    of    cultivators    to    adopt    more 
up-to-date  methods  in  their  cultivation,  the  Educational    Depart- 
ment must  make    the    first   approaches    when    they    are    young, 
when,  as  your  syllabus  says,  the  habits  of    thought,    feeling    and 
action     are     formed,     and     when    perception,    observation,  and 
attention  are  likel}^  to  be  most  active.      In  no    other    calling    are 
these  qualities  more  necessar}^  than  in  that  of   a    farmer.      In   no 
other  profession  is  the  error  of  confounding  the   process   of  pass- 
ing examinations  with  the  acquisition    of    real    knowledge    more 
likel}^  to  lead  to  disappointment,  if  not  disaster.      I  shall    arrange 
the  remarks    which    I    am    going    to  make    to-night    under    two 
general  heads :  first,  the    reasons    why    more    and    bettei-    school 
gardens  are  desirable  in  Madras,  and    second,    what   they    should 
and  should  not  try  to  do  and  be. 

"  There  are  two  main  defects    in    the  mental    equipment    of 
the  educated  classes   of    this   eountiy,    so   widely   spread    that    1 
nii'j'ht  almost  ijo  so  far    as  to  call  them  national  cliaracteristics — 


SCHOOL    CAKDKXS  :    COUCHMAN.  213 

fju'  habit  of  i(l<-iitit'yin<;'  book-learning  with  knowledge, 
and  \]w  want  of  observation  of,  and  the  general  indifference 
to,  external  natuie.  When  you  ask  a  man  what  he  has 
learnt,  he  usually  tells  what  standard  he  has  studied  up  to, 
or  what  examinations  he  has  passed,  not  what  he  knows. 
Knowledge  seems  to  be  almost  regarded  as  a  means  to  an 
end,  i.e.,  to  the  obtainino:  of  a    certificate.     Hence    we    see  such 

7  7  O 

strange  cases  as  men,  who  have  studied  Botany  or  any  of 
the  otlier  natural  sciences,  going  on  to  the  study  of  law,  with  the 
intention  of  following  the  profession  of  vakih.  Xud  when  you 
ask  any  one  how  he  likes  a  new  place  of  residence,  the  reasons 
which  he  gives  for  liking  or  disliking  it,  when  they  are  not  closely 
connected  with  his  health,  such  as  the  food  and  water,  are  usually 
limited  to  the  cost  of  livino- or  the  conveniences  available  for  the 
education  of  his  children.  In  a  similar  case  the  European  would 
usually  give  at  least  some  place  to  the  natural  amenities  of  the 
locality.  As  regards  the  habit  of  confusing  book-knowledge  with 
knowledge  in  the  proper  sense  of  the  word,  I  would  first  point  out 
that  words  are  only  symbols  of  reality.  In  particulai',  the  natural 
sciences  have  no  meaning  or  interest  apart  from  the  material 
world  of  nature,  whose  properties  and  movements  they  describe. 
To  study  any  of  the  physical  sciences,  therefore,  without  con- 
necting them  at  every  step  with  reality,  is  a  mere  waste  of  time. 

"  In  the  past  few  years  I  have  been  brought  in  contact  with 
men  who  have  had  some  training  in  physical  science,  and  I  have 
noticed  that  it  is  not  an  uncommon  thing  to  find  that  they  have 
not  really  connected  the  sciences  they  have  learnt  with  the  real 
world.  Their  interest  in  science  ceased  with  the  class  room,  or 
rather  with  the  examination  room.  During  the  rest  of  their 
lives  they  have  been  witnessing  and  taking  part  in  a  continuous 
series  of  chemical  and  biological  experiments,  without  being 
aware  of  the  fact  at  all,  reminding:  one  of  the  man  who  was  sur- 
prised  and  .ijlighted  to  be  told  that  he  had  been  talking  prose  all 
his  life  witiiout  knowinof  it. 

"  Xow  in  the  case  of  the  school  garden,  this  point  of  view  is 
very  clear.      It  affords  a  ready  means  of  connecting  the  study    of 

15 


214  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    TXDIA.  [V,   III. 

elementary  physical  science  with  the  reahties  which  tlie  books 
deal  with.  It  forms  a  bridge  from  the  theory  of  botany,  chem- 
istry, and  physics  to  the  real  world  ;  to  those  fields  in  which  the 
parents  of  your  future  students  toil  to  gain  their  living.  If  I 
were  to  go  further,  and  discuss  the  methods  of  nature  study,  as 
it  is  called,  I  should  be  venturing  out  of  my  depth.  The  Madras 
scheme  of  studies  for  Elementary  schools  for  boys  sununarises 
the  aims  of  nature  study  as  follows  :  — '  Instruction  proceeds  from 
study  of  the  actual  object  rather  than  from  description  or  reading. 
The  aim  is  not  so  much  to  impart  information  as  to  lead  the 
children  to  find  out  for  themselves  all  that  they  can  about 
familiar  and  natural  phenomena.' 

"Much  might  be  said  on  the  second  point,  the  strange  indif- 
ference of  educated  Indians  to  external  nature  and  the  beauties 
of  their  own  country.  This  may  be  due  in  part  to  the  attraction 
which  metaphysics  has  always  had  for  the  Indian  mind,  to  the 
exclusion  of  interest  in  the  world  of  nature.  I  should  be  the  last 
person  to  deny  the  importance  of  metaphysics,  but  in  the  Kali- 
yuga  in  which  we  are  living  we  are  under  the  necessity  of  taking 
our  part  in  the  drama  of  this  world,  or  farce,  if  such  it  is,  and 
therefore  we  cannot  aftbrd  to  ignore  the  world  in  which  we  live. 
On  the  other  hand,  this  indifference  may  have  a  less  exalted  source. 
It  may  be  simply  due  to  neglected  and  undeveloped  powers  of 
the  mind.  Among  the  characteristics  of  infancy  and  childhood 
enumerated  in  your  syllabus  are  '  impressibility,  imitativeness, 
and  memory.'  The  mind  of  the  child  attending  an  Elementary 
school  could  not  fail  to  be  impressed  with  the  appearance  of  a  good 
school  garden.  He  would  wish  to  have  a  small  garden  of  his  own 
at  home,  and  the  habit  of  looking  at  and  attending  to  a  garden 
mio'ht  stick  to  him  all  throuo^h  his  life.  One  of  the  most  incon- 
gruous  things  about  the  residences  of  many  wealthy  Indians,  at  all 
events  of  this  Presidency,  is  the  contrast  between  the  scrupulous 
care  and  attention  paid  to  their  personal  cleanliness  and  personal 
appearance,  and  the  squalor  of  the  land  surrounding  their  houses, 
which  might  be  a  garden,  but  which  it  would  be  fiattery  to 
describe  as  anything  better  than  a  piece  of  waste  land  enclosed  by 


SCHOOL    (!AHr>?:\S  :    COUCHMAN.  215 

a  wall.  It  would  ho  no  small  jj^aiii  iC  tlie  habits  of  neatness, 
order,  and  a  taste  for  beautiful  sui-rouudinos  could  l)e  inculcated 
in  till'  mind  of  th«^  child  whon  h<^  goes  to  school. 

'•  A  taste  for  a  garden    is  not  a  mere  hobb}',  to  be  put  on  a 
plane  with  pliotography,  oi-  any    game    or   amusement.      Looked 
at    from    the    most   practical   point  of  view,  it  would  add  greatly 
to  the  pleasure  of  life  if  those   who  had  the  time  and  money  to 
do    so,    would  beautify  their  surroundings,  and  bring  pressure  to 
beai-  on  those  entrusted  with  the  care  of  public  places  to  make 
them     less    unsiglitly    than    they    are    at   present.     How    many 
Jubilee  Parks    and    Queen    Victoria    Memorial  Gardens   in    this 
country    would    then    be    placed  where  the  public  could  recreate 
themselves  in  their  spare  moments  with  the  sight  of  well-kept 
and    beautiful    grounds.     At   present    in    too   many    cases  these 
places  are  neglected  wastes,  if  nothing  worse.     From  the  public 
point   of  view,    then,  there    is  a  good  deal  to  be  said  in  favour  of 
any   attempt    to    arouse    more   interest  in  gardening.      From  the 
point  of  view  of  the    individual,   gardening    provides  a    pleasant 
recreation,   and   gives    an  interesting  and  harmless  occupation  to 
those  who  have  nothing  to  do  with  their  spare  time.     Ever3^one 
who   has    any    kno^vledge    of   village  life   in  this  country  knows 
that  the  want  of  occupation  during  the  season    when  there  is   no 
field    work   going    on    is    the    main   cause    for    half  of  the  petty 
intrigues  and  criminal  and   civil   disputes  which  flourish    in    the 
ofi*   season.      I    suggest   that    a    taste   for  gardening  inculcated 
in    the    children     of   the  village    miglit     lead    to     a    diminution 
of  these  mischievous    (juarrels,    which     are    the   bane  of  Indian 
life.     There  is  such  a  thing  as  a  too  exclusive  attention  to  the 
affairs  of  oiu.-'s    neighbours.      It    is    true  that    the    proper    study 
of   niatdvind    is    man,  Ijut   there   are   other    objects    which  repa}^ 
attention.      Without  going  so  fai-  as  the  famous  Head  of  a    Cam- 
I. ridge    College    who    is    reported    to  have  said,  after  attending  a 
l(;ng  and  acrimonious  College  meeting,   '  the  more  I   see  of  men, 
the    more    I    like    dogs,'    there    can  be  no  doubt  that  one  strong 
argument    for   gardening   is    that    it    constitutes    an    occupation 
free    from    the    envy,    hatred     and    uncharitableness    which    are 


21G  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  III. 

too    commonly    tlic    fruit    of    seeing    too    mucli    of    our    fellow- 
creatures. 

"  Passing  on  to  the  second  division  of  the  subject,  the  discus- 
sion of  the  question  of  what  school  gardens  ought  to  be,  and 
what  they  ought  to  aim  at  doing,  we  are  met  at  once  with  a  good 
deal  of  diversity  of  views.  There  are  some  who  will  say  that 
merely  growing  ornamental  plants  or  flowers  is  no  use,  because 
most  of  the  boys  at  the  village  schools  in  this  country  will  have 
to  spend  their  lives  in  following  the  plough,  and  farmers  are 
notoriously  indifterent  to  gardening,  and  have  little  time  for  it. 

"  Again,  if  it  is  suggested  that  the  staple  crop  of  the  village 
should  be  cultivated  in  a  superior  fashion  in  the  school  garden, 
the  objection  is  put  forward  that  this  will  teach  the  boys  nothing, 
because  the  high  manuring  and  cultivation  possible  on  a  small 
scale  cannot  be  followed  in  a  field.  If,  to  meet  this  objection, 
vou  suo'o"est  that  a  fair-sized  field  should  be  hired  or  borrowed 
and  the  local  crops  grown  under  ordinary  field  conditions,  it 
is  said  the  schoolmaster  will  be  less  successful  in  his  cultivation 
than  the  local  ryots,  because  he  is  devoid  of  their  experience, 
and  that  the  failure  which  he  is  certain  to  meet  with  will 
brino'  on  him  the  ridicule  of  the  villao^e. 

"Before  discussing  these  alternatives,  there  are  one  or  two  points 
which  might  be  laid  down.  The  first  is  that  the  schoolmaster 
should  be  very  cautious  about  recommending  any  practical  change 
in  ordinary  cultivation  to  the  ryot.  Apart  altogether  from 
the  art  of  growing  of  plants  or  animals,  farming  is  a  money - 
making  profession,  and  without  long  practical  experience  it  is  not 
possible  for  any  amateur,  whatever  his  knowledge  of  science,  or 
even  of  practical  gardening  may  be,  to  say  what  will  pay  on  a 
field  scale.  Yet,  in  as  much  as  in  many  villages  the  schoolmaster 
is  the  only  educated  person,  the  Agiicultural  Department  cannot 
afford  to  take  no  steps  to  use  him  for  the  improvement  of  the 
village  agriculture.  With  this  intention,  we  issue  our  Afp'icii/- 
tural  Calendar  every  year,  and  try  to  supply  every  schoolmaster 
with  a  copy.  This  contains  practical  advice  on  well-tested 
improvements,    which  may  be  safely    recommended  to  the  ryots. 


SCHOOL    HARDENS :    COUCHMAN.  217 

r  would  ask  as  a  special  favour  of  all  the  members  of  the  Ecluca- 
tioual  Department  present  to-night  that  they  should  see  that  every 
school  has  a  copy  of  this  calendar,  and  that  they  should  use  their 
influence  to  get  the  schoolmasters  to  read  it  and  discuss  the 
subjects  dealt  in  it  with  the  people.  Each  article  is  signed, 
and  the  writer  will  be  very  pleased  to  give  any  further  information 
regarding  any  point  which  is  not  clear.  In  fact,  one  of  our 
main  objects  in  issuing  the  calendar  is  to  encourage  people  to 
write  to  us   on  agricultural  matters. 

"  Another  error  which  should  be  avoided  in  school  oardens  is 
the  attempt  to  grow  plants  whose  natural  habitat  is  outside  the 
tropics.  If  the  plants  grow  at  all,  they  will  be  sickly,  stunted 
things,  and  will  give  the  children  an  altogether  wrong  idea  of  the 
nature  of  the  plant  in  its  ow^n  home.  In  a  school  garden  on  the 
West  Coast  I  have  seen  wheat  growing,  but  it  was  such  a  wretch- 
ed specimen  that  I  did  not  at  first  recognise  it  at  all.  Such 
experiments  are  worse  than  useless,  because  they  confirm  the 
ignorant  belief  of  the  people  in  the  superiority  of  their  own 
crops  to  those  of  other  countries.  This  does  not  mean  that  the 
garden  should  contain  nothing  new  to  the  village.  In  many 
parts  of  the  Presidency  at  the  present  time,  groundnuts  are  now 
being  introduced.  These  might  usefully  be  grown  in  school 
gardens,  where  the  crop  is  at  present  unknown,  to  accustom  the 
people  to  the  sight  of  the  crop.  It  would,  however,  be  as  well  if, 
before  introducing  any  now  product  of  this  kind,  the  schoolmaster 
would  write  to  myself  or  the  Deputy  Director  of  the  Division, 
and  ask  whether  it  is  likely  to  be  useful  and  how  it  should  be 
cultivated.  All  such  enquiries  are  welcomed,  and  every  effort  is 
made  to  ascertain  the  best  information.  Seeds  will  also  be 
})rocured  when  desired  and  when  it  is  thought  that  the  crop  is 
likely  t(j  be  worth  trying. 

"  It  would  be  useless  to  attempt  to  lay  down  any  rules  for 
the  size  or  nature  or  detailed  manao^ement  of  a  school  t<arden.  In 
most  cases  the  school  is  situated  in  dry,  uncultivated  land,  and 
unless  there  is  a  well  within  a  vei-y  short  distance,  all  gardening 
proper  must  be  limited  to  the  rainy  season.     The  first   thing   to 


218  AfiRICULTUllAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   III 

do  is  to  plant  a  few  ornamental  shade  trees,  and  in  choosing  these 
it  is  best  to  select  one  of  the  trees  seen  frrowinu'in  the  neiohbour- 
hood.  If  water  is  available,  fruit  trees  may  be  tried,  and  here 
again  the  Agricultural  Department  will  endeavour  to  give  advice 
as  to  the  most  suitable,  if  consulted. 

"  The  first  requisite  of  a  school  garden  is  that  it  should  be 
neat  and  well  kept  and,  if  possible,  ornamental.  For  the  reasons 
given  above,  these  habits  stand  in  much  need  of  cultivation  at 
the  present  time.  It  would  have  the  further  advantage  that  it 
would  make  the  school,  too  often  an  ugly  unattractive  building, 
an  ornament  to  the  village,  and  an  object-lesson  to  the  villagers 
of  what  can  be  done  at  small  cost  to  make  their  own  homes  more 
ornamental  than  they  are  at  present.  Next,  if  any  of  the  local 
crops  can  be  grown,  that  is  to  say,  if  there  is  enough  space,  and 
if  water  is  available  when  the  plants  are  such  as  are  usually 
grown  with  irrigation,  some  simple  experiments  in  different 
methods  of  planting,  manuring,  watering,  and  cultivating  might 
be  attempted,  and  seed  selection  taken  up.  Hints  as  to  the  kinds 
of  experiments  recommended  by  the  Agricultural  Department 
will  be  found  in  the  Ar/ricultural  Calendar,  and  if  none  of  these 
are  suitable,  the  officers  of  the  Department  will  be  pleased  to 
offer  suggestions  if  they  are  addressed.  I  will  make  one  sugges- 
tion here  which  is  applicable  to  any  and  every  place  where  plants 
are  grown  :  our  experience  shows  that  the  w^eakest  point  in  the 
practice  of  the  Indian  ryot  is  his  neglect  of  seed  selection.  By 
growing  any  of  the  common  crops  of  the  village  for  a  number 
of  years,  and  choosing  a  few  of  the  best  plants  each  year  for  seed, 
it  is  easy  to  show  the  children  that  much  bettor  crops  can  be 
secured. 

"In  the  case  of  private  schools,  where  the  owner,  as  is 
sometimes  the  case,  is  a  rich  landowner  of  the  village,  a  good 
piece  of  land  can  be  secured,  and  really  useful  work  done.  I 
recently  saw  a  school  of  this  description  wdiere  a  capital  cro]) 
of  groundnuts  had  been  o-rown  in  the  school  o-arden  in  a  district 

o  o  o 

where   this   crop   was  new,  and  as  the  garden  was  near  the  road, 
many  of  the  passers-by  must  have  seen  the  crop.     It  is  necessary 


SCHOOL    (iAKDENS  :    CoUCHMAN*.  219 

that  people  should  see  and  talk  about  a  new  thing  for  some  time 
before  they  seriously   think   of  growing   it  themselves.     School 
o-ardens  can  thus  do  a  useful  work  in  showing  new  kinds  of  crops 
to   the   people.     On   the   Coimbatore  Agricultural  College  Farm 
we  give  every  student  a  plot  of  his  own   to   cultivate  himself. 
In   most   cases   this    would   probably   not  be  possible  in  a  school 
garden,    but    those    children    who    show    special   interest   in  the 
garden  might  be  given  small  plots  of  their  own  and   allowed   to 
have   the   produce   for  themselves.     Much,  however,  as  from  the 
point  of  view  of  the  Agricultural  Department   I   should  like   to 
see   every   one   of  the   25,000   schools   in  this  Presidency  turned 
into    a     sort  of  experimental   farm,   nothing   would   be     gained 
by  expecting   too   much   practical    result  from  the  actual  work 
done   in   school   gardens.     The   real   value  of  school   gardens  to 
the    Agricultural    Department    will    lie    in   the   influence    which 
they  should  have   on  the  minds  of  both  the  teachers  and  pupils. 
We    all    know   that    education    is    not  the    pouring   of  informa- 
tion  into   a  receptive    vessel,    but    the    process    of    turning    the 
mind    to    the    light,    and    placing    it    in    a    position     where    it 
can  teach   itself.     The    great    obstacle    to    agricultural   progress 
lies  in  the  low  esteem  in  which  the  farmer's  profession  is   held  by 
the   educated  and  wealthy  classes.      I   need   hardly   remind  you 
that   compared   with  the   actual  cultivator,  all  of  us  who  belong- 
to    the    other    classes    may    be    regarded    as    little    better    than 
parasites,  living  on  the  wealth  created  by  the  labours  of  the  ryot. 
In  spite   of  this,    the    farmer's    profession    is    not   held    in    such 
esteeni  as  it  should  be,  considering  its  utility  to  the   community, 
and  the   skill,  foresight,   and  patience   required  for  success  in  it. 
The  schoolmaster   who  starts  a  of^u'den  will  soon  find  that  to  orrow 
{)lants  is  not  sucli  a  siiii[)lL'  iiiattur  as  he  supposed.      If  he  is  wise, 
he   will  .seek   tlu.'  advice   of  the  best  cultivators.      He  will  soon 
see    that   the   cultivation   of  tlie    laiul   calls    for  the  exercise  of  a 
good  deal   of  intelligence,  jutlgment,  and   knowledge   of  seasons, 
besides    mere  hard  work.     This  knowledu'e  cannot  fail  to  increase 
his  respect  for  the   parents  of  his   pupils.     On   the   other   hand, 
veneration    tor    tliu    teacher    is    still    a  strona"    characteristic    of 


220  AGRICULTUKAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   III. 

Indians.  If  the  children  see  that  the  teacher  himself  is  keenly 
interested  in  gardening  and  agriculture,  and  is  not  above  working 
in  the  garden  himself,  it  will  tend  to  raise  their  respect  for 
manual  labour  and  for  the  profession  of  agriculture,  usually 
thought  unworthy  of  the  serious  attention  of  an  educated  man. 
It  will  also  help  them  to  see  that  the  work  of  the  school  has  a 
direct  bearing  on  their  after-life.  The  schoolmaster  himself  will 
find  that  the  garden  brings  him  into  closer  touch  with  the 
people  of  the  village,  and  it  will  help  him  to  understand  the 
problems  which  his  pupils  will  have  to  face  when  they  leave  his 
school. 

"  The  effect  on  the  minds  of  the  boys,  however,  of  a  well- 
managed  garden  is  by  far  the  strongest  argument  for  encouraging 
school  gardens  in  every  possible  way.  One  of  the  greatest 
difficulties  which  we  have  to  contend  against  in  the  Agricultural 
Department  in  our  efforts  to  find  out  something  about  the  agri- 
culture of  the  country  and  improve  it,  is  the  want  of  power  of 
accurate  observation  on  the  part  of  our  subordinates,  and  the 
intense  conservatism  of  the  ryot.  The  former  have,  in  most  cases, 
had  an  English  education,  but  have  never  been  taught  to  observe 
the  common  objects  which  they  see  round  them  every  day  of 
their  lives.  Many  of  our  present  men  are  comparatively  useless, 
because  they  have  not  had  the  advantage  of  being  trained  during 
their  school  days  to  use  their  eyes  and  accurately  observe  what  is 
going  on  around  their  homes.  A  school  garden,  where  the  boys 
were  taught  to  watch  the  growth  of  the  plants  from  day  to  day, 
and  notice  the  different  effects  of  different  methods  of  cultivation, 
might  be  made  into  a  really  useful  instrument  for  training  the 
faculties  of  observation. 

"  For  the  improvement  of  Indian  Agriculture,  however,  it  is 
not  sufficient  to  have  good  officials.  We  also  need  an  improve- 
ment jin  our  raw  material,  the  ryot  himself.  The  vast  majority 
of  the  boys  attending  the  rural  schools  will  follow  the  profession 
of  a  cultivator  when  they  leave  the  school.  I  want  all  j'ou 
students  of  this  College  to  keep  this  fact  always  before  your 
minds  when  you  are    training    Elementaiy    school    teachers,    and 


SCHOOL    (JAKDENS  :    COUCHMAX.  221 

inspecting  the  schools.  We  want  you  to  give  us  ryots  whose 
minds  are  open  to  new  ideas,  ;iiid  who  do  not,  as  the  present 
generation  of  rijof  usually  does,  condemn  a  thing  off-hand,  simply 
on  the  ground  that  they  have  not  seen  it  before.  The  best  way 
to  do  this  is  to  influence  all  the  public  and  private  bodies  who 
maintain  the  schools  to  have  gardens  at  every  school  where  space 
is  available,  and  to  see  that  the  schoolmaster  makes  good  use  of 
it,  bearing  in  mind  the  hint  contained  in  the  Madras  Scheme  of 
Studies  that  '  the  instruction  fails  if  it  does  not  arouse  in  the 
child  a  lively  interest  in  his  surroundings.'  " 


ANDROPOGON  SORGHUM.-  MILLET  OR  PYAUNG : 

ITS  CULTIVATION  AND  SOME 

OF  ITS  ENEMIES. 

By  L.   AUBERT,  da.,  asc, 
Superiutendcid  of  Land  Records^   Burma. 

L\  the  dry  zone  of  Upper  Buriiui,  where  rice  will  not  grow — 
the  irrigated  districts  of  Mandalay  and  Kyaukse  excepted — in 
that  part  of  the  country  with  an  average  yearly  rainfall  varying 
from  '^0  to  25  inches,  and  which  includes.,  roughly  speaking,  the 
southern  half  of  the  Lower  Chindwdn  District,  the  Sagaing, 
the  Shwebo,  the  Meiktila,  the  northern  half  of  Yaniethin,  the 
Myingyan,  the  Magwe,  the  Minbu,  the  Pakokku  districts,  and 
the  northern  portion  of  Thayetmyo,  the  jtijauiKj  millet  [Andro- 
j)()(/oii  soiylnim),  known  as  Jonrtr  or  vhohini  by  the  people  of 
India,  is  the  staple-food  of  the  agriculturist  and  of  his  cattle. 
The  former  lives  on  the  grain,  the  latter  on  the  leaves  and  the 
stalks,  dried  and  stored  up  as  fodder  for  the  dry  season.  Pijaun<i 
in  this  part  of  Upper  Burma  is  to  the  people  what  rice  is  in  the 
Lower  Province,  and  sells  at  a  figure  that  rice  usually  fetches 
in  Kangoon.  Pyaung  is  also  grown  spasmodically  in  other 
parts  of  Upper  Burjria,  but  only  for  sale  or  for  export,  and  is 
not  consumed  by  the  grower  as  an  article  of  food.  A  glance 
at  the  official  statistics  published  by  authority  will  show  the 
importance  of  this  crop  both  as  a  human  food  and  as  a  cattle 
fodder.  Within  that  part  of  the  country  above  referred  to  as 
the  "dry  zone,"  the  area  sown  with  2:)yaun(j  alone  in  l'J07 
covered  2,000  square  miles,  representing  the  main  staple-food 
of  a  population  of  2^  million  persons  or  GO  per  cent,  of  the  total 
population  of  Upper  Burma  ;  and  the  fodder  of  about  a  million 
head  of  plough    cattle  during  four  months   of    the    dry    season. 


« 


ANhKOI'OfiON    SOKCllL'M  :     AL'HERT.  223 

(Sejison  and   Crop   Report   and  General   Agricultural    Statistics 
for  Upper  Burma,  1907-08). 

PijdurKj  cultivation  starts  in  September  on  upland  yas  or 
dry  fields  :  these  are  termed  dry  by  contrast  with  rice  cultivation, 
which  requires  a  great  deal  of  moisture  and  water.  Manure  is 
not  used  generally  unless  the  ya  is  a  patch  of  jungle  freshly 
cleared  :  in  this  case,  all  the  useless  timber  or  brush  wood  has 
been  burnt  on  the  spot,  the  ashes  forming  a  fertilizer,  during 
the  months  of  May  and  June,  before  the  break  of  the  rains. 
Pyaung  in  such  cases  usually  succeeds  a  first  crop  of  early  short- 
lived sesamum.  The  preliminary  operation  of  preparing  the  soil 
for  the  seed  is  done  in  a  peculiar  and  primitive  fashion.  The 
surface  of  the  ground  is  scraped  and  broken  up  six  or  seven  times 
leno-thwavs  and  crossways,  with  a  harrow,  for  a  few  mornings  :  a 
plough  is  not  used.  This  is  drawn  by  bullocks.  A  pair  of 
ordinary  bullocks  can  harrow  or  turn  up  in  this  manner  about  \'l 
acres  in  the  season.  Into  a  number  of  holes  in  the  head  piece  of 
this  harrow  (in  Burmese,  htun)  (Plate  XVI)  are  inserted  teeth,  8 
or  10  inches  long,  made  of  a  very  hard  wood,  generally  a  form  of 
cutcli  (Acacia  catechuoidcs).  The  standard  number  of  teeth  used 
at  the  start  is  3,  if  the  ground  is  hard.  It  is  increased  during  the 
following  days  to  5  or  7,  the  intervals  between  each  tooth  being 
reduced  by  degrees,  as  the  clods  of  earth  encountered  at  first  are 
broken  up  in  the  course  of  the  operation.  These  teeth  do  not 
penetrate  to  the  depth  a  plough  would  do  ;  but,  for  all  purposes, 
the  instrument  seems  suitable  for  this  kind  of  cultivation  :  it  has, 
at  least,  the  great  advantage  of  being  easily  repaired  on  the  spot  ; 
it  costs  little,  and  the  l^urniaii  will  have  no  other. 

The  ploughinjx  and  harrowinn"  over,  the  cultivator  sows  his 
seed  broadcast — frcjin  "JO  to  40  lbs.  to  the  acre.  He  then  covers 
U[)  the  furrows  by  passing  over  them,  once  or  twice,  the  litundon 
or  head  piece  of  the //^(/<,  from  which  all  teeth  have  been  pre- 
viously removed.  With  favourable  rain,  the  crop  soon  springs 
up  ;  the  average  height  of  a  fully  matured  cro})  is  about  8  feet, 
and  if  all  -oes  well,  is  ready  to  be  harvested  by  the  middle  of 
January.      An  acre  of  land  sown   with  pyay.ny   returns,    on    the 


224  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  TV,   III 


L  "  ' 


average,  5G0  lbs.  of  grain,  plus  the  dried  .stalks  and  leaves,  which 
are  stored  up  as  fodder  for  the  cultivator's  plough  cattle,  when 
grass  has  become  scarce.  Several  forms  of  i)yaun<j  are  often 
grown  at  the  same  time  by  the  same  cultivator,  but  no  difference 
whatever  is  made  in  the  method  of  cultivation.  The  one  most 
commonly  grown  is  the  ordinary  'pyaung  with  deep  orange 
coloured  panicles  [Andropogon  soi-ghum  or  Sorghum  vulgare). 
Another  common  form  with  a  fine  golden  grain,  the  Shivay-wa 
{^Sorghum  saccharatwn)  found  sometimes  with  reflexed  panicles, 
is  also  called  Chinese  sugarcane  or  simply  sugarcane  (Bur.  kyan) 
because  of  its  sweet  juicy  stalks,  resembling,  with  their  nodes,  the 
real  sugarcane  :  the  grain  feeds  the  people,  while  the  stalks  form 
an  excellent  fodder  much  relished  by  the  cattle  ;  but  very  often 
this  name  kyan  is  given  to  any  form  of  sorghum.  The  retlexed 
panicle  may  also  be  found  here  and  there  on  sorghums  belonging 
to  other  forms.  This  reflexion  of  the  panicle  does  not  constitute 
a  special  variation  or  form  of  j>?/cm>///.  Then  comes  the  pyaung 
kun-pyu  with  a  pale  whitish  hairy  grain,  also  called  myet 
Uiom/yi,  an  inferior  variation  of  Sorghum  vulgare.  A  variety  with 
a  black  seed,  termed  locally  pyaung  net  or  nga  cheik  {Sorghum 
niger)  named  also  sometimes  pyaung  hzee  by  a  few — is  put  down 
sometimes  in  small  patches  here  and  there.  The  cooked  grain, 
said  to  be  difficult  to  digest,  is  more  starchy  and  more  sticky 
than  the  other  kinds,  and  is  used  mostly  for  making  cakes  and 
other  dainties.  Another  pyaung,  with  a  milky  white  gram, 
Sorghum  halepense,  the  hsauhyaung,  is  also  grown  in  certain 
localities.  The  grain  when  boiled  approaches  cooked  rice  in 
colour  and  in  taste,  and,  for  this  reason,  has  been  named  hsafi- 
hyaung,  "  YicQ-pyaung.''  It  is  consumed  by  the  more  wealthy 
classes.  The  stalks,  being  hard  and  ligneous,  are  not  given  to 
cattle  ;  the  surplus  stock,  bought  by  local  firms,  is  exported  to 
Raiifjoon  where  it  is  gfround  into  flour  as  a  substitute  for  wheat. 

Pyaung  is  a  very  precarious  crop.  The  first  cause  oi  its 
ruin,  followed  always  by  disastrous  results,  is  drought,  or  the 
failure  of  the  season  showers.  In  years  of  scanty  or  untimely 
rainfall,   when   the   crop   has   failed  totally,  the  cultivator  of  the 


■^    c 


I— I 

X 

< 


Jj^ 


'-^'^ff  •#; 


AXDROPOnOX    SOROHUM  :    AL'T^ERT.  225 

tliy  zone,  who  lives  froin  liaiul  to  mouth,  is  compelled  as  a  last 
i-esourco  to  part  with  his  best  plough  cattle,  and  to  leave  his 
village.  He  sells  his  cattle  at  the  nearest  town  or  cattle-market, 
packs  his  few  belongings  in  a  basket  or  two  slung  to  a  pole  over 
his  shoulder,  and  turns  his  face  towards  the  lowei-  districts  in 
search  of  work.  This  emigration,  when  general  throughout 
a  certain  tract,  is  the  sure  sign  of  a  scarcity  or  of  a  famine.  If 
the  drought  threatens  to  be  a  severe  and  prolonged  one,  neces- 
sitating an  absence  of  several  months,  the  whole  family-  abandons 
the  place,  travelling  on  foot  to  the  nearest  lower  district  (Plates 
XVIII  and  XIX).  Those  who  own  a  large  number  of  cattle 
drive  them  down  with  them,  selling  them  on  the  wa3^ 

Besides  drought  in  years  of  scanty  rainfall,  and  floods  in 
years  of  excessive  rain,  like  all  other  valuable  crops,  JW^^'-'^MI 
has  a  long  list  of  enemies, — insects,  fungi,  and  weeds.  It  is 
among  the  latter  that  the  two  most  common,  Striga  Jutea  and 
Conrol ruins  arrensis,  are  found  in  Upper  Burma.  In  fact,  they 
can  be  discovered  almost  in  every  village  at  certain  seasons,  and 
their  appearance  in  the  fields  causes  awe  and  despair  to  the 
unfortunate  cultivator. 

Stri(/a  lutea,  the  pwinhyu  (Plate  XX)  of  the  Burman 
agriculturist,  an  annual  of  the  order  of  Scrophulariaceaj,  makes 
its  appearance  at  the  end  of  August  or  eail}'  in  September  with 
the  middle  rains.  This  appearance  among  the  grass  in  the  yds 
or  fields  is  signalled  by  its  small  white  corolla  of  a  peculiar  shape, 
and  from  which  it  derives  its  name  in  Burmese  of  pfvinhyu,  the 
"white  flower."  At  that  time,  or  very  S()t)n  after,  the  ^)?/a?<?ir/ 
crop  is  sown  on  the  uplands,  and  this  /tiri/ihyx  grows  with  it. 
When  the  crop  is  abcnit  a  month  oi-  two  old,  the  weed 
has  already  managed  to  entangle  and  to  entwine  lirmK'  its 
innumerable  rootlets  among  those  of  its  victim,  and  has 
begun  stealthily  its  work  of  destruction  underground  and 
unseen.  The  young  green  shoots  of  the  pyaufcg,  healthy  and 
promising  a  short  time  ago,  begin  to  fade  slowly  ;  to  wither 
and  to  die.  The  author  of  the  mischief  is  not  detected  readily 
by   an   inexperienced     eye.      It  is     so  small    and  shelters  itself 


22G  AORTCULTURAL    .JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   III. 

alway.s    so    well   under    the  shady  leaves  of   the  pyau7ig   plants, 
or     among  the  grass   and  other    undergrowth  in  the  fields,   that 
it    is    passed    unnoticed  at    first.     But  if,   with  a  little  patience 
and  care,   one   digs   the   earth   deep   enough  around  the  affected 
plant,  removing  it  entire, — not  pulling  and  uprooting  with  a  jerk, 
as  the  tender  roots  would  thus  be  snapped  ofl^"  and  left  buried  in 
the  ground  with  the  weed  attached  to  them   ; — if  then,  one  takes 
up  the   whole   plant   with   the   clod    of  earth  still  adhering  to  it, 
and  one  stands  it  for  a  few  hours  in  a  pail  of  water,    so   that  the 
earth  attached   to  the   rootlets    is  completely  separated,  the  real 
enemjT'  is  at  once  revealed  :  this   small   and   apparently   harmless 
weed  with  its  little  white  fiower,  quite  unnoticed  and  unsuspected 
before, — the  terrible  pirinhyu.     The  scrofulous  looking  roots  are 
found   entangled   with  the  tender  smooth  rootlets  of  the  pyanug 
plant,   adhering   intimately  to   them   m   several  places  with  tiny 
suckers  through  which  the  former  tap  the  life  and  the  sap  of  their 
doomed  victim.     This  is  found  to  be  the  case  in  years  of  drought 
especially,  when  entire  fields  are  completely  destroyed  by  the  pest, 
wliich,  b)^  tliis  means,  supplements  to  its  own  benefit  the  deficiency 
in   moisture   and  nutriment    of  the   sub-soil  below.     In  years  of 
sufficient  or  fair  rainftill,  if  a  whole  crop  of  pyaung  is  not  entirely 
ruined,  the  outturn  of  it,  at  least,  is  considerably  affected,  both  in 
the  quality  as  well  as  in  the  quantity  of  the  grain  yielded. 

The  pwinhyu  is  said  wrongly  to  have  been  unknown  as  a 
pest  twenty-five  years  ago,  before  the  annexation  of  Upper 
Burma,  and  1  have  heard  old  men,  considered  more  or  less  as 
"  wise  men  "  in  their  own  little  villages,  sadly  remark  that  this 
was  one  of  the  many  evils  that  had  befallen  the  country,  and  the 
agriculturist  class  especially,  since  the  fall  of  the  pious  King 
Thibaw,  and  his  transportation  out  of  Burma.  The  greatest 
hindrance  to  the  improvement  of  agriculture  in  Upper  Burma, 
and  his  brother  villagers'  xQry  worst  enemy  by  his  conservatism 
and  his  apathy,  is  assuredly  this  type  of  wiseacre  met  in  ever}?- 
small  village. 

One  day  when  I  had  induced, — or  rather  believed  I  had 
induced,— spme  very  obstinate  and  ignorant  cultivators  to  try  new 


AXDKorocoN  soRf;iiu>[  :  Arr.KRT.  liz/ 

and  more  paying  crops, — the  oroundnut  for  instance,  — for  whicli 
1  liad  offered  to  obtain  seed  for  tlieni  free,  I  overheard  one  of  these 
\  iUage  "  wise  men  "  who  happened  to  be  passing  b^^  grumble 
sulkily,  ''^^  if  t')  himself,  that  "  such  seed  issued  free  and  so  liber- 
ally could  not  [)()ssil)ly  Ijr  good  seed.  Witli  it  geiMus  of  new  pests 
and  of  new  weeds  would  surely  be  introduced  into  the  country. 
Had  not  the  i»iruthij>i.  already  been  imported  from  the  hihi 
(foreign)  countiy  in  a  similar  manner  twenty-five  years  ago  '. 
But,  besides  destructive  weeds  and  pests,  increases  in  taxes  and 
revenue  rates  would  invariably  follow  in  the  near  future."  The 
next  morninir,  the  whole  villao-e  came  in  a  body  to  cancel  their 
indents  made  cheerfully  enough  the  evening  before  : 
''  Timco  Danaos  et  dona  fcrenU'S  .'" 
The  appearance  of  the  pirinhyv  in  Upper  Burma  is  cer- 
tainly not  as  recent  as  the  annexation,  as  certain  cultivators  and 
many  others  will  have  it.  It  is  to  be  found  in  India,  as  well  as 
in  Burma,  and  is  common  throughout  the  eastern  tropics 
{Records  of  the  Botanical  Survey  of  India,  Volume  III,  No.  1 
of  1904.  Tl)e  Vegetation  of  the  Minhu  District  in  Upper  Burma. 
by  A.  T.  Gage,  Captain,  i.m.s.,  page  85).  The  succession  of 
several  years  of  drouuht  that  unfortunately  followed  the  annexa- 
tion  of  Upper  Burma  has  very  likel}^  made  the  ravages  of 
this  weed  more  noticeable  and  more  felt  than  in  good  seasons 
and  years  of  plent}-.  It  is  evident  that  in  times  of  scanty 
rainfall,  when  the  p/yaz(////  crop  is  weak  and  unhealthj^,  the 
pirinhiin  must  have  a  very  destructive  and  fatal  inliuence  on  the 
former,  and  must  attach  itself  to  the  tender  rootlets  of  the  j'oung 
plants  in  a  more  deadly  gi'ip  than  at  other  times,  when  rain  is 
sufficient  and  there  is  aljuiidance  of  moisture  in  the  ground. 
Personal  observations  have  confirmed  this,  and  I  am  glad  to  be 
able  to  note  that  those  same  "  wise  men,"  mentioned  above,  after 
some  di.scussion,  have  been  forced  later  on  to  recognize  and  to 
admit  this  fact,  which  many  (jf  their  neighbours,  and,  no  doubt, 
they  themselves,  had  stolidly  observed  without  even  making  an 
effort  to  get  at  the  true  cause.  A  proof  that  the  pivinhyu 
was  well  known  in  LTpper  Burma  before  the  annexation  is  that  a 


228  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  III. 

large   village   in  the  Minbu  district  where  ]>yait.ufj  was  cultivated 
as  a  dry  crop  up  to  a  few  j^ears  ago,  is  called  after  the   name   of 
the    weed.     This     village     was    founded     some     centuries     ao-o 
jri/a/nng    was    extensively    cultivated    there     and     also    on     the 
uplands  along  the  banks  of  the  Mon  River,  before  the  openino-  of 
the  new  irrigation  works  by  Government.     Now  rice,  the  favourite 
crop,  has,  of   course,   taken   its   place.     Specimens    of  the    weed 
were  found  there  by   me   in    1001,  and   again   by  Captain  Gao-e 
(now    Major  and    Director    of  the   Botanical  Survey  of   India), 
and  myself,  in  1903,  as  late   in   the  season  as   in  the  month   of 
April  {Records  of  the   Botanical  Survey  of  India,   Volume   III, 
No.  1  of  1904,  quoted  above). 

At  present,  the  Burman  cultivator  is  helpless  in  his  struo-ole 
with  the  weed,  and  is  not  even  able  to  reduce  or  to  circumvent  its 
disastrous  effects.  No  practicable  remedy  is  known.  Uj^rootino' 
is  not  attended  with  success,  and  cannot  be  recommended,  because, 
to  uproot  the  weed  thoroughly,  one  would  have  to  dig  up  each 
pyanng  plant  with  it,  in  order  to  disentangle  carefully  and  sever 
all  suckers  from  the  former,  returning  the  latter  to  its  bed  after 
such  a  difficult  performance.  For,  if  any  fragment,  however  small, 
of  the  root  of  the  weed  is  perchance  left  in  the  ground,  or  attach- 
ed to  the  roots  of  its  victim,  the  pest  will  spring  up  again  in  no 
time.  Very  often  the  ^j?/r<?(U7  plants  are  too  far  advanced  to  bear 
transplanting  or  any  interference  at  all  :  they  are  in  this  case 
irretrievably  doomed  to  succumb  either  under  the  operation,  or 
under  the  attacks  of  their  unrelenting  enemy.  It  is  therefore 
to  be  hoped  earnestly  that  in  the  near  future  some  remedy  will 
be  discovered,  some  chemical  "  germicide "  or  application,  that 
will  destroy  this  harmful  pest,  both  in  the  plant  or  in  the  latent 
state  of  germs  or  seed  in  the  ground,  before  the  sowing  of  the 
'pyawig  crop  can  be  attempted.  This  seems  the  only  practical 
and  effective  means  that  can  be  suggested,  one,  at  least,  which 
would  not  be  attended  with  disastrous  or  evil  results  on  the 
growing  crop. 

The  second    enemy     of  the  pyaung  among    weeds,  not    so 
dreaded  as  the  Pwinhyu,  but  also  very  difficult  to  eradicate,  is  a 


PLATE  XXI. 


-1.   J.  I.  COMVOLVULUS   AKVENSIS  (BURMESE    Kaulcyo-Hipc) 


AN1)K()P()(;().\    SOHCHU.M  :    AUHKKT.  220 

small  wild  creeper  or  climber  named  by  the  Burman  cultiva- 
tors the  kauhyO'iiwc  or  kukyo-Huyiy,  the  Coiirolijuh.is  arven.si>i 
(Plate  XXT).  It  appears  annually  in  July  or  August,  lasting 
till  far  into  the  dry  season.  Soon  after  its  first  appearance,  it 
multiplies  rapidly  by  shoots  and  layers,  as  well  as  from  seed, 
spreading  itself  in  .-ill  directions  over  a  large  area.  By  the 
time  the  young  pij'iniK/  crop  has  attained  a  height  of  2  or 
3  feet,  the  weed  is  well  established,  and,  without  warning, 
in  no  time,  it  has  entwined  itself  firmly  along  the  stems 
of  the  tendei'  plants,  cliecking  them  in  their  growth. 
Constant  weeding  is  necessary  to  keep  it  otf  If  the  cultivator 
is  at  all  slack  or  careless,  his  crop  will  soon  be  seriously  en- 
dangered. This  weed  does  not,  like  the  pwinhyv.,  attack  the 
roots  of  its  victim,  sapping  its  very  life  ;  it  climbs  up  the  erect 
stems  of  the  pyaring  plants  as  shown  in  (Plate  XXI),  retard- 
ing their  growth  and  their  development.  Though  not  .so 
deadly  as  the  first  one,  it  can  cause  considerable  damage  in  a 
field,  and  is  therefore  quite  worthy  of  being  counted  as  one  of  the 
enemies  of  the  pyauiuj  cultivator. 

The  haukyo-nire  does  not,  however,  attack  the  rice  plant. 
Its  behaviour  in  a  paddj'-field  is  ver}^  different,  no  doubt  on 
account  of  the  excess  of  moisture  always  prevalent  in  rice 
cultivation.  Here  it  keeps  to  the  Irtzins  or  small  bunds  which 
alwa^'s  enclose  rice  fields  to  retain  the  water  necessary  to  the 
crop.  The  cultivators  make  good  use  of  the  weed  at  harvest 
time,  when  it  is  collected  in  long  strips  to  tie  up  the  straw  into 
bundles.  Thence  the  name  of  kaukyo-nwe,  or  "  creeper  used  to 
tie  the  straw,"  by  which  it  is  commonly  known  in  Burma. 

This  short  note  has  no  [)retension  to  be  a  complete  and 
exhaustive  review  of  the  enemies  of  the  pyawig.  Myriads  of 
bird.s,  sparrows,  crows,  small  owls  even,  attack  the  crop  either 
in  the  flower  or  in  the  gi-ain,  by  da}^  and  by  night.  It  is  also 
reported  that  a  certain  vaiiety  of  snake,  the  RnstselFs  vi2:><'r  (in 
Burmese  iinniii-lnniii)  is  t'ond  of  the  Howcr  and  also  of  the 
tender  unripe  grain  on  wliii.-h  it  feeds.  The.se  snakes  climb  up 
the    steui    of  the    plant,    and,  by  theii'  weight,  break  and  bend  it 

16 


230  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    LXDIA.  |  V,   IIL 

to  the  ground,  where  they  can  feast  at  leisure.  It  is  curious 
to  note  that  the  RusselVs  viper  is  very  common  in  pTjauiKj  fields 
or  yas  at  flowering  time  and  until  the  crop  has  fully  ripened.* 

Pyaung  is  also  attacked  by  a  fungus  disease,  probably  due 
to  organic  germs  deposited  into  the  flower  by  insects  or  by  the 
wind.  Many  different  kinds  of  insects  too  destroy  the  tender 
plants,  but  seem  to  have  little  or  no  action  on  the  matured 
sorghums.  In  the  early  stages,  however,  they  can  do  consider- 
able damage  to  this  most  valuable  crop. 

Explanation  of  Plates. 

Plate  XVI. — A  seven-tootliecl  hanow  :  the  middle  tooth  has  been  removed 
from  the  '■'  htuudon"  to  show  the  socket. 

Plate  XVIIA. — Panicles  of  Sorghum  vu/yare  (I)  and    ol  Sorghiun  halcpense 

Plate  XVTTn. — Panicles  of  Surghiun  saccharatum  from  the  same  field  :  1, 
the  reflexed  panicle  ;   2,  the  erect  panicle. 

Plate  XVIII. — Bn  route  for  the  lower  districts. 

Plate  XIX. — A  family  of  Palaiings  from  Pyawbwe  (Yamethin  district) 
travelling  down  to  Pegu  along  the  railway  line. 

Plate  XX. — The  dreaded  pwinbyio  (natural  size). 

Plate  XXI. — The  kaukyo-nivc  entwined  around  a  young  pgaung  plant 
(natural  .size). 

*  This  fact  was  brought  to  my  notice  for  the  first  time  in  1899  by  the  tlmgyi  or  headman 

ul   tlie  viUage  of  Aukkyaung,  in  the  Miiibu  district. 


MANAGEMENT  OF  EXPERIMENT  STATIONS 

IN  INDIA. 

By  J.  MacKENNA,  m.a.,  i.c.s., 
Director  of  AyricuHure,  Burma  ; 

AND 

A.  McKERRAL,  m.a.,  b.sc, 
Depvty  Director  of  Agriculture,   Burma. 

Mr.  Standen's  interesting  note  on  this  subject  in  Vol.  Ill, 
Part  4,  of  the  Agricultuixd  Journal  of  India,  has  not  elicited 
that  amount  of  criticism  which  we  had  anticipated,  and  we  wish 
to  add  our  contribution  lest  we  be  barred  by  limitation  or  by  an 
order  from  the  Editor  that  "  this  correspondence  must  cease." 
Our  contribution  would  not  have  been  so  belated  had  others  kept 
the  ball  a-rollinof. 

The  proposition  laid  down  in  Mr.  Standen's  article  is  to 
the  effect  that  the  value  of  the  produce  on  the  non-experimental 
part  of  a  farm  should  be  sufficient  to  make  up,  in  part  at  least, 
for  expenditure  on  the  experimental  areas,  on  buildings,  super- 
vising staff,  etc. 

The  first  question  that  suggests  itself  is  :  Why  have 
a  large  non -experimental  area  at  all  ?  In  the  case  of  Burma 
we  were  ad\i.sGd  to  have  larg-e  farms  of  about  400  acres  each. 
Two  sucli  farms  were  taken  up  :  one  at  Mandalay  and  the 
other  at  Humw  hi.  In  the  case  of  a  Central  or  College  Farm  a 
fairly  large  area  may  be  advisable  :  but  at  our  present  stage  of 
agricultui-al  advancement,  Government  farms  each  of  large  area 
are  certainly  not  at  present  advisable  in  Burma,  because  they 
suggest  the  full  grown  man  rather  than  the  creeping  child. 
They  may  ultimately  be  required  for  testing  on  a  large  field  scale 
the  results  of  experiment,  for  the  production   and  distribution  of 


232  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OV    INDIA.  [V,   III. 

selected  seed   of   particular   varieties  of  grain,    fodder,  and  other 

commercial  crops. 

It    must  be  borne  in  mind  that  experiment  must  necessarily 

precede    such     work.     The    logical    sequence    of    events    is    first 

experiment,    then  demonstration,  and  finally  seed  production  on  a 

commercial  scale. 

A    reason    which    ma}^     be  given  for  the    establishment    of 

large    farms     is    that    they    supply    reserve    areas    to    increase 

experiments  which  necessarily  will  extend  in  time. 

The    extent    of    the  areas  which  may  ultimately  be  required 

can  only  be  tentatively  guessed  at  for  the  time  being,  but  an 
argument    may    be    advanced    for  acquiring  a  large  farm  in  each 

well-defined  tract.  It  may  be  possible  to  work  it  profitably 
until  part  of  it  is  required  for  experimental  work.  Mr.  Standen 
states  that  the  profits  on  a  non-experimental  area  may  only 
partially  pay  the  way  if  worked  departmentally.      If  it  cannot  be 

worked  departmentally  as  economically  as  by  an  ordinary 
cultivator,  it  would  seem  preferable  to  sublet  it  to  ordinary  cul- 
tivators, till  the  land  is  particularly  required  by  the  department 
for  demonstration,  for  seed-growing  or  for  other  purposes. 

To  summarise  :  the  maximum  area  required  ultimately"  for 
purel}'  experimental  work  should  be  roughly  calculated.  This 
land  should  graduall}?^  be  taken  up  for  experiment  as  the  necessit}^ 
arises.  At  the  first,  the  part  not  under  experiment  should  be 
cropped  uniformly,  and  outturns  carefully  noted  so  as  to 
thoroughly  determine  the  evenness  of  the  soil. 

Again,  the  work  of  demonstration  and  seed  farms  should  be 
kept  apart  from  that  of  experimental  farms.  They  need  not 
necessarily  be  in  different  localities,  but  may  occupy  contiguous 
areas  The  working  and  accounts  should,  however,  be  kept 
distinct. 

There  are  other  aspects  of  the  question  which  probably  do 
not  strike  the  unsympathetic  critic.  An  experimental  station  is 
really  a  field  laboratory,  and  just  as  the  processes  in  a  Chemical 
Laboratory  have  to  be  cheapened  down  before  they  become  a 
commercial  possibilit}'',  so  it  is  impossible  to  compare  the  expendi- 


EKPEUIMENT    STATION'S  :    MACKENN'A    AND    MCKERRAL.  233 

ture  on  an  experimental  station  with  that  of  ordinary  commercial 
tarniing. 

The  ordinary  farmer  works  with  nothing  but  a  profit  in 
view  ;  the  experimenter  has  the  additional  burden  of  investigating 
how  that  profit  can  best  be  increased.  For  this  purpose  exact- 
ing work  is  necessary,  requiring  an  amount  of  supervision  that  is 
never  thought  of  by  the  commercial  worker. 

If  then  the  staff  of  an  experimental  farm  are  burdened  with 
this  exacting  work,  how  is  it  possible  for  them  to  tackle,  in  addi- 
tion, the  extra  work  of  commercial  farm-work,  in  which,  if  they 
have  not  commercial  success,  they  are  apt  to  incur  the  friendly 
sarcasm  of  the  ordinary  cultivator  ?  Their  work  should  end  witli 
investigation,  the  results  of  which,  if  favourable,  should  be 
imparted  to  cultivators  on  a  separate  demonstration  f aim  and  not 
in  the  midst  of  experimental  work  which  they  cannot  understand, 
and  from  which  they  probably  carry  oflt"  erroneous  impressions. 
It  seems  to  us  that  this  confusion  of  ideas  between  an  experi- 
mental station  and  a  model  farm — corresponding  to  the  difference 
between  a  laboratory  and  a  museum — has  been  at  the  root  of  the 
whole  of  this  discussion. 

If  it  is  necessary  in  tlie  interests  of  an  experimental  station, 
or  if,  in  i)ursuance  of  a  policy,  it  has  been  deemed  advisable  to 
take  up  more  land  than  is  required  for  experimental  purposes, 
then  two  moans  of  dis[)osal  of  the  land,  until  it  becomes  neces- 
sary for  o.\[)ci-imcntal  purposes,  seem  to  us  the  on)}'  possible 
ones. 

(I)  it  may  be  farmed  by  a  staff  which,  while  working  under 
thf  Agrieukiiral  Depai-tniciit,  will  be  chiclly  concerned  witli  the 
•  •omme-i-ciaj  aspect  of  tin-  work.  At  slack  times,  the  staff  might 
be  »'nq>loy<'(l  in  extra  work,  such  as  [)re[)ai'ing  water  channels, 
iiiakin-  <.r  r.'paiiiiiL;-  ftMices,  layingout  operations,  etc.  The 
books  of  this  pai't  of  the  fai-in  should  l)e  kept  quite  separate  and 
distinct,  from  tliosc  of  the  exprriiiKiital  area,  and  a  separate 
l)alance  sheet  sjiould  bo  made. 

(-)  Tlio  land  might  be  sublet  to  cultivators  on  yearly  lease 
and  taken  up  by  the  Department  as  required. 


234  AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL    OF    INDIA. 

Agricultural  Departments  have  had  to  endure  much  criti- 
cism on  account  of  the  expenditure  on  their  farms.  33ut  this  is 
due  chiefly  to  the  jumbling  together  of  experimental,  demonsti'a- 
tion,  and  ordinary  non-experimental  cultivation. 

In  conclusion,  a  word  about  buildings.  We  cannot  compare 
the  buildings  required  for  a  large  experimental  station  with  those 
required  for  the  small  holdings  of  ryots.  The  real  comparison 
would  be  with  a  privately  owned  estate  of  similar  size.  Again, 
costly  manure  pits,  silos,  etc.,  are  to  devise  methods,  not  to  work 
commerciall}^  Another  factor  which  tends  to  excite  remark  as 
to  cost  and  magnificence  is  the  fact  that  Government  buildings 
are  erected  by  the  State  which  can  command  capital  at  once  ; 
whereas  a  private  land-owner  would  advance  slowly  and  onl}^ 
as  his  bank  balance  grows.  It  is  the  sudden  springing  up  of  a 
complete  and  elaborate  equipment  that  excites  remark.  Let  us 
hope  that  in  most  cases,  the  equipment  of  our  large  experiment 
stations  will  look  insignificant  by  the  time  tliat  privately  owned 
estates  of  similar  size  have  equipped  theirs,  and  that  most  of 
the  ideas  adopted  by  us  may  find  a  place  in  their  scheme. 

For  small  farms,  however  strictly  limited  to  demonstra- 
tion, there  is  no  doubt  that  buildings  of  the  simplest  kind 
and  on  the  lines  of  those  ordinarily  used  by  cultivators  are  the 
most  effective. 


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AGRICULTURE  AT  THE  LAHORE  EXHIBITION. 

I5y  B.  C.  BURT,  B.sc,  f.c.s., 
Deputij  Director  of  Ayricidlure,  U.  P. 

The  Exhibition  whicli  was  organised  l)y  the  Indian  National 
Congress  with  the  support  and  co-operation  of  the  Governments 
of  the  Punjab,  North-West  Frontier  Provinces  and  Kashmir, 
opened  on  December  lltli,  l'J09,  and  closed  on  the  6th  of 
February  1910.  Fairly  full  accounts  have  appeared  in  the  daily 
papers,  but  a  few  notes  on  the  Agricultural  Section  may  be  of 
interest  to  readers  of  the  Ac/ricidtural  Journal  of  India. 

Unlike  the  agricultural  court  at  the  recent  Nagpur  Exhib- 
ition, this  section  at  Lahore  was  not  under  departmental  con- 
trol, but  was  managed  by  a  sub-committee  :  the  Agricultural 
Department,  however,  promised  to  secure  and  arrange  exhibits. 
Little  was  done  actually  except  by  the  department,  and  any 
success  achieved  was  due  solely  to  its  efforts. 

The  agricultural  exhibits  were  scattered,  perhaps  unavoid- 
ably, over  the  exhibition,  but  it  will  be  convenient  here  to  discuss 
them  under  certain  main  heads. 

Crop  exhibits  were  dis{)layed  in  a  large  hall  near  the  centre 
of  the  exhibition,  and  this  section  deserves  praise  for  its  arrange- 
ment and  labelling.  Exhibits  were  systematically  shown  in 
sections  and  groU[)s,  and  clear  labclhng  in  English,  Urdu,  and 
Guiniukhi  was  welcome.  Under  wheats  the  most  important 
exliibit  was  [)erhaps  a  set  of  1*5  ty[)es  of  Punjab  wheats,  includ- 
ing,^ niatui-e  [)lants  mounted  at  full  length,  samples  of  grain,  flour 
and  bran  and  a  chart  indicatinir  their  relative  value  from  a 
European  miller's  point  of  view  as  well  as  the  nitrogen  content 
of  the  grain — a  readily  ascertained  figure  which  has  proved  such 
a     useful    guide     in    dcterminini'-     the     ])rubable     luillinL:'     value 


236  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  III. 

of  a  wheat.  A  number  of  other  samples  of  Punjab  and 
other  wheats  completed  the  section,  and  the  w^hole  show- 
ed very  clearly  to  the  wheat  grower  the  possibihties  of 
improvement  in  wheat  cultivation  and  the  work  that  is  being 
done  in  this  direction  l^y  the  Provincial  Department.  Other 
cereals  such  as  rice,  maize,  barley,  oats  and  millets  were  exhibited 
in  the  same  way  as  wheat,  complete  plants  being  shown  where 
possible, — a  point  of  considerable  importance  in  this  country 
where  all  fodder  is  so  valuable. 

Oil-seeds  were  represented  by  samples  of  seeds,  oils  and  oil- 
cakes, supplemented  in  some  cases  b}^  herbarium  specimens. 

Under  fibre  the  cotton  exhibits  attracted  most  attention.  A 
set  of  herbarium  specimens  obtained  during  the  partially  com- 
pleted botanical  survey  of  the  cottons  of  the  province  was  shown, 
accompanied  by  specimens  of  seed  cotton,  seed  and  lint  from  the 
Punjab  and  various  other  provinces.  Two  show  cases  sent  b}^ 
the  British  Cotton  Growing  Association,  illustrating  the  different 
stages  in  cotton  manufacture,  attracted  considerable  interest. 
For  these  cases  the  exhibition  was  indebted  to  Messrs.  Dewhurst 
k  Co.,  and  Messrs.  Horrocks,  jMiller  &  Co.  Other  fibres  were 
represented  by  a  collection  of  fibres  lent  by  the  Fibre  Expert, 
Eastern  Bengal  and  Assam,  and  by  samples  of  the  different 
fibres  produced  in  the  Punjab.  In  other  sections  of  the  Exhibi- 
tion a  number  of  samples  of  fibre  from  other  parts  of  India 
including  several  Native  States  were  also  noticed,  a  permanent 
exhibit    from  My.sore  deserving  special  mention. 

Amongst  minor  crops  a  fairl}^  representative  collection  of 
the  leguminous  crop  of  the  Punjab  and  adjoining  provinces  was 
on  view,  and  well-arranged  exhibits  of  tea  accompanied  by  an 
excellent  set  of  photographs  illustrating  tea-growing  and  manu- 
facture ff)rmed  an  interesting  part  of   the  exhibition, 

In  the  entomolou'ical  section  the  most  strikinsf  exhibit  was 
a  woikiiig  (Iciiioiistratioii  of  mulberry  silk  reeling  ;  mention 
should  also  be  made  of  a  number  of  show  cases  illustrating  the 
life-history  of  some  of  the  more  important  economic  insects  of 
the  Punjab.     The    exhibit    of  bees   in    a    glass    apiary   attracted 


TiiK  laiiui;k   kxhii;itio>'  :  burt.  237 

o-reat  attention.  Visitors  had  an  excellent  opportunity  of 
laniiliarisino-  themselves  with  modern  methods.  The  ALnicul- 
turnl  Department  is  satisfied  that  bee-keeping-  is  a  possible  villao-e 
industry  in  parts  of  the  Punjab. 

A  number  of  cases  illustrating  plant  diseases  were  lent  b}- 
the  Pusa  Research  Institute  as  well  as  the  drawings  and  plates 
which  accompanied  the  actual  specimens  in  the  show  cases. 
Although  it  is  still  somewhat  doubtful  as  to  what  impression 
the  average  cultivator  would  gain  from  such  exhibits,  there  is  no 
doubt  that  they  mark  a  distinct  advance  in  the  attempt  to  induce 
him  to  pay  attention  to  the  real  nature  of  these  pests. 

In  the  poultry  house  the  [)riiicipal  exhibitors  were  the 
Lyallpur  Agricultural  Station  (who  exhibited  stock  obtained  from 
the  Pusa  Research  Institute)  and  the  Kuar  Sahib  of  Patiala. 
The  exhibits  included  trios  of  Brahmas,  White  Orpingtons, 
Partridge  and  Silver  Wyandottes,  black  Minorcas  and  pairs  of 
Embden  geese,  Aylesbury  ducks  and  Mammoth  Bronze  turkeys  ; 
these  birds,  of  which  the  black  ]\Iinorcas  seem  to  be  o-eneral 
favourites,  attracted  considerable  attention  throughout  the  exhibi- 
tion, more  especially  from  the  English,  Mahomedan  and  Parsee 
visitors.  Some  of  the  birds  exhibited  were  given  over  b}-  the 
Inspector-General  of  Agriculture  to  a  local  zemindar  at  the 
end  of  the  exhibition  with  a  view  to  start  a  poultry  farm.  The 
incubator  house  invariably  attracted  a  crowd.  Here  incubators 
were  shown  at  work  throughout  the  exhibition,  and  the  glass 
faced  incubator,  which  enabled  visitors  to  see  the  chicks  actuallv 
emerging  from  the  shell,  was  a  constant  soui-ce  of  interest,  as 
was  also  the  foster  motlier. 

Before  passing  on  to  agiiciihuial  madiiiKTy  and  the  dem- 
onstration ground,  mention  should  be  made  of  the  model  orain 
elevator  constructed  by  Captain  Osijoral,  k.e.  The  ever- 
growing difficulty  ill  dealing  with  the  immense  Punjab  wheat 
export  has  suggested  to  many  ])eople  the  desirability  of  intro- 
ducing grain  elevators  of  the  type  used  in  America.  The 
model  referred  to,  parts  oi  which  could  ijc  shown  at  work,  enabled 
visitors  to  gain  a  veiy  fair  idea  of  this  method  of  handlino-    urain. 


238  AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL   OF    INDIA.  [V,  III. 

This  exhibit  was  completed  by  a  series  of  photographs  ilkistrating 
the  real  American  grain  elevator. 

The  exhibits  of  agricultural  machinery  were  perhaps  per- 
force somewhat  scattered.  European  agricultural  engineers  are 
usualty  represented  in  India  by  firms,  whose  chief  interest  is  general 
engineering,  and  these  exhibitors  naturally  prefer  to  show  a  mixed 
exhibit  illustrating  all  their  activities.  There  was,  however,  a  fair 
number  of  exhibits  of  useful  agricultural  machinery  and  imple- 
ments. In  the  eno^ineerino^  section,  as^ricultural  machinery  was 
exhibited  by  Messrs.  Burn  &  Co.,  Jessop  &  Co.,  and  Octavius  Steel 
&  Co.,  of  Calcutta,  and  by  Messrs.  Herman  &  Co.,  Karachi,  their 
exhibits  including  water-lifts,  bullock  gears,  chaft'-cutters,  rice 
hullers,  ploughs,  and  a  variety  of   other  agricultural  machinery. 

In  the  agricultural  section  proper  the  principal  exhibitors 
were  Messrs.  Volkart  Bros.,  who  exhibited  (on  behalf  of  Messrs. 
Wallace  &  Sons,  of  Glasgow),  a  variety  of  agricultural  machiner^^ 
recommended  by  the  Punjab  Department,  more  especially  their 
"Rajah"  reapers,  winnowers,  ploughs  and  chaff-cutters.  The 
Empire  Engineering  Company,  Cawnpore,  exhibited  chain-pumps, 
well-boring  apparatus,  and  an  oil-press.  Messrs.  Marshall,  Sons 
&  Co.  (Gainsborough  and  Calcutta),  exhibited  a  steam  thrashing 
set,  a  new  model  reaper  (especially  designed  for  the  Punjab),  and 
a  portable  engine.  Unfortunately  most  of  these  exhibits  were  not 
shown  at  work,  and  for  that  reason  lost  much  of  their  interest. 
M.  Sardar  Ahmed  showed  an  interesting  collection  of  "^Chambal  " 
water-lifts,  fodder-cutters,  winnowing  machines  and  hand-weed- 
ing tools,  some  of  which  were  extremely  ingenious,  though 
hardl}^  practical. 

The  chief  feature  of  the  departmental  exhibit  was  the  collec- 
tion of  indigenous  implements  shown  in  the  large  tent,  which  includ- 
ed exhibits  from  all  over  India,  including  about  70  types  of  Indian 
ploughs.     A  complete  collection  of  hand  tools  was  also  shown. 

Reference  has  already  been  made  to  the  chain-pumps  shown 
by  Messrs.  Gavin  Jones  and  by  the  United  Provinces  Department 
of  Agriculture;  in  addition  the  "  Baldeo  balti "  and  Butler  charsa- 
lift  deserve   mention.     The   former    is    an   iniproved   form  of  an 


THK    LAHORE    EXHIRITIO^'  :    BURT.  239 

indio-enoiis  water-lift,  the  latter  a  new  arrangement  for  lifting* 
cliarsa.';  from  a  well  by  means  of  a  round-about  gear  by  which  the 
time  spent  in  stopping  and  turning  round  by  the  ordinary  method  is 
avoided.  The  gear  works  a  pair  of  self-discharging  ^jK/rs  (leather 
buckets).  It  is  of  neat  and  ingenious  workmanship  ;nnl  lias 
probably  a  future  before  it. 

A  number  of  demonstrations  were  arranged  to  show  the 
use  of  different  t3^pes  of  ploughs,  cultivators,  flax  scutchers  and 
chaflT-cutters.  The  demonstrations  were  invariably  well  attended, 
because  the  Punjab  cultivators  in  many  parts  of  the  Province  now 
feel  the  eftect  of  dear  labour,  especially  in  the  Canal  Colonies,  so  that 
labour-saving  machines  possess  a  very  practical  interest  for  them. 

The  enquiry  office  thoroughly  justified  its  existence  and 
rendered  the  Agricultural  Department  material  assistance  in 
oettino-  into  touch  with  its  clients. 

In  the  main  exhibition  buildings  the  horticultural  section 
elicited  well-merited  praise  on  all  sides  for  its  artistic  arrange- 
ment. Two  features  specially  may  be  mentioned  :  the  exhibits 
of  horticultural  tools  by  a  number  of  English  firms,  many  of 
which  are  (juite  as  well  adapted  to  field  cultivation  in  India  as 
to  market  gardening,  and  the  exhibits  of  seeds  and  bulbs  by 
English  seed  growers,  Preserved  fruit  and  preserving  jars  were 
also  shown  advantageously. 

The  main  needs  of  the  Indian  cultivator  are  a  sufficient 
supply  of  cattle,  of  rainfall,  and  of  irrigation.  The  activities  of  the 
Civil  Veterinary  Department  in  attempting  to  maintain  a  supply 
of  cattle  by  reducing  the  terrible  wastage  from  disease  was  demon- 
strated in  their  section.  Among  the  more  prominent  exhibits 
may  be  mentioned  a  model  of  a  district  veterinary  hospital,  a 
collection  of  veterinary  instruments  by  Messrs.  Plomer  &  Co., 
Lahore,  and  an  interesting  collection  of  cattle  food  and  fodder 
including  about  sixty  varieties  of  fodder  grasses.  Other  exhibits 
included  anatomical  models  used  in  teaching  and  charts  illustra- 
ting the  devei(jpment  of  the  department. 

The  Irrigation  Department,  in  a  special  building  of  their 
own,    displayed  a  series    of   models,    photographs  and    drawings, 


240  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  ■  [V,  III, 

illustrating  different  canal  works  which  were  unique  and  probably 
formed  the  most  striking  exhibit  in  the  whole  exhibition. 
Before  enterintj  the  buildinof  one  saw  outside  a  series  of  models 
indicatino;  the  enormous  increase  in  canal  irrio-ation  in  the 
Punjab  since  1865.  The  increase  in  capital  invested  by  decade 
was  shown  by  a  series  of  golden  pillars,  the  produce  of  irrigated 
land  was  graphically  exhibited  by  a  series  of  grain-bins  ("  hhor- 
ras  ")  showing  the  expansion  during  eacli  period,  and  the  money 
value  of  the  crop  was  indicated  in  an  equal  tangible  form  by 
columns  of  gold,  another  set  of  pillars  indicating  the  revenue 
paid  to  Government.  Having  gained  a  preliminary  idea  of  the 
enormous  magnitude  and  value  of  irrigation  works,  the  visitor 
passed  into  the  building  containing  the  exhibits  of  canal  works  ; 
here  were  shown  perfect  models  of  a  canal  system  from  head- 
works  to  the  small  distributaries  and  cropped  fields,  together 
with  models  of  some  of  the  more  important  civil  engineering 
works  undertaken  to  cany  the  canal  through  difficult  places, 
over  hill  torrents  and  under  rivers.  Of  more  direct  interest  to 
the  agriculturists  were  the  models  showing  the  neat  square 
fields  and  accurately  aligned  "  guls  "  adopted  in  the  newer  canal 
colonies  as  compared  to  the  irregular  fields  and  winding  distri- 
butaries of  the  older  canal  areas.  The  models  were  further 
supplemented  by  excellent  photographs  and  by  careful  descrip- 
tions in  Ijoth  the  vernacular  and  Eno'lish.  The  whole  exhibit 
showed  the  intimate  connection  which  ought  to  exist  between 
irrififation  and  aofriculture  in  India. 

In  conclusion,  the  agricultural  and  other  departments 
concerned  are  to  be  congratulated  on  having  succeeded  in  arrang- 
ing at  such  shovt  notice  such  exceedingly  interesting  exhibits. 
They  were  handicapped  in  many  ways  so  that  criticism  would 
be  out  of  place  ;  one  felt  regretfully,  however,  that  given  reason- 
able time  for  preparation  the  Punjab  might  have  had  a  first 
class  agricultural  exhibition.  It  is,  however,  certain  that  useful 
work  has  been  done  in  bringing  the  Punjab  agriculturist  in  closer 
touch  with  that  department  which  is  charged  with  the  develop- 
ment of  HLiiiculturo. 


JUTE  IN  ROTATION  WITH    PADDY  IN  THE  SAME 
YEAR  AND  ITS  EFFECT  ON  FOOI^CROPS.* 

By  B.   C.   BASU,  m.r.a.c,  m  r.a.s., 
Assistant  Director  of  Agriculture,  Eastern  Bengal  <tnd  Assam. 

A  Note  was  published  by  this  Department  in  1907-08  on 
iute  in  rotation  with  paddy  in  the  same  year  and  its  effect  on 
food-crops.  It  embodied  the  results  of  a  preliminary  enquiry 
as  to  the  area  under  jute  which  bears  winter  lice  or  other  crops 
in  the  same  year.  The  enquir}-  arose  out  of  a  publication  of  the 
Bengal  Agricultural  Department,  in  which  it  was  asserted  with 
some  degree  of  emphasis  that  if  the  jute  crop  were  followed  by 
winter  rice  in  the  same  yeai",  it  would  cease  to  interfere  with 
the  food-supply  of  the  country,  and  the  jute-winter  rice  rotation 
which  had  proved  successful  on  the  Burdw^an  and  Cuttack  farms 
was  put  forward  more  or  less  in  the  light  of  a  discovery. 

The  preliminary  note  above  mentioned  was  circulated  among 
the  District  Officers  and  the  Honorary  Correspondents  of  the 
Department  with  a  view  to  elicit  further  and  more  reliable  infor- 
mation. The  reports  since  received  leave  unaffected  the  main 
conclusion  previously  arrived  at,  namely,  that  the  area  under 
jute  does  represent  the  loss  of  so  much  land  to  rice,  partly 
fi7is  and  partly  winter  rice.  It  is  also  clear  from  these  reports 
that  in  all  the  important  jute-growing  districts,  the  taking  of 
a  crop  of  winter  rice  in  immediate  succession  to  jute  was  a  well 
recognized  practice,  though  various  circumstances,  some  of  which 
are  unavoidable  and  others  more  or  less  preventible,  stand  in  the 
way  of  this  rotation  being  practised  to  its  fullest  possible  extent. 

The  position  in  which  jute  stands  in  relation  to  the  rice 
crop  will  be  made  clear  by  considering  in  some  detail   the  system 


Tills  was  published  in  the  Imlidii  Tr(t<l)'  Journal,  Vol.  XV,  Nu.  194,  Dec.  lOtlj,  1909,  p.  301. 


242  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OP    INDIA.  [V,   III. 

of  cropping  that  obtains  in  each  of  the  four  classes  of  land 
cropped  with  jute.  Class  I  is  high  land  which  does  not  ordin- 
arily retain  water  during  the  rains.  Before  jute  assumed  its 
present  commercial  importance,  it  used  to  be  grown  almost 
exclusively  on  this  class  of  land.  It  admits  of  bearing  two 
crops  in  the  year,  one  in  the  rains  which  may  be  cms  rice  or  jute, 
and  another  in  the  cold  weather  which  may  be  mustard,  pulses 
or  a  crop  of  vegetables.  Any  extension  of  jute  on  this  land 
would  mean  the  loss  of  so  much  area  to  aus  rice. 

Class  II  is  lowland  which  retains  a  small  depth  of  water 
during  the  rains,  and  is,  therefore,  suitable  for  gTowing  trans- 
planted winter  rice.  Under  favourable  conditions  of  soil  and 
weather,  it  is  capable  of  growing  an  antecedent  crop  of  either  aus 
rice  or  jute.  In  this  case,  however,  the  yield  of  the  winter  rice 
crop  is  more  or  less  diminished,  and  not  infrequently,  when  jute  is 
the  first  crop,  various  circumstances  (of  which  mention  will  be 
made  hereafter)  supervene  to  cause  the  winter  rice  crop  to  be 
omitted  altogether.  In  the  latter  event  the  land  may  be  utilised 
for  a  cold  weather  crop,  such  as  nmstard,  pulses  or  vegetables. 
It  will,  therefore,  be  seen  that  on  this  class  of  land,  too,  jute  is 
apt  to  compete  with  avs  rice,  as  the  first  crop  of  the  rotation,  and 
to  cause  a  serious  diminution  of  the  produce  of  the  winter  rice 
crop,  partly  l)y  diminishing  its  yield  as  a  consequence  of  the  ex- 
haustion of  the  soil,  and  partly  because  under  certain  conditions 
it  prevents  the  winter  rice  crop  being  planted  at  all.  In  Sylhet 
and  in  the  Assam  Valle}^  the  cultivators  are  afraid  of  risking  the 
winter  rice  crop  in  favour  of  jute,  and  it  is  rarely  seen  on  land 
ordinarily  devoted  to  rice. 

The  third  class  consists  of  heel  lands  which  remain  under 
water  for  about  six  months  of  the  year.  It  is  the  least  import- 
ant of  the  four  classes  of  land  on  which  jute  is  grown.  The 
usual  crop  on  this  description  of  land  is  the  long-stemmed 
winter  rice  which  is  sown  broadcast  in  March  to  May  and  is 
reaped  in  December.  The  time  that  elapses  between  the  removal 
of  the  rice  crop  and  the  commencement  of  the  preparator}^  opera- 
tions   for    the   next  year's   crop   is  too   short    to    admit    of  any 


JUTE    IN    ROTATION    WITH    PADDY  :    IJASU.  243 

other  crop  being  taken  on  this  class  of  land  in  the  same  year. 
But  on  the  margin  of  the  beds,  which  does  not  go  too  early 
under  water,  it  is  a  common  practice  to  sow  aus  rice  in  mixture 
with  the  long-stemmed  paddy,  the  aus  crop  being  taken  off  early 
in  the  rains,  and  the  winter  crop  remaining  on  the  ground  till 
December.  It  would  appear  that  in  many  districts,  jute  has  en- 
croached upon  this  area  and  usurped  the  place  formerly  occupied 
by  aus  rice,  and  in  some  places  it  has  ousted  both  the  rice  crops 
and  is  grown  as  the  only  crop  during  the  year.  The  practice 
of  growing  jute  mixed  with  winter  rice  obtains  in  the  heel 
areas  in  Faridpur,  Dacca  and  Pabna,  but  unlike  the  usual 
mixture  of  anx  and  amaii  rice,  it  has  the  disadvantage  of 
crippling  the  growth  of  both  the  component  crops.  It  appears, 
therefore,  that  when  jute  is  grown  on  heel  land,  not  only  does  it 
take  away  so  much  area  that  is  fit  for  the  growing  of  aus  rice, 
but  it  also  interferes  witli  the  growth  of  the  winter  rice  crop 
with  which  it  is  sown    mixed    or   ousts   it    altoo-ether. 

o 

The  fourth  class  is  char  land  w^hich  is  submerged  during  the 
rains  and  receives  an  annual  deposit  of  silt  which  maintains  its 
fertility  more  or  less  unimpaired.  Unless  where  it  is  too  low,  it 
is  cap;djle  of  bearing  two  crops  in  the  year,  namely,  one  of  hhadoi 
grain  (principally  aus  rice)  or  jute  in  the  rains  and  one  of 
mustard,  pulses  or  vegetables  in  the  cold  weather.  Any  portion 
of  tJiis  class  of  land  that  may  be  sown  with  jute  represents  the 
sacrifice  of  so  much  potential  aus  land  to  jute. 

The  foregoing  considerations  make  it  clear  that  jute  is  a  ver}' 
serious  competitor  with  ans  rice  on  every  class  of  land  on  which 
it  is  grown.  Ft  can  be  safely  asserted  that  if  jute  were  not  a 
moi'e  profitaljle  crop  than  ansride,  the  high  prices  of  food-grains 
wliich  hav<'  pievailed  for  some  years  past  would  have  caused  the 
greater  [)ortioM  of  the  2|  million  acres  which  now  grow  jute  to 
revert  to  (nt.s  rice.  Indeed,  this  process  has  already  commenced 
and  a  considerable  area  which  used  to  grow  jute  has  gone  back  to 
ai(s  rice.  Then,  as  regards  the  winter  rice  crop  the  encroachment 
of  jute  on  lowland  (Classes  II  and  III)  has  been  seen  to  cause  a 
reduction   of   the   prcjduce  of  that  crop  partly  as  a  consequence  of 


244  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   III. 

the  yield  being  diminished  when  it  is  grown  with  or  preceded  by 
jute  and  partly  because  of  various  circumstances  attendant  on  jute 
cultivation,  which  often  prevent  winter  rice  being  taken  from  the 
same  land  after  it  has  borne  a  crop  of  jute. 

It  is  almost  needless  to  observe  that  the  cultivation  of 
transplanted  winter  rice  as  a  second  crop  after  jute  is  possible  only 
in  Class  II  of  jute  land,  and  none  of  the  other  three  classes  admits 
of  this  rotation  at  all. 

Taking  the  province  as    a    whole,    about   two-thirds    of    the 
total  area  under  jute  would  appear  to    bear    a   second    crop,    and 
the   remaining    third    grows  jute    as    the  only    crop  of  the  j^ear. 
Among  the  various    causes    which    tend    to    prevent    the   double 
cropping  of  jute  land,  the  most  important  would  seem    to    be    the 
occurrence  of   unfavourable    weather  conditions    interferino;    with 
the  sowing  or    transplanting    of    the   second    crop,    the    demand 
which  the  retting  and  washing  of  the  jute  crop  makes    upon    the 
labour  of  the  cultivator,  leaving  him  little  time  to  attend  to    any- 
thino-  else,  and  the  impoverishment    of    the   soil   caused    by  jute 
which  makes  it  necessary  to  leave  the  land    fallow   for   a   season. 
Indolence    and  want    of  ambition   not    infrequently    stand  in  the 
way  of  the  double  cropping  of  land.      In  the  Assam  Valley,  waste 
land  being  abundant,  the  need  of  double  cropping    is    not    every- 
where felt.     The  custom  of  letting  cattle   loose,   as    soon   as   the 
winter  rice  crop  is  otf   the  ground,    is  also    responsible    in   some 
places  for  the  absence  of  cold  weather  crops. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  but  for  jute,  a  considerable  area  of 
cultivated  land  would  be  now  lying  uncultivated,  and  the  practice 
of  double  cropping  would  be  less  common.  It  is  also  probable 
that  jute  has  led  to  the  manure  supply  of  the  country  being 
more  fully  utilised  than  was  formerly  the  case.  The  country 
has  no  doubt  gained  largely  from  these  results  as  well  as  from 
the  large  profits  which  jute  has  brought  into  the  pockets  of  the 
cultivators  ;  but  at  the  same  time  there  can  be  little  doubt  that  as 
far  as  the  supply  of  home-grown  rice  is  concerned,  the  intro- 
duction of  julc  IiMs  h;i(l  .-in  effect  whi(Oi  is  otherwise  than  bene- 
ticial. 


BLEACHING     OF     GINGER. 

By  G.  B.  PATWARDHAN,   use, 
Aiisisla^ii  Economic   Botcuiii^t,    I>omJ>ay. 

DuRiNci  the  course  of  my  trip  to  Southern  India  in  1908,  I 
had  occasion  to  halt  at  two  important  centres  of  the  ginger  trade 
in  Travancore  territory.  At  these  places  there  were  a  few  large 
and  many  small  ginger  curing  houses  for  converting  green  ginger 
into  the  dry  form  localty  (Poona)  known  as  "sunth." 

There  are  several  factories  for  bleaching  ginger  on  the 
western  coast  of  Malabar.  The  process  in  short  consists  in 
soaking,  then  washing  the  material  (green  ginger)  in  lime  water, 
and  then  fumigating  it  with  sulphur  vapour. 

Advantages  of  Citriru/. — The  object  is  to  increase  the  keep- 
ing quality  and  also  to  dry  it  without  loss  of  shape.  Green 
ginger  on  exposure  for  a  few  days  eithei'  shrivels  b}^  drying  and 
becomes  stringy  and  mostly  useless  for  our  domestic  medicinal 
use,  or  if  buried  in  the  ground  sprouts  up  after  a  time  and 
requires  to  be  then  properly  cultivated.  At  the  same  time  curing 
facilitates  transport  and  sale.  The  time  which  ginger  will  keep, 
is  thus  increased  to  nearly  three  years. 

The  apparatus  and  articles  required  are  : — 


Green  finger. 
Wasliinrf  tanks. 
Lime  cisterns. 


Bleaching  rooms  with  fittings. 
Shallow  trays  made  of  wicker  work. 
Sulphur  powder. 
Cocoanut  oil. 


lUcachtny  Room. — This  is  12'  x  12'  x  12',  with  three  horizontal 
tiers  of  shelves  arrans^ed  at  a  heioht  of  3  feet  from  each  other  ; 
the.se  are  usually  made  of  split  bamboos.  The  shelves  support 
small  sliallow  baskets  of  !)  inch  diameter  placed  close  to  or  upon 
each  other.     The  room  is  provided  with    one  door  and  at  one  end 

17 


246  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDL\.  [Y,  IIL 

with  a  hearth.  The  latter  is  a  simple  niche  in  the  wall  of  the 
room(^*TT^f)  opening  from  outside  and  situated  close  to  the 
floor.  The  niche  is  two  feet  higli  and  about  as  much  wide, 
built  in  the  thickness  of  the  wall,  with  a  portion  projecting 
inside  the  room.  The  inner  projection  holds  on  it  an  iron  basket 
which  is  consequent]}^  seen  onl}^  in  the  room.  The  basket  can  be 
heated  from  below  by  igniting  a  fire  in  the  niche  outside.  The 
sulphur  which  is  placed  in  the  basket,  gets  heated  and  fumes 
issue  which  fill  the  whole  air  space  in  the  roouL  The  basket 
gets  the  direct  heat,  and  no  smoke  or  heat  escapes  into  the 
room   from   the   hearth.     The    ceilino-  of    the    room   is   made   oi 

o 

split  bamboos  and  plastered  with  mud  and  tiled,  making  it 
more  or  less  air-proof  The  bleaching  rooms  in  some  establish- 
ments are  often  double  the  length  given,  with  two  hearths  and 
one  door. 

Washing  Tanks. — These  are  G'  x  G'  x  G'  built  of  masonrj^  and 
lined  with  cement  and  hold  the  necessary  quantity  of  water. 

Lime  Cisterns. — These  are  of  the  same  dimensions  as  the 
washing  tanks.  One  or  tw^o  spare  cisterns  are  often  provided 
at  each  place  of  manufacture. 

The  Operation. — Vendors  of  green  ginger  come  from  differ- 
ent mofussil  villages  which  are  often  situated  in  thick  jungles. 
These  people  are  actual  individual  cultivators  of  ginger  and 
bring  their  produce  for  sale  to  the  places  of  manufacture.  The 
manufacturer  purchases  large  quantities  of  it,  and  after  bleaching 
it  exports  it  to  Bombay  and  Europe. 

The  green  ginger  on  receipt  is  first  })ut  into  the  washing- 
tank  in  water.  Two  or  three  men  tread  the  material  under  foot. 
The  adhering  mud  is  washed  off  and  becomes  mixed  with  the 
water.  Durino-  the  treadino-  the  outer  skin  of  the  crinaer  is 
rubbed  off.      The   water    is  removed   and    renewed    accordino-    to 

o 

necessity. 

Next  the  cleaned  and  decorticated  oingrer  is  transferred  to 
the  lime  cistern.  This  contains  lime  water  of  the  consistency 
usually  considered  sufficient  for  white- washing  walls.  Here 
the  ginger  remains  for  som  e  time,  during  which  it  is  stirred  once 


HLKACm.Nfi     OK    (JlMiKK  :     I'AIUA  KDIi  A.\.  247 

or  twice  to  effect  equal  soaking  and  periDeation  of  lime  into  it. 
Afterwards  the  roots  (rhizomes)  are  transferred  to  small  shallow- 
trays.  These  latter  are  made  of  wicker  work  and  are  9  to  lU 
inches  (liamet(>r.  The  trays  are  taken  to  tlio  hieaclunof  room 
and  [)lat'ud  on  the  .shelves  mentioned  ahove.  One  room  of  the 
standard  dimensions  holds  300  of  these  trap's,  a  hundred  going 
to  each  shelf  and  each  basket  taking  5  lbs.  of  green  ginger. 
Seven  pounds  of  powdered  sulphur  is  put  on  the  pan,  and  fire 
started  from  outside.  The  door  is  now  closed  and  remains  so 
for  four  hours.  The  ginger  absorbs  all  the  fumes  produced  by 
tlie  va[)orization  ot"  the  sulphur  in  the  pan.  .Vl'terwards  the  d(H)r 
is  left  open  for  a  short  timC;  and  then  the  tra3's  are  taken  out, 
and  the  ginger  is  spread  out  in  the  sun  for  drying.  The  fumigat- 
ing operation  is  done  again  the  next  day  and  repeated  a  third 
time  the  day  after,  the  material  being  dipped  in  lime  water 
before  every  fumigation.  Eight  and  nine  pounds  of  sulphur  are 
used  for  a  second  and  third  bleaching,  and  the  exposure  to  the 
fumes  inside  the  room  is  12  and  G  hours  respectively.  The 
ginger  is  dried  in  the  sun  before  each  successive  fumigation. 
Sometimes  liming  is  neglected  before  the  first  fumigation,  only 
cleanino-  and  washino-  beinof  done.  But  this  is  said  to  lower  the 
quality  of  the  article  in  the  estimation  of  the  purchasers. 

Precaiitioits. — The  fumes  of  sulphur  are  poi.sonous  and 
choke  the  breath  of  persons  who  inadvertently  go  into  the  room 
immediately  after  opening  it.  The  doors  are  kept  open  tor  a 
few  hours  after  the  re([uired  inteival  of  fumigation  is  over,  in 
order  to  let  out  the  renmant  of  tlie  sulphur  vapours  into  the 
atmosphere  outside.  Coolies  get  in  afterwards  to  take  out  the 
baskets.  These  men  smear  their  bodies  with  cocoanut  oil  to 
prevent  iiijiiiy  to  tlieir  skins  (the  only  garment  on  the  body  of 
these  men  is  a  hiiujoti,  a  strip  of  cloth  tied  at  the  waist),  both 
by  sul[)hur  vapcnir  and  lime  water  spatterings. 

The  green  ginger  is  [)urchased  locally  at  the  rate  of  Ks.  100 
per /.7/'0(<// of  GOO  lbs.  So  1,500  lbs.  cost  Rs.  250  and  the 
cost  of  bleaching  it  is  Ks.  1  1-4-0,  at  the  rate  of  Ks.  4-S-O  per 
khandi  (total  Rs.  260-4-0). 


248  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   lU, 

The  average  yield  of  ginger  per  acre  on  this  side  is  8,000 
to  10,000  lbs.,  and  the  cost  of  converting  this  into  "smith" 
would  be  about  Rs,  (50  to  Rs.  70  at  the  above  rate.  Sulphur 
at  AUeppey  costs  Rs.  40  to  Rs.  45  per  maund,  and  it  will  perhaps 
cost  less  here  (Poona),  as  this  place  is  closer  to  Bomba}?'  whence 
the  supply  is  obtained. 


CARAVONICA  COTTON. 

By  G.  A.  GAMMTE,  f.l.s., 

Imperial   Cotton   Specialist. 

In  the  Board  of  Trade  Jov.rnaJ,  Vol,  (JG,  No.  668  of  the 
16th  September  last,  there  is  a  short  note  on  the  experiniental 
cultivation  of  Caravonica  cotton  in  the  Sudan.  From  this  we 
learn  that  the  agent  of  the  Sudan  at  Cairo  reports  that  it  was 
decided  to  discontinue  these  experiments  because  the  growth  of 
the  plants  was  not  satisfactory,  and  the  yield  did  not  compare 
favourably  with  that  from  Egyptian  cotton. 

I  have  already  dwelt  on  some  experiences  with  this  cotton 
in  India  (Agricultural  Journal  of  India,  Vol.  Ill,  Part  3,  page 
271). 

In  order  to  demonstrate  further  the  slender  grounds  on  which 
are  based  the  assumptions  claimed  for  Caravonica  cotton,  I  shall 
shortly  quote  information  gleaned  from  a  perusal  of  articles  con- 
tained in  the  Indian  Trade  Journal  and  Tropical  Agriculturist. 

From  the  former  (September  30,  1909),  we  gather  from 
reliable  authority  that,  at  the  present  time,  there  are  several 
small  growers  of  this  cotton  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  Cairns, 
one  having  some  10  acres  planted  out.  There  are  three  varieties, 
and  the  indications  show  that  they  are  not  constant  in  their 
cliaractors,  and  that  the  voung  [)lants  are  liable  to  attacks  fron) 
insects.  The  ai-ticlc,  w  liieh  should  be  read  in  \\\\\  l»y  those  inter- 
ested ill  the  matter,  is  indefinite  on  vital  points,  but  the  short 
abstract  1  have  given  serves  as  a  useful  commentary  to  what 
now  follows.  In  the  supplement  to  the  Tropical  Agriculturist, 
Vol.  32,  New  Series,  No.  2,  page  186,  a  long  note  on  an  interview 
with  Dr.  Thomatis  can  be  found.  He  again  avers  that  he 
established  his  hybrid  cotton  in  the  short  space  of  five  years.    He 


250  AORICULTUllAL    JOTRNAL    OF    INDIA.      .  [V,    IIP 

attributed  its  failure  in  soutli  India  to  unseasonable  planting  or 
unsuitable  rainfall.  In  Queensland  (he  went  on  to  say),  where 
they  have  an3^thing  from  138  to  '200  inches  a  year,  the  rainfall 
occurs  during  the  four  months,  January  to  April,  and  the  crop- 
ping conditions  are  excellent.  He  was  onl}^  withheld  froni  open- 
ing out  land  for  his  cotton  on  an  enormous  scale  by  the  refusal 
of  the  Austrahan  Government  to  allow  the  importation  of  some 
thousands  of  Indian  coolies.  In  Lancashire  his  cotton  is  still 
considered  to  belong  to  a  fancy  kind  and  too  fine  for  ordinary 
work.  On  the  Continent,  however,  it  has  been  widely  taken  uj), 
the  silky  kind  being  used  for  making  all  the  fine  classes  of  cotton 
and  the  woolly  as  a  substitute  for  wool.  In  Berlin  are  the  head- 
quarters of  a  syndicate,  called  the  International  Cotton  Company, 
witli  a  capital  of  £(>  or  £7,000,000.  This  will  lend  money  at 
3  per  cent,  and  provide  seed,  and  the  only  restriction  is  that  no 
seed  must  be  sold  or  disposed  of  outside  the  Compan}^,  although 
the  grower  can  do  as  he  chooses  about  the  sale  of  his  cotton. 
Dr.  Thomatis  is  advising  Director  to  this  Company,  and  he  is 
now  selecting  land  in  German  East  Africa.  He  says  that,  already 
some  750,000  acres  are  under  preparation  to  grow  it  in  the 
Sudan.  (We  know  that  this  statement  is  not  accurate.)  Sixty  or 
seventy  Norweoian  families  have  mio'rated  to  Eastern  Cuba  ex- 
pressly  to  grow  Caravonica  cotton,  and  they  sailed  in  the  "  Fram," 
Nansen's  ship  of  Arctic  fame  !  He  unfortunately  considers  that 
perhaps  Ceylon  has  not  a  climate  quite  suitable  for  Caravonica 
cotton.  Caravonica  is  said  to  yield  one  ton  (2,240  lbs.)  to  the 
acre,  about  90  per  cent.  |)uie  fibre  being  obtainable  from  a  properh' 
grown  crop,  against  a  minimum  of  300  ll)s.  per  acre  with  Egyj)- 
tian. 

l!i  another  issue  of  the  Tropicul  Aip-icultnri^t  we  learn  that 
a  produce  broker  of  Brisbane  has  evolved  a  hybrid  "  Mamara,  " 
wdiich  promises  to  be  a  serious  rival  to  Caravonica.  It  has  yielded 
at  the  rate  of  300  lbs.  of  lint  per  acre,  and  a  small  ei-op  is  secured 
in  six  months  after  planting. 

He  who  runs  may  read  and  form  his  own  conclusions  as  to 
the  merits   or  otherwise  of  Caravonica    and    other    vaunted  tree 


CAHAVOMCA    COTTON:    (lA.MMIK.  2o  I. 

(•()Lt()n.s.  1l  is  .stnuigu  that  tliu  niarvellous  results  prcjclaimecl  on 
their  helialf  liave  never  been  attained  within  our  experience  in 
lii(Ha.  iMen  ill  AustraHa  where  we  liave  cast  our  miners  eye 
over  boundless  plains  whitened  w  ith  the  overflowing  harvest  of 
Caravonica  cotton,  the  bald  truth  is  published  that  there  are 
several  small  growers  of"  this  cotton  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of 
Cairns  ! 

To  go  no  further  than  India  itself,  we  have  several  instances 
of  men  who,  misled  by  paltry  results  obtained  from  carefully 
nursed  plants  in  their  own  compounds,  have  persuaded  complacent 
friends  to  waste  their  substance  in  attempting  the  hopeless  task  of 
tree  cotton  cultivation  on  a  commercial  scale. 

The  tree  cotton  which  will  succeed  as  a  field  crop  has  still  to 
be  discovered,  and  until  it  is  really  found  and  certified  to  be  a 
success  by  responsible  and  disinterested  men,  the  public  in  o-eneral 
will  be  well  advised  to  withhold  their  financial  support  from  well- 
meant,  perhaps,  but  visionary  schemes  of  amassing  rapid  fortunes 
froiri  tree  cotton  cultiv^ation. 


THE  CULTIVATION  OF  THE  BANANA  IN 
TRAVANCORE. 

By  T.  PONNAMBALLAM  PTLLAY, 

Excise  Commissioiier,  Traranco7'e  (Relived)^ 

The  central  and  northern  parts  of"  Travancore  have  the 
advantage  of  two  monsoons,  and  are,  therefore,  specially  suitable 
fo)'  the  cultivation  of  the  banana. 

As  far  as  can  be  ascertained,  the  species  grown  is  Miisa 
pcmudisiaca. 

A  well-drained  deep  rich  red  soil  is  most  suitable,  but  the 
crop  also  grows  well  in  medium  black  soil.  About  a  year  before 
planting,  the  soil  is  ploughed  frequently,  and  the  ground  is 
enclosed  with  mud  walls  or  fences  to  protect  the  crop  from 
cattle.  The  time  for  planting  varies  according  to  localities,  but 
it  is  generally  between  December  and  February. 

When  the  soil  is  well  prepared,  pits  3  feet  deep  and  3 
feet  round  are  dug  8  feet  apart;  an  acre  contains  about  1,200 
pits.  To  manure  the  pits,  dried  leaves  are  burnt  within  them, 
and  the  ashes  are  well  mixed  with  loose  soil  to  fill  u})  -(Hlis  of 
their  depth.  This  also  protects  the  plant  from  white  ants.  The 
shoots  are  then  planted  in  the  pits  and  maimred  with  fresh  cow- 
dung.  The  pits  are  then  filled  witli  earth  up  to  the  level  of 
the  ground  and  covered  over  with  dried  leaves  to  protect  them 
from  the  sun.  The  shoots  are  not  watered,  but  occasional 
showers  help  them  to  strike  root  and  grow.  Wh(ui  the}-  make 
a  fair  start,  they  are  manured  with  cowdung  (fresh  more  prefer- 
able) and  green  leaves. 

Most  of  the  plantations  when  established  continue  to 
produce  fruit  for  ten  f)r  more  years,  provided  the  soil  is  rcgulai'ly 
])loughed,  weeded  and  manured.      But  yearly  the  old    stenis    are 


CULIIVATIOX    OK    TMK     HAXAXA  :     l'()\\  AM  l!  ALI,  A  M     IIM^AY.  253 

cut  out,  and  fruit  is  obtained  Ironi  the  young  soluetod  .shoots 
which  grow  about  the  parent  plant.  When  the  banana  Ijunch 
is  cut,  those  suckers  wliich  are  not  re((uired  and  tlie  stem  which 
lias  produced  fruit  are  removed  to  make  room  for  the  other 
stems  which  are  intended  subsequently  to  produce  fruit. 

Fibre  can  be  extracted  from  the  stems,  and  this  industry  is 
not  neo^lected. 

In  Travancore,  the  skin  or  husk  of  the  plantain  is  pealed 
otl",  and  the  pulp  or  core  is  cut  into  slices  and  dried  in  the  sun. 
For  infant  food  the  slices  are  pounded  into  flour.  The  flour  is 
nutritious.  For  adult  food  the  slices  are  fried  in  oil  or  ghee 
with  salt.  The  fried  article  is  preserved  for  months  in  new 
earthen  pots  in  a  cool  place.  The  fruit  is  also  largely  eaten  by 
the  poor,  but  it  is  not  easily  digestible. 

An  acre  of  bananas  yields,  on  an  average,  about  Rs.  200. 
But  the  cost  of  expenditure  on  the  following  items,  when  reason- 
ably assigned,  leaves  no  profit  to  the  cultivator  in  the  first  year 
or  years. 

(1).  The  putting  up  of  protective  walls  or  fences  around  the 
ground. 

(2).      Ploughing  not  less  than  eight  times. 

(3).      Digging  of  1,200  holes. 

(4).  Collection  of  dried  leaves  for  burning  in  tlie  pits  as 
well  as  for  covering  them  after  planting. 

(5).     The  cost  of  cowdung  and  green  leaves. 

(()).      Tlie  cost  of  applying  the  same. 

(7).      Watching  the  garden. 

(8).      The  collection  of  the  crop. 

{*.)).      The  collection  and  [)reservation  of  suckers  and 
(10).      Kent  tor  the  land  or  interest  on  tlie  capital. 

Tliu  cultivator,  however,  derives  profit  by  raising  secondary 
crops  such  as  yams,  etc.,  which  cost  him  almost  nothing.  The 
cost  of  weeding  has  only  to  be  met.  Between  two  plantain 
trees,  three  yam  sets  are  planted.  Some  of  the  secondary  crops 
are  harvested  before  the  bananas  become  ripe  and  some  about 
the  same  tiiu"'.      This  kind  of  cuUi\alion  does  not  exhaust  the  soil 


254  AOKTCULTrRAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   TIT. 

as  in  the  case  of  cassava,  and  the  cultivator  can  also  grow  gram 
or  peas  without  additional  manuring.  Before  the  cultivation  of 
banana,  the  ground  should  lie  fallow. 


EXI'EKIMENTS  OX  THE  AVAILABILITY  OE  NITRO- 
GEN   IN  PEAT,  PEAT    MOSS  AND  ELEPHANT 
JJUNG  AS  COMPARED  WITH  CERTAIN 
OTHER   MANURES. 

Bv  H.  E.  AN  NEXT,  use, 
0^(j.  Ayricultural  Chrniisf,  United  Province-^. 

Samplp:.s  of  peat  and  peat  moss  were  received  from  the 
Inspector-General  of  Agriculture  in  India,  witli  a  request  for  a 
report  on  their  nianurial  value, 

Analvsis  ofave  the  followincj  results  : — 

Peat  ...      09%  nitrogen. 

Peat  moss  ...      fi9%  ,, 

These  analyses  show  that  these  substances,  as  far  as  their 
nitrogen  content  goes,  are  equal  to  the  average  Indian  cattle 
manure.  At  the  same  time  there  is  a  widespread  opinion  that 
the  nitrogen  in  peat  and  peat  moss  is  in  a  mueli  les.s  avail- 
able form  than  that  in  cattle  manure.  Accordingly  it  was 
•suggested  that  I  should  test  this  point.  Advantage  was  also 
taken  at  the  same  time  of  this  opportunity  of  testing  the  value 
<»f  a  sample  of  elephant  dung  received  from  Indore  State.  An 
opinion  has  been  ex[)ressed  that  this  is  much  slower  acting  than 
cattle  manure.  An  analysis  of  the  sample  showed  it  to  contain 
1  Oy^  nitrogen.  To  investigate  this  question  two  series  of  pot 
cultures  were  started.  The  pot  culture  house  at  Pusa  has  been 
described  in  \'ol.  J,  Xo.  3,  Chemical  Series,  of  the  Meinoirs 
of  the  De[)a)tnient  of  Agriculture  in  India.  The  jars  and 
methods  of  filling  thum  ai'e  also  described  in  that  memoir,  and 
this  tlescription  need  not  be  repeated  here.  Only  one  kind  of 
crop  was  tested,  riz.,  maize. 


256  AGRTCULTUKAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   III. 

The  first  series  consisted  of  G  pots  manured  as  follows  : — 

1.  Un-manured. 

2.  Superpliosphate  +  Cattle  manure. 

3.  Ditto  +  Oil  cake. 

4.  Ditto  +  Ele])hant  dung. 
.5.               Ditto             +  Peat  moss. 

G.  Ditto  +  Peat. 

No.  1  besides  being  unmanured  bore  no  crop.  The  reason 
for  this  will  be  explained  later. 

The  second  series  also  consisted  of  G  pots,  but  was  manured 
as  follows  : — 

1.  Superphosphate  only. 

2.  Ditto  +  Calcium  Nitrate. 

3.  Ditto  +  Cattle  manure. 

4.  Ditto  +  Oil  cake. 

5.  Ditto  +  Peat  moss. 
0.  Ditto  +  Peat. 

The  soil  used  above  was  Pusa  soil — Indo-Gangetic  allu- 
vium. It  is  known  to  be  sufficiently  well  supplied  with  potash, 
but  it  responds  to  phosphatic  manuring,  and  hence  superphos- 
phate was  supplied  in  each  case.  As  about  to  be  described? 
great  care  was  taken  in  packing  the  soil  to  the  same  extent  in 
each  pot,  the  soil  contained  a  constant  amount  of  water,  each  pot 
contained  the  same  number  of  plants,  and  every  effort  was  made 
to  make  the  various  forms  of  nitrogenous  manuring  the  only 
controlling  factor.  The  soil  itself  contains  a  very  low  percen- 
tage of  nitrogen — about  *03,  but  is  highly  calcareous. 

The  soil  to  be  used  was  spread  out  and  air  dried  and  the 
amount  of  moisture  remaining  in  it  determined.  Fourteen  kilo- 
grams of  soil  were  then  weighed  into  each  pot. 

The  manures  to  be  used  having  been  analyzed,  such  quanti- 
ties of  them  were  weighed  out  as  would  give  an  equal  weight  of 
nitrogen.  The  contents  of  each  pot  were  now  spread  in  turn  on 
a  clean  Hoor  and  moistened  with  1,000  c.c.  of  water.  Any 
manure  to  be  added  was  now  carefully  mixed  up  by  hand  with 
the  soil  and  the  soil  carefully  packed  into  its  jar  again.  Nine 
seeds  of  maize  were  now  sown  in  each  pot.  The  maize  sown  was 
specially  selected  seed  kindly  supplied  by  Mr.  Howard,  the 
Imperial  Economic  Botanist.  The  young  plants  were  visible  in 
all  the  jars  aftei'  five  days.      Each  day  eacli  pot  was  weighed  and 


AVAlLAi;il>ITY    OK    MTROdK.N     IN     THAT  !    AXXETT.  257 

•JOO  c.c.  water  added  daily  to  each  until  20%  (jf  water  was  present 
in  the  soil.  The  method  of  adding  water  is  fully  described  in  the 
memoir  above  referred  to.  After  about  eight  days  the  requisite 
amount  c^f  water  was  present  in  each  pot.  Thenceforward  the 
amount  of  water  lost  from  the  soil  was  determined  daily  by 
weighment,  and  this  amount  was  added  immediatelJ^  This  was 
continued  throughout  the  experiment.  Thus,  incidentally  data 
were  obtained  of  the  amount  of  water  given  off  from  the  soil 
during  the  growth  of  the  crop.  The  object  of  the  bare  pot  above 
mentioned  was  to  determine  the  amount  of  the  water  evaporated 
from  the  surface  of  the  soil.  When  the  young  plants  were  seen  to 
be  established,  all  except  the  four  most  uniform  ones  were  removed. 
When  the  crops  were  ripe  they  were  cut  close  to  the  ground 
and  the  total  produce  weighed  when  air-dry.  The  straw,  cobs 
and  grain  were  separated,  and  the  amount  of  dry  matter  and  total 
nitrogen  separately  determined  in  each.  Thus  we  have  the 
necessary  data  to  give  — 

(1)  the  total  dry  matter  obtained  ; 

(2)  the  total  nitrogen  recovered  in  the  crop. 

Observations. 

Series  I  was  started  just  over  a  month  earlier  than 
Series  II. 

Series  I. — Fifty-three  days  after  sowing",  the  plants  in  the  oil 
cake  pot  were  far  the  biggest,  and  the  next  best  plants  were  those 
manured  with  cattle  manure  and  elephant  dung.  The  plants 
lu  the  peat  and  peat  moss  jars  looked  very  inferior. 

The  plants  were  harvested  102  days  after  sowing. 

Series  II. — Thirty-four  days  after  sowing,  the  smallest  plants 
were  those  two,  one  of  which  received  only  su})erphosphate  and 
the  other  peat  moss.  The  healthiest  and  tallest  plants  were  those 
on  the  pots  receiving  nitrate  and  oil  cake. 

On  the  whole,  the  [)lants  of  this  series  appeared  much  better 
than  those  of  Series  I. 

The  results  of  the  experiments  are  set  out  in  the  table 
below  : — 


258 


AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA. 


[V,  III. 


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AVAlLAlilLITV    (»F    MTK()(;K\    1\    PKAT  :    ANNETT. 


259 


A  very  good  series  of  pot  cultures  to  test  the  availability  of 
nitroo-enous  manures  are  bein";  carried  out  at  the  Rhode  Island 
Ao-ricultural  Experiment  Station.*  Two  amounts  of  nitrogen, 
the  one  fifty  per  cent,  greater  than  the  other,  have  been  added 
each  year  to  different  groups  of  pots.  In  those  experiments  the 
larger  application  has  not  usually  resulted  in  a  larger  crop  but  in 
a  more  nitrogenous  one. 

Turning  to  the  above  figures  it  will  be  seen  that  the  pots  in 
Series  I  received  33  per  cent,  more  nitrogen  as  manure  than  those 
of  Series  II,  and  except  in  the  case  of  the  castor  cake  pot  more 
nitroo-en  has  been  recovered  in  Series  I  than  in  Series  II. 

If  we  compare  the  percentage  of  nitrogen  in  the  grain  from 
the  two  series  we  find  those  o^rains  from  Series  I  receivino;  the 
higher  amount  of  nitrogen  are  more  nitrogenous  tlian  the  grains 
in  Series  II.     This  is  shewn  in  the* folio w^ing  table  : — 


Weight  of 

Percentage  of 

Series. 

Pot  No, 

Manure. 

Nitrogen   in 
Manure. 

Nitrogen  in 
grain. 

I 

82 

Superphosphate  +  Cattle  manure 

1-74 

156 

11 

89 

Ditto                    ditto 

1-2915 

1-45 

1 

83 

Ditto            -f  Castor  cake 

1-74 

1-53 

II 

90 

Ditto                     ditto 

1  2915 

1-44 

I 

85 

Ditto           +  Peat  moss 

1-74 

1-47 

II 

91 

Ditto                     ditto 

1-'2915 

1-28 

I 

86 

Ditto           -1-Peat 

1-74 

1-76 

II 

92 

Ditto               ditto 

1-2915 

1-50 

The  relative  availability  of  the  nitrogen  in  these  various 
organic  manures  can  be  calculated  as  follows:  — the  amount  of 
nitrogen  recovered  from  pot  No,  87,  Series  II,  receiving  super- 
phosphate c)nly,  must  be  attributed  solely  to  the  soil  nitrogen, 
as  no  nitrogen  was  api)lied  in  the  manure.  Subtracting  this 
amount  from  the  amounts  of  nitrogen  recovered  in  the  other 
pots,  we  find  the  amount  of  nitrogen  recovered  by  the  plants 
from  tlie  various  nitrogenous  manures.  Thus  the  amount  of 
nitrogen  in    the  crop   obtained    from  pot  87  was    -455  grm.     The 


*  Rhode  Isliiiul  Agricultural  Experiment  Station— Annual  Report,  1908,  pp.  236-7. 


260 


AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA. 


[V,  III. 


amount  of  nitrogen  in  the  crop  on  pot  88  was  -8947  grm.  and 
therefore  the  gain  due  to  the  nitrogenous  manurino-  was  -8947  - 
•4550  =  -4397  grm.  From  this  figure  we  can  calculate  the  propor- 
tion of  supplied  nitrogen  recovered  in  the  crop,  and  hence  the 
relative  availability  of  nitrogen  in  the  various  manures.  The 
followino-  table  oives  the  data  obtained  : — 


Increase 

Pot 

No. 

Grms. 

Grms. 

m  grms. 

Per  cent,  of 

Relative 

Manure. 

Nitrogen 

Nitrogen 

Nitrogen  over 

Nitrogen 

availaVnlit)' 

supplied. 

in  the  crop. 

pot  receiving 

recovered. 

NaNO3=100. 

no  Nitrogen. 

87 

Superphosphate  only    ... 

•455 

88 

Ditto.   +  Nitrate 

1  -2915 

•8947 

•4.397 

.34-0 

ioo 

89 

Ditto    +  Cattle  manure 

1  "2915 

•4495 

— -0055 

-0-43 

—1-26 

90 

Ditto.   +  Castor  cake    . . . 

1-2915 

•8022 

-3472 

26^9 

79-1 

91 

Ditto.  +  Peat  moss 

1-2915 

•464 

•009 

0^69 

2-03 

92 

Ditto.   +  Peat 

1-2915 

■5093 

•0543 

4-20 

12-35 

84 

Ditto.   +  Elephant  dung 

1-71 

•5282 

•0732 

4-21 

12-38 

Only  the  figures  for  Series  II  are  shewn  here,  since  all  the 
plants  of  Series  I  had  received  nitrogenous  manuring,  and  thus 
the  percentage  of  nitrogen  recovered  of  that  applied  could  not 
be  worked  out. 

The  above  table  shows  the  high  availability  of  the  nitrogen 
present  in  castor  cake,  and  also  that  the  nitrogen  in  elephant 
dung  and  peat  is  much  less  available.  The  nitrogen  of  peat 
moss  and  cattle  manure  shows  a  very  low  availability  in  these 
experiments — the  cattle  manure  giving  an  abnormal  result — but 
of  course  very  definite  conclusions  cannot  be  drawn  from  one 
set  of  experiments. 

Wagner  by  Pot  experiments  in  Germany,  in  the  first  year 
recovered  58 '1  per  cent,  of  the  nitrogen  applied  in  NaNOg  and  of 
dung  ll'l  per  cent.  However,  in  his  experiments  the  residues  of 
the  dung  gave  an  appreciable  effect  even  in  the  fourth  year,  while 
the  nitrate  of  soda  gave  practically  no  effect  after  the  second 
year. 

Wagner's  figures  are  rather  higher  than  those  obtained  in 
the  experiments  recorded  in  this  paper. 

Our  figure  for  the  percentage  of  nitrogen  recovered  in  nitrate 
of  soda  agrees  fairly  well  with  the    figure  obtained   by  Voorhees 


AVAILABILITY    OF    NITROGEN    IN    PEAT  :    ANNETT.  261 

and  Lipnian.*  The  only  other  manure  used  both  by  us  and  by 
them  is  farm-yard  manure,  and  in  this  case,  as  seen,  our  farm -yard 
manure  result  is  abnormal. 

Conclusions. 

1.  Taking  the  total  yield  of  dry  matter,  we  find  that  of  the 
organic  manures,  castor  cake  has  given  by  far  the  best  results, 

2.  From  the  yields  of  div  matter  and  from  the  percentage 
of  nitrogen  recovered,  peat  moss,  peat,  elephant  dung  and  cattle 
manure  appear  to  be  about  equally  valuable  as  manures,  though 
from  the  appearance  of  the  growing  plants  peat  and  peat  moss 
did  not  seem  to  be  such  o-ood   manures  as   cattle   duno\ 

3.  As  regards  the  yield  of  grain,  castor  cake  has  given  by 
far  the  best  results,  l)ut  the  outturn  of  grain  from  the  other  pots 
are  so  variable  that  it  is  unsafe  to  draw  any  conclusion. 


J  Lid.  and  Enf/.  Cfieiii.,  July  lOQit,  p.  397. 


18 


URINE-EARTH  AS  A  MANURE. 

By  D.  CLOUSTON,  m.a.,  b.sc, 
Depxdy    Director    of  Agriculture^    Central    Provinces. 

Owing  to  the  want  of  an  adequate  supply  of  manure,  the 
cultivator  in  the  Central  Provinces  is  handicapped  enormously. 
Much  of  his  land  is  gradually  becoming  more  and  more  im- 
poverished. In  tracts  where  there  are  irrigation  facilities 
without  manure,  this  exhaustion  of  the  soil's  fertility  is  all  the 
more  certain.  It  is  a  serious  check,  too,  to  the  efforts  being 
made  to  extend  the  cultivation  of  sugarcane  and  other  profitable 
crops  in  such  areas.  The  trade  done  in  the  Provinces  in  manures 
is  insignificant,  for  the  value  of  the  different  cakes  as  manures 
is  not  yet  understood  ;  moreover,  the  supply  available  is  very 
small.  To  import  artificial  or  other  manures  the  ryot  is  not 
sufficiently  enterprising.  The  result  is  that  he  is  almost  entirely 
dependent  on  the  small  supply  of  cattle  manure  at  his  disposal  ; 
but  the  so-called  cattle  manure  in  these  Provinces  is  mostly  the 
ash  of  cattle  duno-  mixed  with  villao^e  rubbish.  It  is  not  a  valu- 
able  manure,  as  its  nitrogen  content  is  low,  97  per  cent,  of  it 
being  lost  in  the  process  of  burning.  No  attempt  is  made  to 
conserve  tlie  urine  which  is  so  rich  in  this  very  essential  plant 
food,  and  the  one  constituent  which  our  black  cotton  soil  stands 
so  much  in  need  of 

To  meet  this  formidable  obstacle  to  good  cultivation,  the  dry- 
earth  system  of  conserving  urine  is  being  demonstrated  in  these 
Provinces,  and  lias  already  been  adopted  by  some  leading  cultiv- 
ators. With  the  view  of  testing  the  value  of  this  manure  I 
first  started  this  system  of  conserving  it  on  the  experimental 
farms  four  years  ago.  The  results  obtained  prove  that  in  the 
year  of  application,  the  urine  of  a  bullock  for  a  certain   period  is 


URINE-EARTH    AS    A    MANURE  :    CLOUSTON.  263 

equal  in  nianmial  value  to  the  dung  of  the  same  animal,    for  the 
same  period. 

The  dry-earth  system  is  a  simple  one  which  involves  no 
initial  expenditure  and  requires  no  other  beddin^^  than  the  dry- 
earth  used.  It  is  based  nevertheless  on  sound  scientific  principles  ; 
the  earth  absorbs  the  urine  and  retains  its  most  valuable 
ingredients.  The  system,  as  carried  out  on  the  Government 
farms,  is  as  follows.  Dry  earth  to  a  depth  of  6  inches  is  spread 
in  tlie  stalls.  The  dung  is  removed  dail}^  and  stored  in  a  pit. 
Tlie  urine-earth  is  removed  from  the  stalls  and  stored  in  the 
same  pit  after  having  lain  about  a  month  in  the  stalls  ;  fresh 
earth  is  put  into  its  place.  By  removing  the  dung  daily  the 
stalls  are  kept  clean.  Should  the  earth  get  caked,  the  surface  is 
scarified  by  means  of  a  phoivra  (scraper)  in  order  to  make  it 
pervious  to  the  hquid  manure.  By  this  method  both  the  liquid 
and  solid  excreta  are  saved.  The  urine  or  liquid  excrement 
contains  a  high  percentage  of  the  most  vahiable  constituent, 
namely,  nitrogen,  and  in  a  very  soluble  form  too. 


SOME  ASPECTS  OF  AGRICULTURAL  WORK  IN 
THE  CHENAB  COLONY. 

By  G.  F.  dk  MONTMORENCY, 

Spttlement   Officer,   LyaUnur. 

In  the  July  number  of  the  Agriculhiral  Journal  of  India 
in  1908,  an  account  was  given  of  some  agricultural  conditions  in 
the  Chenab  colon j^  of  the  Punjab.  In  the  present  article,  I 
propose  to  examine  the  agricultural  conditions  further,  particu- 
larly in  regard  to  how  this  great  agricultural  colony  is 
supplied  with  work  and  milk  cattle,  from  what  tracts  it  obtains 
its  supply,  how  far  it  can  now  meet  its  own  needs,  and  what 
breeds  find  favour  with  the  colonists 

In  the  previous  article,  it  was  explained  that  prior  to 
the  opening  of  the  Chenab  canal  system,  the  area  which 
now  constitutes  the  colony  was  upland  desert  lying  between 
the  Ravi  and  Chenab  riverains  and  divided  up  between  the 
territorial  limits  of  the  Gujranwala,  Jhang,  Lahore  and 
Montgomery  districts.  This  tract  was  known  as  the  Sandal 
Bar. 

Before  the  colony  was  started,  the  chief  cliaracteristics  of 
this  tract  were  its  extremely  arid  nature  aiid  the  possibilities  of 
fertility  under  irrigation. 

The  rainfall  in  the  centre  of  the  Bar,  before  irri oration  was 
introduced,  w^as  about  5  inches  annually. 

The  soil  over  the  greater  portion  of  the  Bar  is  good  loam, 
which  merges  into  sandy  soil  toward  the  apex  of  the  Bar  near 
the  meeting  of  the  Ravi  and  Chenab  rivers. 

This  land  is,  on  the  whole,  quite  level,  but  here  and  there, 
there  are  natural  depressions  where  the  soil  consists  of  stiff 
dark  clay. 


SOMK     ASPECTS    OF    Afil{KL'LTlHAI,    \V(tRK  :    MONTMOKENCY.  205 

Water  flows  into  these  lower  lands  from  the  surrounding 
hioher  land  even  after  scanty  showers,  and  this  water  remains 
for  some  time  at  or  near  the  surface  in  spite  of  the  fierce  heat 
of  the  climate. 

The  Bar  is  covered  here  and  there  with  vegetation,  which  is 
generally  scant3%  but  is  in  places  so  thick  that  man  or  beast 
cannot  easily  force  a  way  through  it.  The  characteristics  of 
the  scrub  growth  provide  an  outlook  of  extreme  monotony.  In 
the  cold  weather  or  in  the  heat  just  before  the  rains,  the  can 
{Salradora  oleoides)  with  its  grey  green  mistletoe  leaf,  the  leaf- 
less thorny  karil  {Capparis  aphylla),  the  jand  {Prosopis 
spicigera)  with  its  rough  trunk  and  paucity  of  foliage  aflbrd  a 
sad  aspect  of  more  or  less  lifeless  vegetation,  which  only  just 
]>olds  its  own  aofainst  the  rig-our  of  the  desert  conditions.  The 
winter  frosts,  the  scorching  summer  heat  and  the  rapid  succes- 
sion of  dust-storms  had  their  own  special  effects. 

The  Bar,  without  irrio^ation  and  without  roads  and  the  other 
advantages  which  have  since  been  given,  was  hopeless  for  agri- 
culture. It  yielded  up  its  secrets,  however,  to  its  own  people,  its 
aboriginal  grazier  nomads — the  janglies. 

The  ground  contained  in  its  bosom  the  seeds  and  roots  of 
many  nourishing  grasses  and  hardy  fodder  plants.  During  the 
spring  and  autumn  and  occasionally  at  other  times  after  even 
the  scantiest  rain,  the  Bar  bursts  forth  into  verdure  and 
freshness. 

The  grasses  and  shrubs  in  the  best  places  of  the  Bar  gave, 
after  good  seasons,  useful  grazing. 

Round  the  lowlands,  the  jamjJics  used  to  squat  with  their 
Hocks  and  herds  in  temporar}'"  grass  huts  or  under  bushes.  The 
heat  or  the  cold  of  the  Bar  had  no  terrors  for  then),  and  the 
pathless  jungle  was  to  them  a  clear  road  to  making  a  livelihood. 
These  people  lived  on  a  very  simple  diet  of  natural  desert 
foods  with  milk  .iiid  milk  products,  varied  very  occasionally 
i)V  meat  and  jjfrain. 

They  owned  herds  of  cattle,  chieHy  cows  and  young 
stock  and  some  flocks  of  slicep  and  goats.     Fairly    good    grazing 


266  AGRICULTDRAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   111. 

and  constant  change  of  pasture  in  good  years  helped  to  make 
their  cows  good  milkers.  The  young  female  stock  were  usually 
reared  with  care,  but  the  male  stock  were  more  or  less  starved 
from  birth  and  were  usuall}^  sold  under  two  years  of  age  to 
butchers.  The  janglies,  these  professional  herdsmen  of  the  Bar, 
made  a  good  income  out  of  ghee,  skins  and  bones. 

Except  in  years  of  particularly  scanty  rainfall,  the  jangli 
and  his  stock  could  live  comfortably.  In  bad  years,  he  lost 
a  number  of  cattle  and  had  to  take  refugee  in  the  riverains.  As 
a  habitual  custom,  he  increased  his  stock  by  thefts  from  the 
owners  on  the  riverains.  As  an  expert  thief  and  tracker,  he  only 
lost  cattle  through  thefts  by  his  own  people,  and  he  retaliated 
speedily. 

The  two  breeds  of  cows  which  the  jangli  kept  were  the 
Montgomery  and  the  hachi.  The  Montgomery  breed  has 
been  described  in  the  Agricultural  Journal  of  India,  Vol.  II, 
Part  III,  by  Mr.  L.  French,  i.c.s.  The  kachi  is  the  Chenab 
riverain  breed  of  cattle.  These  cattle  are  like  the  Montgomery 
breed  in  general  characteristics,  but  are  heavier. 

In  the  old  Bar  days,  the  janglies  numbered  about  55,000 
souls  :  and  Lahore  city  was  largely  supplied  with  the  ghee 
produced  from  the  milk  of  their  cattle. 

Unfortunately,  the  grazing  tax  and  cattle  enumeration 
papers  of  the  districts,  in  which  parts  of  the  Bar  were  situated, 
make  no  distinction  betw^een  cattle  owned  by  the  janglies  and 
cattle  ow^ned  by  the  agriculturists  of  these  districts,  so  we 
cannot  even  roughly  compute  the  number  of  cattle  which  the}?- 
possessed. 

Into  this  land  of  Abraham  \vith  its  flocks  and  herds  came 
the  Chenab  canal.  By  the  end  of  1906  (the  last  special  Chenab 
colony  census),  1,829,880  acres  of  land  were  under  cultivation 
by  colonists,  and  the  janglies  had  exchanged  the  shepherd's 
staff  and  the  churning  stick  for  the  plough.  The  population 
had  risen  from  55,000  janglies  to  a  mixed  peasantry  of  857,829 
souls  from  every  district  in  the  Punjab.  In  all  the  villages  of 
the  colony,  20  per  cent,   of  the  area   was   reserved    for   grazing; 


SOME    ASI'KCTS    OF    A(;HICULTUUAL    WOHK  :    MONTMOREXCV.  207 

but  o\viii<j^  to  the  lowest  land  being-  taken  up  for  cultivation 
mostly,  only  the  squares  of  poor  quality  and  on  high  levels  fell 
into  the  o:razin<x  reserve. 

As  the  colonists  came  to  the  Bar,  they  each,  as  a  i"ule, 
brought  with  them  one  or  two  yokes  of  plough  cattle  and  a  cow 
or  buftalo  for  milk.  Tenants  also  brought  nmch  the  same.  The 
village  menials  brought  a  few  p(joi-  milch  or  plough-cattle  and 
some  sheep  and  goats.  These  animals  belonged  to  the  districts 
from  which  the  colonists  came.  The  population  in  the  Chenab 
colony  in  190G  was  derived  in  the  following  proportion  from  the 
followinof  districts: — 


'O 


Cujianwala  ...  ...  ■•  9  per  cent. 

(iujrat    .^  ...  ...  •••  2  „ 

Gurdaspur  ...  ...  ...  ft  ,. 

Lahore    ...  ..•  ...  ...  3  ,, 

Sialkot   ...  ...  ...  ...  9 

Jnlhindcr  ...  ...  ...  B 

Ferozpur  ...  ...  ...  1  „ 

Amiitsar  ...  ...  ...  8  „ 

Hosliiarpiir  ...  ...  ...  T)  ,, 

Amballa...  ...  ...  ...  2 

Jhang     ...  ...  ...  ...  13 

Ludhiana  —  ...  ...  3  ,, 

Montgomery  ...  ..•  •..  10  ,, 

The  breeds  of  cattle  introduced  must  have  belonged  to  the 
breeds  common  in  these  districts.  Gujrat  would  have  supplied 
some  dhani  cattle;  Jhang  and  Montgomery  would  have  sup- 
plied the  kachi  and  Montgomery  breeds,  and  the  other  districts  a 
larjxe  number  of  dcsi  and  Ilnriana  cattle.  The  dJiftni  cattle 
come  from  the  Salt  Range.  They  are  almost  invariably  of  white 
ground  colour,  heavily  spotted  with  round  spots  of  black  or    red. 

The  Ilariana  or  Hissar  cattle  are  very  big  sometimes 
and  are  easily  recognised  in  the  colony  by  their  general  hand- 
some appearance  and  grey  colour,  and  by  being  the  most  useful 
plough  cattle  for  the  Punjab.  The  desi  is  the  common  mongrel- 
breed  commonly  found  in  most  parts  of  the  Punjab.  It  is  usually 
a  small  but  very  often  a  compact  animal.  The  Montgomery  cow 
is  a  good    milker  and  gives  usually  rich  milk.     The  Montgomery 


268  AGRICULTURAL    JoORNAL    O^    INDIA.  [V,   III. 

bullock  is  slow.  The  dhani,  desi  and  Hariana  bullocks  are 
generally  more  useful  workers. 

As  the  desert  disappeared  and  the  jaru/lies  got  settled  on 
arable  holdings,  they  found  they  could  not  maintain  their  large 
herds  and  began  to  make  considerable  sales  to  the  immigrant 
colonist  of  cows  and  young  stock.  The  jam/li  finding  he  could 
grow  plenty  of  green  fodder  on  his  holding,  began  to  invest  in 
buffaloes  which  gave  more  milk  for  the  production  of  f/hee. 
They  were  more  profitable  than  his  cows  and  were  a  welcome 
innovation  for  a  milk  diet.  The  immigrant  colonists  then  added 
to  their  stock  by  purchase  of  cows  and  young  stock  of  kachi 
and  Montgomery  breeds  and  by  purchases  of  buffaloes  from  the 
Chenab  and  Ravi  riverains. 

In  these  early  days,  the  average  price  of  cattle  was  cheap. 
A  Jfingli  cow  in  full  milk  was  worth  from  Rs.  25  to  Rs.  45. 
A  colonist's  cow  fetched  Rs.  15  to  Rs.  35  ;  bullocks  of  different 
qualities,  Rs.  25  to  Rs.  90  ;  female  buffaloes,  Rs.  40  to  Rs.  70  ; 
male  buffaloes,  Rs.  15  to  Rs.  25. 

As  conditions  became  more  settled,  the  colonist  became 
more  wealthy  and  began  to  provide  himself  with  better  animals, 
both  for  draught  and  dairy  purposes.  His  aim  was  to  get  good 
working  cattle  of  the  Hariana,  dliani  or  hhagnauri  breeds  and 
really  good  milch  buffaloes  from  Bahawalpur,  Muzaffergarh  and 
Multan  or  from  the  Sutlej  or  "  iYiYe  "  breed.  He  made  his 
purchases  during  visits  to  his  old  home  or  in  the  famous  cattle 
fairs  of  Jalalabad,  Amritsar,  Hissar,  Rohtak,  Jaito  (Nabha 
State)  for  Hariana  bullocks,  Chahr  Saidan  Shah  ( Jhelum  district) 
for  the  dhani  breed,  and  Dera  Ghazi  Khan,  Karor  (Mianwali), 
and  Jellalabad  (Sind)  for  the  hhagnauri  ox.  He  also  made 
purchases  from  wandering  dealers  who  discovered  early  that  the 
Chenab  canal  colony  was  a  veritable  mine  for  cattle  traders. 

These  traders  are  of  two  classes— (1)  Aroras  (Hindus)  from 
the  Westei-n  Punjab  districts  of  Mianwali,  Jhelum,  Shahpur 
and  Attock,  who  bring  droves  of  dhani  bullocks  and  cows 
through  the  Punjab  towards  Delhi  for  sale.  Some  dealers  return 
with  Hariana  cattle  fiom  the  Hissar,  Karnal  and  Rohtak  British 


SOME    ASPKCTS    OF    AClIMCL'T/rL'RAI.    WORK  :    MONTMORENCY.  269 

districts  aiul  the  Nablui  and  Patiala  Native  States  ;  these  cattle 
are  sold  in  the  Chenab  colony.  (2)  Arorfis  (Hindus)  of  Multan, 
Dera  (xhazi  Khan,  Bahawalpur  and  Sind  who  bring  hlifupiaxiri 
bullocks  and  Sutlej  butiidoe.s  up  to  the  colony  and  sell  them  to 
the  colonists.  These  people  usually  arrive  in  the  sprint"  when 
the  green  wheat  is  on  the  ground  and  take  their  money  in  three 
instalments,  one  in  each  successive  harvest.  Wandering  tribes 
and  low  castes,  such  as  ChuiKjars,  Mcos,  (his  often  hawk  about 
interior  desi  cattle  and  butlaloes  whieli  thev  sell  to  the  villaoe 
menials  and  tenants  in  the  colony. 

Fodder,  particularly  hlmsa,  is  usually  plentiful  in  the 
colony  and  the  colonist  does  not  stint  himself  in  the  inatter  of 
cattle  and  is  always  ready  to  pay  a  high  price  for  a  good  bullock 
or  buffalo.  As  a  i-esult,  the  price  of  cattle  has  now  risen  all  over 
the  Punjab.  Zamindars  in  the  colony  ikjw  commonly  give  the 
following  prices  for  stock  : — 

Bullocks  ...  ...  ...  Rs.  60  to  Rs.  220 

Cows  ...  ...  ...  ,,     30  „        12:1 

Female  Buffaloes  ...  ...  ...  „     90  „        200 

Male  Buffaloes  ...  ...  ...  „     30  ,.          .■)0 

Large  (rit/'ar  communities  have  grown  up  round  the  colony 
towns,  who  supply  their  wants  with  milk.  Tliese  professional 
graziers  are  buying  up  all  the  good  Montgomery  cows  and  have 
large  herds  of  excellent  buttaloes.  They  are  experts  in  milk 
producing  ;  but  they  sacrifice  all  the  male  young  stock  entirely  to 
this  object  and  even  neglect  the  young  female  stock.  They  are 
content  to  get  the  last  ounce  of  milk  out  of  their  cows  and  replace 
their  cows  by  buying  instead  of  breeding. 

Lyallpur,  the  chicC  town  in  the  colony,  has  euriously 
enough,  in  s[)itc  of  the  enormous  impoi't  of  cattle  by  colonists,  be- 
come a  very  large  export  town  for  cattle.  Once  a  year,  a  fair 
is  held  in  the  spring  in  Ijyall[)ur.  In  I  !)1  (),  2(),507  cattle  were 
brought  to  the  fair,  of  which  I,(i8;}  only  came  from  outside 
districts;  of  these  8,<)-l()  were  sold  for  Rs.  2,11,904.  The 
cattle  brought  to  the  fair  and  sold  arc  to  some  extent  old  cows 
bullocks  and  butfalocs  or  young  stock.      The  young  stock  is  bouo-ht 


270  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   III. 

partly  inter  se  by  the  colonists  and  partly  by  zeniindars  of  out- 
side districts.  The  old  stock  is  bought  by  (1)  butchers  and 
Gujars  of  the  Rawalpindi,  Attock,  Abbottabad,  Peshawar, 
Bannu  and  Kohat  districts  ;  (2)  by  zemindars  of  the  Western 
Punjab.  The  butchers  sell  these  animals  either  on  the  way 
to  the  frontier  to  zemindars  or  in  the  towns  of  their  orioin  for 
meat  for  the  Pathans  and  meat-eating  Mahomedans  of  the  fron- 
tier and  frontier  province.  The  zemindars  buy  the  more  useful 
wastrels  for  their  own  use.  It  is  hard  to  pick  up  any  good 
cattle,  excepting  young  stock  at  the  fair. 

The  Lyallpur  district  contains  about  fths  of  the  area  of  the 
Chenab  colony.  At  the  cattle  enumeration  of  the  district  in 
1909,  the  following  stock  was  returned  : — 

Bulls  and  Bullocks  ...  ...  ...  198,525 

Cows                        ...  ...  ...  ...  132,759 

Male  Buffaloes      ...  ...  ...  ...  37,759 

Female  Buffaloes  ...  ...  ...  ...  143,138 

Young  Stock  of  all  kinds  ...  ...  ...  21.3,030 

That  year  the  sown  area  of  the  district  was  1,527,348  acres  or 
109,096  half  squares  (a  square  roughly  is  28  acres).  The  half 
square  here  is  the  unit  for  which  a  tenant  is  employed,  and  for 
which  a  pair  of  bullocks  is  required.  Adding  together  bullocks 
and  male  buffaloes,  we  have  230,373  animals.  We  want  only 
218,192  on  the  above  calculation  ;  but  the  surplus  of  18,000  odd 
must  contain  many  old  useless  animals,  many  entires  and  many 
animals  only  used  for  draught  in  towns  and  not  available  for  the 
plough.  The  surplus  over  needs  is  therefore  small.  The  existing 
young  stock  213,030  and  the  stock  which  132,759  cows  and 
143,138  buffaloes  may  throw,  is,  after  exclusion  of  females  and 
unfit  produce  and  taking  into  account  sales  at  the  fair,  not  nearly 
enough  for  replacements. 

The  grazing  area  left,  as  before  explained,  is  of  poor  quality. 
There  are  53  district  Board  bulls  in  the  Lyallpur  district  and 
every  encouragement  is  given  to  breeding,  and  the  Hissar  bulls 
are  undoubtedly  leaving  their  stamp  on  the  young  stock  of  the 
district ;  but  the  colonist  finds  it  very  profitable  to  grow  wheat, 
cotton  and  cane,  and  he  restricts  his  fodder  crops  to  the  minimum 


SOME    ASPKCTS    OK    ACUICULTUKAL    WOUK   l    MONTMORENCY.  271 

wliii-li  will  su[)port  liis  drauglit  and  mileh  cattle.  He,  therefore, 
keeps  tlie  buffalo  winch  i;ives  more  milk  than  the  cow,  or  more 
I'arely  the  Montgomery  cow.  The  Moutoomery  cow,  even  crossed 
with  the  Hissar  bull,  gives  an  infei'ior  IniUock.  The  colonist 
will  not  keep  a  large  herd  of  poor  milking  kachi,  dhani,  desi 
and  If'O'iftJia  cows,  which  would  give  him  excellent  bullocks,  but 
would  not  give  hin>  much  milk.  The  rich  colon}^  therefore,  with 
all  its  local  cattle  and  breeds  and  with  its  large  export  of  stock 
must  continue  to  buy  mostly  its  best  draught  cattle  from  outside, 
while  the  Montgomer}^  cow,  the  best  Punjab  milker,  is  getting 
fewer  in  number  day  by  day  owing  to  being  milked  to  extinction 
by  the  Gujar  and  crossed  with  bad  milking  breeds  by  the  colonists. 
We  have  wandered  a  long  way  from  the  jangli  Abraham  with  his 
great  herds  of  c()w^s  grazing  in  the  upland  deserts  of  the  Sandal 
Bar.  His  place  is  now  taken  by  the  rich  colonist  with  his 
expensive  imported  stall-fed  bullocks  and  his  imported  stall-fed 
buffaloes. 


NOTES. 


Eri  Silk  Grown  in  Coorg. — This  note  describes  tlie  rearing- 
of  eri  silk,  which  I  have  twice  done  with  an  interval  of  some 
ten  years.  The  eggs  arrived  on  the  26th  July  and  hatched  on 
the  30th.  The  first  moult  began  on  August  5th  ;  the  worms  were 
not  fed  or  handled  at  this  time.  The  moulting  occupied  two 
days  and  was  complete  on  the  7th  August.  On  the  9th  the 
second  moult  commenced,  and  by  the  1 2th  some  of  the  larger 
worms  had  moulted  a  third  time,  and  many  others  had  stopped 
feeding.  On  the  15th,  the  fourth  moult  commenced  ;  the  worms 
fed  greedily  up  to  the  night  before,  but  on  this  date  nearly  all  of 
them  were  inactive,  and  their  skins  presented  a  shrivelled 
appearance.  On  the  Ujth  most  moulted  and  changed  colour 
from  white  to  pale  green.  By  the  17th  all  had  moulted  except  a 
few  and  were  feeding  greedily.  On  the  19th  they  were  larger, 
and  were  turning  from  yellow  to  pale  blue.  The  mean  temper- 
ature at  this  time  was  about  70  degrees,  GO  at  night  and  75  at 
the  maximum  b}^  day.  On  the  20th  some  showed  signs  of 
spinning  and  were  transferred,  some  to  paper  cases,  some  turned 
loose  in  dry  straw.  When  a  worm  is  about  to  spin,  it  may  be 
known  by  its  uniform  yellowish  semi-transparent  colour  and 
by  its  being  restless,  ceasing  to  feed  and  moving  about,  waving 
its  head  with  a  circular  motion.  On  the  22nd  nearly  all  had 
spun. 

The  notes  above  refer  to  the  second  trial,  made  with  seed 
from  Ceylon,  but  the  first  trial  was  made  with  seed  from  Bengal ; 
the  worm  feeds  on  castor,  and  I  thought  of  the  castor  as  a  catch 
crop,  with  a  view  to  utilising  the  seed  on  some  of  the  rubber 
clearings.     The  youngest  leaves  were  used  for  the  first  few  days. 


NOTES.  273 

ami  crraduall}^  tougher  and  older  leaves  were  supplied  as  the 
worms  o-rew  older.  The  worms  should  be  fed  about  four  times 
a  day  and  twice  at  night.  The}^  were  kept  in  bamboo  trap's  on 
shelves,  the  leaves  evenly  spread  over  the  worms,  except  when 
they  were  moulting.  The  trays  were  cleaned  out  daily,  the 
method  being  to  spread  large  leaves  over  the  worms  which  very 
soon  moved  up  on  to  these,  when  they  were  lifted  oft'  to  clean 
trays.  The  room  was  well-aired,  and  precautions  were  taken 
ao-ainst  rats  which  are  particularly  destructive  when  the  worms 
are  approaching  the  spinning  stage.  These  worms  thrive  best 
in  the  monsoon  and,  unlike  the  mulberry  silkworms,  are  unaffected 
by  damp.  The  rainfall  here  is  about  GO  inches  per  annum,  the 
crreater  part  of  which  falls  in  the  months  of  June,  July,  August 
and  September,  and  it  was  found  that  the  silk-worms  grew 
fastest  in  those  months,  and  that  it  was  advisable  after  January 
and  until  April,  to  merel}^  keep  a  stock  for  propagation.  The 
elevation  is  about  3,000  feet.  Where  the  castor  plant  was 
readily  available,  the  cost  of  production  was  found  to  be  from 
twelve  annas  to  one  rupee  per  1,000  cocoons,  this  number  weigh- 
ing one  pound.* 

On  the  first  attempt  with  Bengal  seed,  I  found  that  bj^ 
selectinor  the  finest  cocoons  for  seed,  in  one  season  the  weioht 
was  almost  doubled.  The  worms  are  very  hardy  and  suitable  for 
propagation  under  primitive  conditions.  The}-  do  not  grow  well 
in  the  cold  season  but  like  a  moist  warmth. 

The  chief  difficulty  in  placing  this  variety  of  silk  in  the 
market  appeared  to  be  that  special  machinery  would  have  to  be 
introduced  to  treat  it.  I  received  some  favourable  reports  on  the 
silk  from  Manchester  and  London,  and  manufacturers  were  willino- 
to  set  up  the  necessary  machinery  provided  there  was  some 
guarantee  that  they  would  get  regulai'  shipments  in  large  quanti- 
ties. My  reason  for  giving  up  the  culture  was  on  account  of  the 
want  of  an  easily  available  market.  It  appears  to  me  to  be  a 
culture  eminently   suited   to   villagers,   whose  wives  and  children 


This  figure  i-<  vory  hii;li  ;  l:irge  brooii>  can  hv  reiire.l  at  less  tliaii  half  tliis. — (KniTOK). 


274  A.GRICCLTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,    III. 

have  time  to   spend  on  the   hght   work  of  feeding  and   tending 

these  worms — (R.  D.  Tipping). 

» 
*  * 

A  Method  of  Seed-testing  in  Use  among  the  Cultivators 
OF  the  Broach  District,  Bombay. — Tlie  cultivators  of  Gujarat 
are  renowned  throughout  India  for  their  excellent  methods  of 
cultivation,  and  an  additional  evidence  of  this  is  afforded  by  the 
existence  among  many  of  them  of  a  system  of  seed  testing  which 
recalls  those  in  use  under  the  most  advanced  agricultural  condi- 
tions. This  method  is  chiefly  used  for  wheat  seed,  but  is  applied 
to  other  seeds  as  necessary.  It  is  known  as  the  'po?^?z  .system,' 
so-called  from  the  '^j»o^^i' '  or  small  sample  which  is  used  in  the 
method. 

In  order  to  apply  the  method,  a  small  sample  of  the  seed  is 
taken,  placed  in  a  cotton  bag,  and  the  whole  dipped  in  water  for 
twenty-four  hours.  It  is  then  buried  in  a  hole  in  the  ground 
at  the  back  of  the  cultivator's  house  for  a  further  period  of  two 
complete  days, — and  then  the  number  of  seeds  which  have 
germinated  is  counted,  and  so  the  percentage  of  germination 
obtained.  A  sample  showing  more  than  from  five  to  seven  un- 
germinated  seeds  per  hundred  would  be  rejected,  or  the  seed  rate 
correspondingly  increased. 

The  method  is  principally  used  for  crops  in  which  the  cost 
of  seed  per  acre  is  very  high,  as  in  the  case  of  wheat.  It  is 
sometimes  employed  for /o war,  but  never  for  cotton,  where  heavy 
seeding  followed  by  vigorous  thinning  is  relied  upon  to  secure  the 
necessary  stand — (G.   D.  Mehta). 

*  * 
Foreign   Fruits   in   Bangalore. — In   some  parts  of  Madras, 

fruit  trees  are  grown  by  seedsmen  without  particular  care.  In 
and  about  Bancralore  there  are  a  few  small  orchards  where  apples, 
pomegranates,  guavas,  etc.,  are  growni.  None  exceeds  3  acres  in 
extent.  Grapes  are  grown  in  a  few  gardens.  There  is  a  vine- 
yard in  the  Palace  Gardens  of  the  Maharaja  of  Mysore. 

There  is  a  good  demand  for  fruits  in  Bangalore.  Grapes  from 
Kabul  and  apples  from  Australia  are  readily  sold  at  high  prices. 


NOTES.  275 

There  is  room  tor  considerable  improvement  in  fruit  culture 
ill  Madras  and  especially  in  Bangalore.  Tiie  climate  of  Banga- 
lore is  suitable  for  growing  both  local  and  foreign  varieties  of 
fruits.  In  November  190G  a  small  orchard  was  started  by 
Mr.  M.  J.  Paul  of  Mildura  (Australia)  to  grow  foreign  fruits, 
such  as  Australian  navel  oranges.  This  orchard  has  now 
been  extended  and  is  owned  by  the  Mysore  Fruit  Syndicate, 
Limited. 

The  area  of  the  orchard  is  35  acres,  of  which  30  acres  have 
been  planted  out.  It  is  laid  out  on  Australian  models,  having 
blocks  of  grape-vines  surrounded  by  oranges,  apples,  apricots, 
peaches,  etc.  The  methods  of  cultivation  are  those  followed  in 
California  and  Australia. 

The  followinfj  fruit  trees  are  now  grown  in  the  orchard  : — 
I.  Grnpe  vines  ...  9,000  in  number,  chief  varieties  being- 
Muscat  of  Alexandria,  Black  Ham- 
burg, Black  Prince,  Lady's  Finger, 
Muscatel,  Gardo  Blanco,  Sultanina 
(Thompson's  Seedless),  etc. 
II.     Apples  ...   Chief       varieties — Ben      Davis,     Rome 

Beauty,    Cleopatra,    Jonathan   Roke- 
wood.  Dun's  Seedling,  etc. 

III.  Peaches  ...   Chief  varieties— Foster,  Lovell,  Elberta, 

Mountain  Rose,  etc. 

IV.  Apricots         ...   Chief       varieties — Royal,        Moorpark, 

Onlin's  Early  Improved,  etc. 
V.      Plums  ...   Chief  varieties — Greengage,  Sugar  plum, 

Japanese,  Cor's  Golden  Drop,  etc. 
VI.      Pears  ...   Varieties — Bartlett,    Williams,    Howell, 

and  Duchess. 
VII.     Fi(js  ...   Two     varieties — White     Adriatic      and 

White  Genova. 
\'III.      Cherries         ...   Two     varieties — Florence     and       Early 

Orleans. 
IX.      UriDLgcs  ...   Two     varieties — Australian     Navel    and 

Washiniiton  Navel. 


276  AGRICDLTDRAL   JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,     I]I. 

The  Navel  orange  tree  fruits  within  one  year  from  the  bud. 
The  fruit  is  seedless,  especially  the  Australian  variety,  large,  solid, 
juicy  and  flavoured  ;  some  are  as  large  as  a  medium  sized  pumelo. 
They  keep  well  in  long  journeys. 

The  average  yield  of  a  grape  vine  is  about  lOlbs.  of  fruit, 
about  the  4th  j^ear  and  onwards,  and  sells  at  annas  4  a  lb  Each 
plant,  therefore,  yields  fruit  worth  Rs.  2-8-0.  The  income  from 
an  acre  of  about  480  vines  is,  therefore,  nearly  Rs.  1,000,  which 
is  sufficiently  remunerative. 

The  orchard  is  managed  by  Rao  Bahadur  A.  Maigandadeva 
Moodaliar,  the  Chairman  of  the  Syndicate,  which  is  helped  liber- 
ally by  His  Highness  the  Maharaja  of  Mysore.  The  Syndicate 
is  also  tr3ung  to  cross  local  and  foreign    varieties — (T.  V.  Subha- 

manium). 

* 

*  * 

The  Effect  of  Partial  Sterilisation  of  Soil  on  the  Produc- 
tion OF  Plant  Food. — It  has  been  known  for  a  long  time  that 
if  a  soil  be  heated  or  treated  with  antiseptics  so  as  to  partially 
sterilise  it,  its  productiveness  is  commonly  increased.  The  cause 
or  causes  of  this  effect  have  been  obscure,  and  a  recent  contri- 
bution* b}^  Messrs.  Russell  and  Hutchinson  of  the  Rothamsted 
Experiment  Station,  on  this  subject,  is  exceedingly  valuable, 
since  it  throws  a  good  deal  of  light  on  the  problem. 

Briefly  stated,  if  a  soil  be  heated  to  98°C.  (208°F.),  the 
succeeding  crop  will  be  two,  three  or  even  fourfold  of  what  it 
would  otherwise  have  been.  The  cause  of  this  increased  fertility 
has  been  attributed  successively  to  chemical,  to  physiological 
and  to  biological  changes  ;  and  it  has  been  the  object  of  the 
Rothamsted  work  to  provide  a  more  correct  explanation  than 
that  which  has  hitherto  been  offered.  The  first  section  of  the 
new  work  showed  that,  whatever  the  actual  cause,  the  effects  of 
heating  the  soil  to  95 C,  or  treating  it  with  an  antiseptic,  such 
as  toluene,  were  :  (i)  a  much  more  rapid  production  of  ammonia 
from  the  organic  matter  of  the  soil ;  {ii)  cessation  of  nitrification  ; 


Journal  of  Ayriculturnl  Science,   Vol     111,  p.   HI  it  .set/. 


NOTES.  277 

(///)  no  marked  change  in   the  amount  of  humus  in   the  soil ;  (ic) 

the   production   of  unstable  nitrogenous  compounds  was  acceler- 

nted.      It  was    also  proved  that  an  ordinar}^   that  is,   unsterilised 

soil,   contained    some  factor    which    limits    the    development    of 

bacteria,    which  factor  is  put  out  of  action  by  partial  sterilisation. 

Further  investigation   sliowed  that  the  larger  organisms,  such  as 

nfusoria,  amoeba)   and    ciliata,    which    are   present   in   untreated 

•     were    practically    absent    from   the   same  soil  after   partial 

ucrilisation.      These    larger    organisms    are   known    to    devour 

bacteria  and  consequently  limit  bacterial  activity  in  a  soil. 

The  explanation  which  Messrs.  Russell  and  Hutchinson  otter 
for  the  increased  fertility  of  a  partially  sterilised  soil  is  this. 
Soils  contain  a  wide  variety  of  organisms,  which  may  be  divided 
roughly  into  (a)  saprophytes,,  which  ettect  the  decomposition  of 
organic  matter ;  and  (h)  phagocytes  and  other  organisms  which 
consume  living  bacteria,  or  are  in  other  ways  inimical  to  them. 

When  a  soil  is  partially  sterilised  by  toluene  or  heat,  the 
phagocytes  are  killed,  but  bacterial  spores  survive.  On  removing 
the  toluene  and  adding  water  these  spores  germinate,  and  the 
resulting  organisms  multiply  with  great  rapidit}^  resulting  in  a 
largely  increased  production  of  ammonia.  At  the  same  time  it 
was  ascertained  that  some  organisms  suffer  seriousl3%  especially 
those  which  fix  atmospheric  nitrogen,  and  the  nitrifying  organ- 
isms are  entirely  destroyed.  Thus,  the  nett  result  of  partially 
sterilising  the  soil  in  the  manner  described,  is  to  increase  the 
ainount  ol"  auiiiionia,  but  to  inhibit  nitroo'en  fixation  and  nitrifi- 
cation.  The  plant  whicli  is  subsequently  grown  in  such  sterilised 
soil  then  apparently  depends  on  ammonia  ay  its  source  of 
nitrogen — (J.   W.   Lkathkr). 

« 

Cultivation  ok  Sov-iikans  in  India. — Soy-bean  should  be 
grown  as  a  hlinrlf  (rainy  season)  cro[).  The  seed  should  be 
sown  in  June  Jul}'.  The  cultivation  is  similar  to  that  of  other 
pulses  grown  in  India,  cy.,  gram,  which  however,  is  grown  in  the 
cold  weather.     The  crop  is  ripe  in  October — November. 

19 


278  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   III. 

Superior  varieties  of  this  pulse  have  much  more  robust  plants 
with  broader  leaves  and  larger  pods  and  seeds  and  require  more 
careful  cultivation.  Fairly  fertile  loamy  soils  and  moderate  rain- 
fall are  the  most  suitable.  The  land  should  be  thorou^hlv 
ploughed  and  cleaned  and  should  be  in  a  good  state  of  tilth  before 
sowing.  There  should  be  sufficient  moisture  in  the  soil  when  the 
seed  is  sown.  It  is  advisable  either  to  drill  the  seed  in  rows, 
12  to  15  inches  apart,  or  to  sow  it  by  hand  behind  a  plough,  and 
then  level  the  surface  with  a  log  of  wood  or  otherwise.  Care 
should  be  taken  not  to  cover  the  seed  below  2"  in  depth  at  the 
most.  It  should  be  sown  very  sparingly  at  the  rate  of  15  to  20 
lbs.  per  acre,  and  the  seedlings  should,  if  necessar}^  be  thinned  out, 
so  as  to  leave  a  space  of  9"  between  them.  The  plants  require 
ample  room  for  their  growth  as  they  branch  so  freely  that  a  mass 
of  vegetation  is  produced  which  completely  shades  the  ground. 

After  sowing,  the  only  care  required  is  to  keep  the  land 
clean  by  hoeing  and  hand  weeding,  if  necessary.  The  crop 
matures  as  soon  as  the  leaves  begin  to  fall,  and  then  it  should  be 
harvested. 

In  a  good  year,  the  crop  yields  from  500  to  1,000  lbs.  of  grain 
per  acre.  In  an  experiment  at  the  Poona  farm  in  1900-07  the 
averao-e  jueld  of  different  varieties  introduced  from  Japan  was 
660  lbs.  of  grain  per  acre.     The    straw    affords    a    very    valuable 

fodder  for  all  kinds  of  stock,  who  eat  it  most  readily — (Editor). 

* 
*  * 

Dry  Farming  in  the  Transvaal — An  article  on  this  subject 
appears  in  the  (iraphic  of  March  1910,  by  Dr.  William  jVIacdonald 
of  the  Transvaal  Department  of  Agriculture.  Dr.  Macdonald 
was  deputed  by  his  Government  to  visit  the  United  States  to 
report  on  the  practicability  of  introducing  into  South  Africa  the 
American  methods  of  "  Dry  Farming." 

A  Government  "  Dry-land  Station"  has  since  been  established 
at  Lichtenburg  for  experimenting  in  the  conservation  of  soil 
moisture,  tillage  methods  and  drought-resistant  crops.  The 
station  lies  in  the  middle  of  the  dr3'-land  zone  of  the  Transvaal 
in   which   it   has   always    been   thought  that  wheat  could  not  be 


NOTES.  279 

o-iY)\vii.  During  tlir  past  season  excellent  crops  of  wheat  and 
other  cereals  have  been  harvested.  Dr.  Macdonald  is  of  the 
opinion  that  much  of  the  arid  land  stretching  from  the  Cape  to 
the  Victoria  Falls — roughl}'  180,000,000  acres — having  a  rain- 
fall from  10  to  2;')  inches  per  year,  can  be  i-endered  culturable  in  a 
similar  manner. 

Another  example  is  cited  in  the  Demonstration  Farm  of 
Messrs.  John  Fowler.  Ltd.,  Leeds,  manufacturers  of  steam  plougli- 
ing  tackle.  Li  this  case  v>ith  a  pooi-  soil  and  in  spite  of  severe 
droughts  excellent  crops  of  maize  have  been  produced. 

These  results  have  been  obtained  b}"  means  of  thorough 
tillage  ;  the  ground  is  kept  open  b}'  frequent  ploughing,  cultivat- 
ino-,  harrowing  ^nd  rollino-.  The  soil  (luicklv  absorbs  the  lain- 
fall,  and  afterwards  evaporation  is  prevented  by  having  a  fine 
tilth  on  the  soil  surface.  Steam  cultivation  lends  itself  particu- 
larly well  to  this  class  of  work  where  large  unbroken  areas  of 
fairly  level  land  are  found. 

Dr}^  farming  is  not,  of  course,  a  substitute  for  irrigation  in 
semi-arid   regions,    it    is    only    recommended    where  irrigation  is 

impracticable — (G.  H.  Henderson). 

* 
*  * 

Seed  Selection  :  (Exti-act  fi-om  the  West  Indian  Bulletin.) — 
Plants  grown  from  seed  vary  to  a  greater  or  less  extent  from  one 
another.  If  there  is  anj^  variation  in  the  first  generation,  each 
succeeding  generation  which  is  produced  from  ])arents  with  vai-y- 
ino;  chai-acters  will  become  more  and  more  varied,  and  this  irre^u- 
larity  considerably  reduces  the  value  of  the  crop.  It  is  neces- 
sary, therefore,  in  order  to  obtain  a  good  unifoini  (piality  of 
cotton  to  adopt  a  ."system  of  seed  selection  in  which  certain 
individual  plants,  selected  for  their  good  (jualities,  are  made  the 
stai'ting  point  each  year. 

The  re(juirements  of  the  spiimci'  have  to  be  considered,  and 
every  efioi't  niadf  to  pi'oduec  that  class   of  cotton  that  he  desires. 

Ojie  point  which  tlio  spinner  strongly  emphasizes  is  that 
tlie  cotton  must  be  uniform.  A  careful  examination  of  cotton  on 
the  plants  in  the  field  show  that  although   a  large    percentage   of 


280  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   III, 

the  dilterent  plants  are  producing  a  fairly  uniform  quality,  yet 
there  are  some  that  produce  a  better  and  others  an  inferior  grade. 
When  seeds  are  planted  from  an  individual  plant  a  little  varia- 
tion will  usually  be  found.  Many  plants  also  show  a  certain 
amount  of  resistance  to  disease,  have  a  great  power  to  withstand 
adverse  climatic  conditions,  are  less  liable  to  shedding  of  bolls 
and  they  may  produce  a  larger  yield  of  longer,  finer  and  stronger 
cotton. 

By  carrying  out  these  experiments  varieties  of  plants 
especially  suited  to  local  conditions  of  soil  and  climate,  will  be 
obtained.  Instead  of  producing  a  crop  with  different  characters, 
there  will  be  each  year  a  tendency  for  the  quality  of  the  lint  to 
become  more  and  more  uniform.  The  proportion  of  weak  fibre 
will  be  reduced,  the  length  of  staple  and  the  proportion  of  lint  to 
seed  improved  and  the  general  productiveness  of  the  plant  in- 
creas  ed. 

In  the  first  place,  by  selecting  the  earliest  ripened  plants  one 
would  be  able  to  produce  (l)  a  plant  which  would  occupy  a  shorter 
period  between  the  sowing  of  the  seed  and  the  ripening  of  the 
crop,  (2)  b}^  selecting  seed  from  the  plants  which  produce  the 
longest  staple,  one  would  be  able  to  develop  plants  producing  still 
longer  stapled  cottons. 

Similar  results  can  be  obtained  by  selecting  the  finest,  silkiest, 
the  most  productive  and  the  healthiest  plants. 

A  simple  method  is  to  obtain  seed  from  a  place  which 
realises  the  highest  price  and  these  seeds  should  be  grown. 

When  the  plants  have  come  up,  a  field  selection  is  first  made  ; 
in  this  field  the  best  plants  are  then  picked  out  and  a  systematic 
examination  made  of  each  plant.  The  [)oints  on  which  plants 
should  be  selected  are  : — 

(a)  Habit. 
(6)  Height. 

(c)  Number  of  bolls. 

(d)  Maxirauiu  uuniber  of  boU.s  per  bianuli. 

(e)  Shape  of  bolls. 
(/•)  Size  of  bulls. 

(g)  Distribution  of  bolls. 

(A)  Resistance  of  plant  to  disease. 


NOTES.  281 

In  the  field,  the  healthiest,  most  vigorous  and  best  shaped 
plants  should  be  selected.  It  is  recommended  that  seed  selection 
should  not  be  commenced  until  the  first  bolls  begin  to  open,  for 
then  the  quality  of  the  lint  can  be  roughly  determined.  There 
is  alwaj's  a  tendency  for  a  large  number  of  bolls  to  fall  from  the 
plants  just  as  the  first  cotton  is  beginning  to  mature.  Hence  if 
seed  selection  is  not  commenced  until  some  of  the  seed  cotton  is 
ripe,  there  will  be  a  better  chance  of  getting  a  more  correct 
estimate  of  the  prolificness  of  the  plant.  Again,  when  the  cotton 
has  begun  to  ripen,  many  of  the  older  leaves  are  thrown  off.  The 
plants  thus  become  to  a  certain  extent  bare  and  show  up  the  most 
prolific  ones  much  more  i"eadily.  Plants  selected  in  the  field 
should  be  free  from  disease,  A  tall  plant  is  not  to  be  encouraged  : 
these  usually  give  a  much  lower  proportion  of  seed  cotton  than 
plants  of  medium  height,  hence  it  is  not  advisable  to  select 
plants  growing  tall.  The  bolls  should  be  of  good  size  and  as 
many  as  possible  on  the  individual  branches.  The  distribution  of 
the  bolls  should  also  be  general.  In  the  field  the  seed  cotton  can 
be  roughl}^  examined.  The  fibre  should  be  long.  The  selected 
plants  should  then  be  numbered  and  regular  field  notes  be  kept. 

(hivsory  Examination — Before  fixing  upon  any  definite  limit 
for  any  particular  character,  a  number  of  samples  should  be  ex- 
amined to  obtain  an  idea  of  the  general  ()uality  of  the  product. 
This  simplifies  matters  considerably  and  makes  it  possible  to 
determine  the  best  samples  out  of  a  large  number.  After  the 
cursory  examination  the  samples  selected  from  the  whole  collec- 
tion should  be  examined  as  regards  the  length.  The  characters 
for  which  the  samples  are  examined  are  : 

(1)  The  length  of  sta|.le  mnl  uiiifdiinity  of  leiigtli. 

(2)  Weight  of  seed  cotton  por  plant. 

(3)  Woiglit  of  .seed  cotton  per  l)olI. 

(4)  Proportion  of  wrak  lilne. 

(5)  Proportion  of  lint  tn  seed. 

(6)  Proportion  of  lint  ]wv  plant. 

(7)  Diameter  of  fibres. 

(8)  General  appearance. 

The  weight  of  seed  cotton  i)er  plant    should   then    be  deter- 
mined. 


282  AGRICULTDKAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   III. 

The  next  character  to  be  examined  is  the  proportion  of  weak 
fibre,  30  per  cent,  being  fixed  as  the  maximum  Hmit. 

The  proportion  of  lint  to  seed  to  be  next  determined,  no 
definite  hmit  to  be  fixed. 

The  general  appearance  is  very  important. 

The  weight  of  seed  cotton  per  boll  is  an  important  feature, 
some  might  wish  to  develop  a  large  boll  ;  this  will  be  much  easier 
to  pick  the  cotton  from  than  a  small  one,  and  if  each  boll  can  be 
increased  in  size,  it  is  very  probable  that  the  size  of  the  general 
crop  will  be  increased. 

The  size  of  the  seed  is  also  interesting.  Ijarge  seeds  are 
now  generally  recognised  to  produce  more  vigorous  plants  than 
small  seeds.  In  cotton  culture  there  is  another  feature  to  be 
taken  into  consideration,  riz.,  the  proportion  of  lint  to  seed,  and 
if  the  seed  is  materially  reduced,  the  fibre  producing  area  will 
also  be  reduced. 

The  diameter  of  the  fibre  is  also  important.  The  cotton 
with  the  slightest  diameter  is  most  suitable  for  spinning  fine 
grades.    Regularity  in  diameter  of  the  fibres  is  also  desirable. 

The  following  methods  have  proved  to  be  useful  in  determin- 
ing various  qualities  : — 

(  I)  fjt'iKjth  of  Staple — -To  determine  this,  a  luimber  of  seeds 
should  be  selected  from  the  sample  of  seed  cotton,  the  number  of 
the  seeds  depending  on  the  size  of  the  sample.  When  examining 
the  seed  cotton  from  the  individual  selected  plants,  it  is  convenient 
to  take  about  ten  seeds  from  different  parts  of  the  sample  ;  the 
length  of  the  lint  on  these  is  measured,  the  minimum  and  maximunj 
noted  and  the  average  determined  ;  reliable  results  are  obtained  by 
measuring  the  length  of  a  few  carefully  arranged  fibres. 

(2)  Proportion  of  Lint  to  Seed — It  is  convenient  to  remove 
the  lint  from  the  seed  by  means  of  a  hand  gin.  To  remove  it  by 
hand  is  very  laborious. 

After  the  separation  has  been  made,  the  proportion  of  lint  to 
seed  is  determined  by  weight. 

It  is  questionable,  however,  if  so  very  much  importance 
ought  to  be  attached    to    the    proportion  of   lint    to   seed.     The 


NOTES.  283 

variation  is  no  doubt  due  to  more  than  one  cause,  the  most 
obvious  beinir  the  varvini:  ciuantity  of  the  lint  on  the  seed. 
Another  factor  might  here  be  put  forward,  riz.,  a  larger  weight 
of  seed.  The  smaller  proportion  of  lint  in  this  case  is  only 
apparent.  It  is  therefore  desirable  that  the  (juantity  of  lint 
per  plant  should  be  considered  as  well  as  the  quantity  of  lint  on, 
say,  100  seeds. 

(3)  TJie  Proifortion  of  Weak  Fibres — On  each  seed  there  are 
two  sets  of  fibres,  riz.,  strong  and  weak.  The  weak  fibres  are 
arrested  in  development  and  possess  walls  which  are  extremely 
thin  and  transparent.  The  strength  of  the  lint  is  practically 
determined  by  the  proportion  of  these  weak  fibres  present.  The 
breaking  strain  of  the  two  sets  is  as  3:1,  and  this  fact  is  the  one 
on  which  the  principle  of  separation  is  based.  After  the  process 
of  ginning  the  strong  and  weak  fibres  are  so  mixed  together  that 
it  is  impossible  to  determine  the  proportion  in  which  each  is 
present,  but  while  attached  to  the  seed  it  is  possible  to  separate 
them  by  drawing  through  them  a  weaver's  fine  steel  comb.  The 
teeth  of  this  comb  are  fairly  close  together,  and  as  they  pass 
through  the  fibres,  they  offer  a  certain  amount  of  resistance,  and  if 
carefully  done,  the  resistance  is  sufHcient  to  break  the  weak  fibre 
from  the  seed,  but  not  sufficient  to  break  away  the  strong  fibres. 

The  fibres  attached  to  the  seed  are  first  carefully  straighten- 
ed out  by  means  of  the  fingers;  they  are  then  combed  out  stiaight 
close  to  the  seed.  And  then  holding  them  at  this  point  between 
forefini^er  and  thumb,  the  loose  ends  are  combed  out  straioht. 
When  the  ends  have  been  straightened,  the  comb  can  be  drawn 
through  their  whole  length,  and  the  weak  fibres  will  leave  the 
seed,  till-'  strong  ones  remaining  attached.  The  strong  fibres 
can  afterwards  be  detached  from  the  seed  and  the  proportion  of 
strong  and  weak  determined  by  weight.  In  order  to  obtain  good 
results,  it  is  best  to  work  out  a  hundred  seeds,  and  these  should 
be  taekn  out  from  all  parts  of  the  sample. 

(4)  Diameter  of  Fibres — This  must  be  ascertained  niicros- 
copically  by  means  of  a  graduated  eye-piece.  This  work  can  be 
done  very  rapidly.      It  is  not  advisable  to  measure  the  weak  fibres, 


284  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,    III. 

these  being  flat  and  consequently  broader,  and  besides  they  con- 
stitute a  factor  which  one  must  try  to  eliminate.  Five  mounts 
should  be  made  from  the  samples  and  the  diameters  of  i20  fibres 
measured  in  each  mount. 

(5)  Silkiness — Up  to  the  present  there  is  no  scale  for 
determining  thesilkiness  of  any  sample,  and  in  any  case  it  can  onl}?- 
be  an  arbitrary  one. 

(6)  Fineness — This  is  exhibited  by  the  general  appearance, 
but  it  is  only  after  a  long  experience  that  one  can  correctly  judo-e 
a  quality  of  this  character. 

The  spinner  would  always  be  willing  to  pay  a  higher  price 
for    some    specific     quality,   e.r/.,    length,    lustre,    etc. — (Thomas 

Thornton). 

* 

*  * 

A  New  Agricultural  Station  in  Sind — The  Government 
of  Bombay  have  sanctioned  the  establishment  of  an  agricultural 
station  in  the  richest  and  best  cultivated  district  of  Larkhana 
in  Sind.  This  farm  will  be  about  100  acres  and  within  two 
miles  of  Larkhana  on  the  Ghar  canal.  The  main  objects  of 
the  farm  will  be  the  experimental  cultivation  of  rice  and  dry 
crops  such  as  jowar  and  wheat,  and  the  growing  of  garden  crops 
and  fruit  trees.  When  this  farm  is  established,  there  will  be 
three  good  farms  in  Sind — the  Mirpurkhas  farm  for  the  Jamrao 
tract  and  the  farms  at  Sukkar  and  Larkhana  in  Upper  Sind — 
(Editor). 


REVIEWS 


The    Revival    of  xViiUicLLTUKE     in     India  :     \i\  John     Kenny. 
Madras:     Higginbotham  Sc  Co.,  11)01). 

This  very  interesting  little  pamphlet  of  thirty  pages  has  hcen 
written  by  one  who,  after  being  connected  with  planting  in  South 
India  for  many  years,  has  been  recentl}^  Director  of  Agriculture 
in  the  Junagadh  State  in  Kathiawar.  Essentially,  the  theme  is 
that  of  the  necessity  of  co-operation  among  Indian  cultivators, 
co-operation  for  the  provision  of  credit,  and  also  for  the  supply  of 
seed,  of  implements  and  of  manures.  The  whole  is  illustrated 
by  a  very  readable  account  of  the  development  of  agriculture  and 
the  improvement  in  the  economic  condition  of  the  agricultural 
population  in  several  of  the  States  of  Europe. 

We  welcome  the  appearance  of  a  pamphlet  of  this  sort. 
Though  there  is  a  tendency,  common,  I  think,  to  many  publica- 
tions on  this  subject,  to  exaggerate  what  has  been  done  in  some 
European  countries,  yet  it  is  well  that  these  inspiring  examples 
of  wdiat  can  be  accomplished  in  the  course  of  a  single  generation 
in  the  economic  improvement  of  a  peasantry  swallowed  up  in 
debt,  should  Ije  made  known  to  a  w^ide  public.  So  far  the  pam- 
[)]det  can  do  nothing  but  good.  With  some  of  the  details  of 
Mr.  Kenny's  suggestions,  we  are  not  in  agreement.  We  do  not 
believe,  for  instance,  that  one  of  the  great  needs  of  Indian  cultiva- 
tors is  a  su[)ply  of  artificial  manures.  We  have  little  evidence, 
again,  of  tlie  progressive  deterioration  of  most  of  the  land  in 
India,  which  Mr.  Kenny  considers  as  certain.  But  though  on 
this  and  a  few  other  points  we  are  not  at  one  with  the  waiter,  yet 
his  pam[)hlet  forms  as  a  whole  a  document  which  indicates  the 
lines  on  whieli  the  improvement  of  Indian  cultivators  and  cultiva- 


286  AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   IIL 

tion  call  best  be  approached.  There  is  Httle  or  nothing  new  in 
the  information,  but  the  restatement  of  an  important  position 
may  itself  have  advantages — (Harold  H.   Mann). 

Yearbook    of    the  United    States  Department  of  Aoriculture, 

l'J08  :     Washinoton,  I'JOl). 

The  appearance  of  the  Yearbook  of  the  Department  of 
Ao-riculture  of  the  United  States  of  America  is  one  of  the 
events  of  the  Mgricultural  year.  Ever  since  18'J4,  when  the 
present  series  commenced,  the  annual  production  of  a  volume 
full  of  the  most  inspiring  and  suggestive  articles  has  never 
ceased,  and  that  which  now  lies  before  me  is  no  exception  to 
the  rule.  Some  of  us  date  what  was  almost  our  first  strong 
enthusiasm  for  agricultural  improvement  to  reading  former  issues 
of  the  American  Yearbook,  and  the  same  power  of  inspiration 
seems  to  pervade  the  present  issue. 

As  usual,  the  Yearbook  commences  with  the  annual  report 
of  the  Secretary  for  Agriculture,  which  leaves  one  chietly 
impressed  with  the  idea  of  the  vastness  of  his  Department's 
interests.  In  the  United  States,  the  Department  does  not  only 
concern  itself  with  agriculture  in  the  ordinary  sense  of  the  term. 
Among  its  many  more  general  activities,  it  is  the  centre  of 
all  veterinary  work,  it  controls  the  national  forests,  it  is  the 
referee  in  all  questions  of  food  adulteration,  it  has  the  meteoro- 
logical department — the  weather  bureau — of  the  United  States 
Government  under  its  control,  and  so  on.  Hence  the  report, 
though  evidently  much  condensed,  is  long, — but  there  are 
valuable  and  suggestive  remarks  in  almost  every  page. 

The  second  part  is,  however,  the  most  characteristic  of  the 
Yearbook.  This  consists  of  a  collection  of  articles  by  experts 
in  their  subjects  on  (|uestions  connected  more  or  less  directly 
with  agriculture  which  have  aroused  general  interest,  or  have 
been  under  investigation  during  the  year,  or  on  which  it  is 
thought  that  valuable  suggestions  can  be  given.  This  year 
these  articles  are  twenty- three  in  number,  of  the  most  varied 
character,    and  I   do  not  propose,  hence,  to   attempt   to    review 


Kt:viF:\vs.  287 

tliu  vtiluiuf  as  a  whole.  It  cuvers  too  wide  a  field  for  that  to  he 
possihle  ill  a  u.sct'ul  iiiaiiiier.  But  I  think  it  may  be  profitable 
to  refer  to  certain  articles,  partly  on  account  of  the  information 
which  they  give,  but  more  because  of  the  suggestive  and  inspiring 
character  of  their  contents. 

One  of  the  most  characteristic  of  these  articles  is  that  on 
"The  Wastes  of  the  Farm"  by  Mr,  A.  F.  Woods,  whieli  consists 
essentially  of  a  plea  for  intensive  farming,  with  exaiii[)les  taken 
from  the  cotton  belt  in  the  United  States.  As  is  well  known, 
the  agriculture  of  this  tract  was  formerly  very  poor,  and  much  of 
it  is  still  poor.  It  was  conducted  on  borrowed  money,  and  gave  a 
crop  which  just  kept  the  cotton  farmer  going.  In  recent  years  a 
change  has  taken  place.  The  i^avHonnel  of  the  farmers  in  the 
cotton  belt  has  improved,  modern  implements  economical  of 
energy  and  labour  have  been  introduced,  a  much  greater  variety 
of  crops  is  used,  better  care  is  taken  to  secure  good  and  pure  seed, 
and  co-operative  marketing  is  being  taken  in  hand.  These  lines 
of  improvement  indicate  how  much  depends  on  better  education 
on  the  one  hand,  and  on  better  credit  on  the  other.  The  lesson 
might  well  be  taken  to  heart  in  many  of  our  Indian  districts. 

Another  paper  which  demands  attention  for  another  reason 
is  that  on  "The  Search  for  New  Leguminous  Fodder  Crops"  by 
Mr.  C  V.  Piper,  Here  the  interest  to  us  lies  very  largely  in 
the  fact  that  in  America  quite  a  nuiiiher  of  [)laiits  which  are 
ccjuimoiily  grown  in  India,  and  are  not  valued  [)crha[)s  very  much, 
are  beinfj  introduced  and  boomed  in  the  United  States  as  beinir 
o-reat  discoveries.  For  instance,  in  the  present  article  aiL'on<'' 
others  1  notice  the  common  Bombay  croj)  </uar  {Ci/aniiwsis 
ft'fra(/oiwloba=  C.  psondioides)  is  commended  very  highly  for  its 
drou'-ht  resistance.  "  It  is  the  most  drouiiht-resistant  annual 
legume  yet  obtained.  At  Chieo,  ("alifoniia,  a  fine  crop  was  pro- 
duced without  irrigation  and  w  itlnjut  a  drop  of  rain  from  the  time 
it  was  planted  until  neail\'  mature.'"  Our  common  i)ial/(  in 
Bombay  [Phuscol ns  (iconitij'vltn.s)  also  received  great  commend- 
ation. "  The  very  viiiy  branches  and  the  persistency  with  which 
the   leaves  are  Ik-IiI  make  an  unusuall}'  fine  quality  of  hay,  which 


288  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  III. 

stock  of  all  kinds  eat  greedily The   yield   per   acre  during 

the  three  years  in  which  it  has  been  under  trial  averages  alioat 
two  tons.  So  far  as  can  be  ascertained  in  limited  experience  with 
it,  it  is  somewhat  more  drought-resistant  than  the  cowpea." 
Kulthi  [Dolichos  hifiorus)  and  Dolichos  lahlah,  known  in  Bombay 
as  ival,  also  receive  strong  commendation.  This  article  leaves  me 
at  any  rate  with  the  idea  that  crops  which  are  proving  so  valuable 
in  America  may  be  worthy  of  more  attention  here,  more  especially 
in  tracts  where  the  fodder  supply  is  a  matter  of  constant  anxiety. 

I  can  only  just  refer  to  several  other  articles.  The  account 
by  Mr.  Quaintance  on  the  spraying  of  orchards  for  insects  is 
one  of  the  best  and  most  complete  descriptions  of  what  can  and 
cannot  be  done  in  this  direction  that  I  have  seen.  When  the 
question  of  increasing  the  crops  in  dry  areas  is  so  much  before 
the  public,  the  description  of  the  effect  of  soil  mulches  in  check- 
ing evaporation  by  Mr.  Fortier  will  be  found  of  considerable 
value.  The  "  Systematic  Rotation  of  Crops  in  Tobacco  Culture" 
willo'ive  food  for  thought  in  our  Indian  tobacco  districts.  Several 
articles  refer  to  the  value  of  birds  in  keeping  down  injurious 
insects  and  are  worthy  of  careful  attention,  and  so  on. 

The  whole  volume  is  packed  with  information,  and  is  well 
worthy  of  careful  perusal  by  all  interested  in  the  development  of 
Indian  agriculture — (Harold   H.  Mann). 


The  Chinch  Bug.  By  F.  M.  Webster,  United  States  Depart- 
ment of  Agriculture,  Bureau  of  Entomology,  Circular 
No.   11:3. 

"Few  insects have  caused  such  enormous  pecu- 
niary losses  as  has  the  Chinch  bug.  If  we  could  have  careful 
estimates  of  the  loss  during  the  last  fifteen  years,  it  would  in  all 
probability  swell  the  amount  to  considerably  in  excess  of 
$350,000,000  (Rupees  100  crores)  for  the  period  from  1850  to 
1909."  This  quotation  serves  to  show  the  enormous  aggregate 
importance  of  this  pest  in  the  United  States  where  it  attacks 
wheat,  barley,  rye  and  corn.     The  Chinch  bug  is  a  small  Lygasid 


REVIEWS.  289 

l)uu  (/)//.sN/'.s-  /ciicopterus)  represented  in  India  by  Blis.m.s  gibbiis, 
which  is  found  sparingly  on  sugarcane  and  grasses.  The  author 
describes  the  Hf'e-liistor}'  shortly  ;  there  are,  of  course,  no  changes 
ill  it,  the  little  active  bugs  coming  from  the  egg,  growing  and 
moulting  till  they  are  fullgrown  and  winged  ;  there  are  long  and 
short-winged  forms,  the  fullgrown  insect  black  and  about  one- 
fit'th  of  an  inch  long.  There  are  normally  two  generations  a  year 
ill  the  summer,  and  the  winter  is  passed  in  hiding  in  matted  grass, 
fallen  leaves  and  other  rubbish.  The  author  lays  stress  on  this 
winter  [)eriod,  and  states  that  destructive  outbreaks  have  been 
traced  to  stooks  of  corn  fodder  being  allowed  to  stand  in  the 
fields  all  the  winter,  giving  the  bugs  a  suitable  shelter  ;  in  other 
cases  tin-  bugs  have  wintered  in  woodlands  borderino-  on  fields 
and  ill  neglected  hedges.  The  (juail,  the  frog  and  several  insects 
pre\'  upon  it  and  another  check  is  a  fungus  ;  but  climate  is  the 
main  factor,  in  that  heavy  drenching  rains  occurring  at  the  time 
the  young  hatch  destroy  them  in  immense  numbers. 

The  author  states  that  "  a  dry  June  followed  b}-  a  dry 
August  is  favourable  to  the  development  of  Chinch  bugs,"  these 
two  months  being  the  time  the  eggs  hatch.  In  wet  weather, 
the  use  of  artificial  cultures  of  the  fungus  has  proved  useful  and 
have  been  used  extensively,  but  as  they  depend  upon  weather, 
their  uncertainty  has  led  to  their  being  abandoned.  Remedies 
are  fully  discussed  ;  they  consist  in  burning  places  where  bugs 
shelter,  using  the  fungus  in  wet  weather  if  the  bugs  are  abundant, 
checking  their  movements  by  trenching,  and  by  decoying  them 
into  special  jilots  of  vegetation  where  they  can  be  [)loughed  into 
the  soil  and  destroyed.  The  author  also  remarks  :  "  without 
vigilance  and  jnompt  action,  however,  onl}^  inditferent  results  are 
to  bo  expected  from  any  of  these  measures."  He  anticipates 
also  a  recuncnco  of  bad  3'ears,  the  bug  having  been  for  some 
years  of  little  Importance  as  a  pest. 

The  United  States  pay  great  attention  to  insect  pests,  and 
the  study  of  crop  {)ests  is  undertaken  in  a  very  thorough  way. 
No  amount  ol"  study,  however,  alters  the  ftict  that  the  repression 
of  such  a  pest  depends  wholly  upon  the  co-operation  of  all  iarmers. 


290  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   III. 

and  that  the  important  thing  to  do  is  the  one  of  commonsense, 
destrojnng  all  materials  in  which  the  hugs  winter.  That  is,  clean 
cultivation,  clearing  up  of  roadsides,  burning  of  rubbish  and 
complete  removal  of  the  crop  from  the  field  at  harvest  are  all- 
important.  This  is  the  case  not  onl}^  with  the  Chinch  l)ug,  but 
w^ith  very  manj'  pests,  in  America  as  in  India  ;  we  have  in  this 
countr}'^  no  pest  quite  analogous  to  the  Chinch  bug,  but  we  have 
many  which  have  to  spend  the  winter  or  the  dr}^  hot  weather 
in  shelter  somewhere,  in  stubble,  in  gi'ass,  in  rubbish,  among 
fallen  leaves,  or  in  roadsides,  and  from  which  the3^ issue  to  breed. 
Perhaps,  no  one  but  an  entomologist  can  realise  how  important 
this  is,  but  in  view  of  the  recurrence  of  the  attacks,  the  United 
States  Bureau  of  Entomology  issues  this  circular,  drawing  the 
attention  of  farmers  to  the  pest  and  detailing  the  methods  that 
have  been  used  in  the  past.  The  circular  is  a  model  of  \\\vdt  sucli 
publications  should  be,  appealing  to  the  fiirmer  by  its  directness 
and  simplicity,  and  yet  giving  in  plain  language  all  the  facts  on 
which  he  can  himself  judge  of  the  value  of  the  measures  des- 
cribed—(H.  M.  Lefroy). 


Plant  Food  Removed  from  Growino  Plants  by  Pain  or  Dew. 
By  Le  Clerc  and  Breazealk  (IIeprint  from  Yearbook  of 
Department  OP  Agriculture,  V.  S.  A.,  for  1908). 
Various  experimenters  in  Europe  and  America  have  found, 
by  means  of  the  chemical  anal3'sis  of  plants  at  different  stages 
of  maturity,  that  the  amount  of  such  constituents  as  ])otash, 
phosphoric  acid,  nitrogen,  increased  until  the  plant  commenced 
to  form  the  reproductive  organs,  after  which  a  material  decrease 
occurred.  This  subject  has  nothing  to  do  with  a  mere  trans- 
location of  material  from  one  part  of  the  plant  to  another.  It 
has  been  long  established  that  during  the  maturation  of  plants, 
material  passes  from  the  leaf  to  the  fruit,  but  the  investigations 
now  alluded  to,  had  reference  to  the  total  amounts  of  constituents 
in  the  plant  irrespective  of  their  situation.  As  mentioned,  a 
decrease  was  observed,  and  the  <|uestion  remains  as   to   how   this 


REVIEWS.  291 

liappens  and  what  becomes  of  the  constituents  that  disappear. 
Wilfart,  Ronier  and  Winiiiier,  of  Bernhurg,  considered  that  they 
pass  down  the  stem  into  the  root,  and  this  opinion  has  been 
shared  b}^  others.  Le  Clerc  and  Breazeale,  however,  have  come 
to  a  different  conclusion.  In  tlieir  experiments,  growing  ))lants 
were  washed  with  spra^'ed  watei-at  intervals  during  the  maturing 
period,  and  the  amount  of  mattei'  tlius  washed  off  was  estimat- 
ed. It  was  thus  found  that  very  consideiable  proportions  of  the 
nitrogen,  the  potash  and  the  phosphoric  acid  ma}-  be  removed 
in  this  manner.  For  example,  in  one  experiment  wheat  lost  one- 
thii"d  of  its  nitrogen,  one-fifth  of  its  phosphoric  acid  and  two- 
thirds  of  its  [)otash.  Tiie  amounts  which  are  thus  removable 
vary  within  considerable  limits,  l)ut  are  always  large,  and  the 
authors  draw  special  attention  io  the  case  of  grass  and  other 
fodder  crops  which  are  exposed  to  wet  weather  and  which  must, 
thereb}^  suffer  deterioration  ;  also  that  the  amounts  of  material 
so  returned  to  the  soil  are  considerable  from  the  manurial  point 
of  view — (J.  W.  Leather). 

*  * 
Replanning  a  Farm  for  Profit. 

Farmers'  Bulletin  No.  370  issued  by  the  office  of  Fai'm 
Management,  Bureau  of  Plant  Industry  of  the  United  States, 
America,  on  the  subject  of"  replanning  a  farm  foi-  [>rofit,''  contains 
many  general  truths,  some  of  which  ma}-  be  veiy  profitably 
applied  to  f\irm  management  in  India.  The  Americans*  are  a 
})ractical  people.  The  work  of  the  office  of  Farm  Management  is 
to  assist  by  its  advice  farmers,  in  changing,  where  necessarj^  their 
present  systems  of  faiming,  so  as  to  get  lai-ger  returns  econom- 
ically from  the  land.  Wheat  farming  on  some  of  the  soils  of  the 
States,  and  cotton  farming  on  others  were  at  first  very  profitable  ; 
but  contiimous  cr()p[)ing  with  the  same  crop  has  impoverished 
the  soil  in  many  places.  To  survive  under  these  altered  condi- 
tions ;ind  lessened  yields,  raimers  are  advised  to  adopt  new  and 
more  })rofitable  systems  of  farming.  There  are  many  difficulties 
in  the  way,  howev(M- ;  for  farmers  are  conservative  b}^  nature 
and  find    it   hard  to  chani-e  a  life-lono-   habit.      "  A  man  who   has 


292  AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  III. 

grown  up  with  the  agriculture  of  a  community  is  slow  to  believe 
that  the  type  of  farming  he  has  followed  and  which  was  at  one 
time  profitable  has  at  last  become  unsuited  to  his  conditions. 
It  is  no  easy  task  to  think  out  and  change  his  long-used  type 
to  some  better  kind  of  farming.  It  ma}^  mean  a  new  line  of 
equipment.  Buildings  may  need  modification  or  fences  must 
be  rearranged.  It  may  mean  introduction  of  commercial  fertil- 
izers or  of  more  or  different  live  stock  on  the  farm.  It  may 
mean  that  money  will  have  to  be  borrowed  before  the  proposed 
changes  can  be  eftected.  Furthermore,  the  change  may  not 
succeed.  At  best  the  taking  up  of  a  new  line  of  farmino- 
requires  re-adjustment  of  the  usual  ways  of  thinkin^or  and  doino-, 
a  thing  difficult  in  itself,  and  requiring  considerable  time  to 
accomplish." 

A  new  and  better  system  may  involve  the  growing  of  more 
of  the  most  profitable  crop  which  will  enrich  the  soil  and 
the  o-ivino:  of  more  attention  to  the  live  stock  that  has  been 
found  to  pay  him  best,  and  the  like.  Having  once  decided  that 
a  change  is  necessary,  several  different  S3'stems  suitable  for  local 
conditions  naturally  suggest  thewselves  ;  but  before  adopting  any 
one,  the  farmer  is  advised  to  estimate  carefully  the  returns  to  be 
expected  from  each  and  the  cost  of  carrying  them  out  under 
local  conditions.  At  this  stage  the  average  farmer  is  confronted 
by  a  formidable  difficulty.  He  has  not  been  an  experimenter 
and  has  very  little  reliable  information  on  any  given  phase  of 
farming  on  which  to  base  his  calculations.  He  may  not  know  the 
average  yields  of  the  crops  that  he  can  grow'  on  his  different 
fields  or  how  these  yields  might  be  increased  by  manuring  or 
rotation  of  crops.  He  may  not  even  know  what  it  costs  him  to 
cultivate  his  fields.  To  assist  such  men,  the  United  States  Depart- 
ment of  Agriculture  has  established  an  office  of  Farm  Manage- 
ment, the  work  of  which  is  to  advise  struggling  farmers  how  to 
replan  a  farm  to  make  it  pay.  This  office  co-ordinates  all  the 
manifold  interests  of  the  fai-m  intcj  a  comprehensive  farm  plan 
which  omits  features  that  do  not  pay,  and  strengthens  those  that 
do.     The   advice  given   by   the   office   of  Farm    Management    is 


REVIEWS.  293 

bcasecl  on  the  results  obtained  at  experimental  stations,  and  on 
what  is  beiiio"  done  by  good  farmers  working  under  similar 
conditions  of  soil  and  climate  elsewhere. 

Care  is  taken  to  base  the  farm  plan  on  average  results 
covering  a  period  of  years  ;  for  while  the  profits  from  year  to 
year  n]ay  vary  considerably  owing  to  the  vagaries  of  the  weather, 
visitations  of  insect  pests  or  plant  diseases,  the  rise  and  fall  in 
prices  of  farm  produce  and  other  unforeseen  circumstances,  the 
average  profits  over  a  period  of  years  is  approximately  the   same. 

In  replanning  a  farm  the  fundamental  points  to  be  kept  in 
mind  are  :  (1)  that  the  plan  should  [jrovide  a  reasonable  profit ; 
(•2)  that  the  fertility  of  the  soil  should  be  maintained  ;  and  (3) 
that  the  plan  should  be  suited  to  the  capabilities  of  the  owner  for 
carrying  it  out. 

As  a  concrete  example  of  the  pecuniary  advantages  to  be 
derived  from  the  practical  method  of  replanning  a  farm,  the 
Bulletin  gives  six  different  .systems  of  farming,  which  may  be 
considered  suitable  for  the  soil  and  climatic  conditions  which 
obtain  in  a  certain  part  of  the  prairie  tract.  The  live  stock  to 
be  kept,  the  rotation  to  be  followed,  3aelds  to  be  expected  and 
net  profits  to  be  obtained,  are  worked  out  in  detail  in  each  case. 
The  figures  show  that  the  income  from  the  same  farm  can  be 
doubled  or  trebled  without  increasing  the  expenditure,  by  simpl}^ 
adopting  on  these  lines  a  definite  system  suited  to  the  local 
conditions  and  capabilities  of  the  owqier. 

But  the  farmer  must  learn  to  help  himself.  He  must  use 
his  brains  in  deciding  which  type  of  farming  he  is  to  adopt. 
The  aim  of  the  bulletin  is  to  suggest  various  ways  of  thinking 
about  the  faim  and,  when  the  time  comes  for  replanning,  the  returns 
that  may  be  expected  from  the  adoption  of  any  given  plan. 
What  the  farmer  requires  is  a  comprehensive  knoAvledge  of 
different  systems  of  farming  gained  by  experience  and  by  fjxmili- 
arity  with  what  is  being  accomplished  by  others.  He  should 
be  up  to  date  in  all  his  methods  and  should,  as  far  as  possible, 
be  in  touch  with  other  successful  farmers,  with  agricultural 
experts,    experimental   stations  and  colleges.     He  may  get  much 

20 


294  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  III. 

assistance,     too,     from     a     perusal    of    agricultural     periodicals. 
"  Many  a   farmer   fails   to   get   adequate   returns  from  his  farm, 

because  he  stays  at  home  too  closely does  not  visit   good 

farmers  in  his  neighbourhood  or  other  parts  of  the  country 
where  good  farming  is  done." 

In  India  while  the  need  of  adopting  new  and  more  profitable 
systems  of  farming  is  great,  the  difficulties  in  the  way  of  doing 
so  are  far  more  formidable  than  those  experienced  by  the  farmer 
of  the  West,  for  the  Indian  ryot  is  less  intelligent  and,  therefore, 
less  capable  of  grasping  new  ideas.  There  is  a  dearth  of  that 
class  of  advanced  cultivators  who  in  Europe  and  America  give 
their  personal  attention  to  the  cultivation  of  their  laiid,  and 
whose  high  standard  of  farming  is  in  itself  an  object  lesson  to 
their  neighbours.  The  Indian  farmer,  too,  is  more  dependent 
on  the  exigencies  of  the  weather  ;  the  rainfall  on  which  success- 
ful cultivation  depends  so  much  is  in  his  case  a  more  variable 
factor.     Under  these    circumstances    he    stands    in    even  o-reater 

o 

need  of  assistance  than  does  his  brother  of  the  West.  In  many 
agricultural  tracts  in  India  to-day  are  to  be  found  S3'^stems  of 
agriculture  being  practised,  which  are  as  old  as  the  hills  and 
very  unprofitable. 

Of  the  many  useful  suggestions  contained  in  the  bulletin  all 
are  not  equally  applicable  to  the  condition  of  agriculture  in  India. 
In  each  province  in  India  there  is  a  department  of  agriculture, 
which  is  prepared  to  give  the  cultivator  expert  advice  on  farm 
management,  while  the  experts  of  the  Pusa  Research  Institute 
are  able  and  willing  to  give  information  on  the  more  specialised 
branches  of  farmino-.  The  number  of  cultivators  in  India  who 
would  benefit  from  such  information  and  advice  is,  however,  com- 
paratively small,  for  the  average  ryot  is  yet  a  child  of  nature. 
If  we  are  to  teach  him  better  methods,  our  lessons  must  be  in  the 
concrete.  He  requires  ocular  proof  of  the  advantage  of  any 
method  or  system  of  farming  which  differs  from  his  own  before 
he  will  adopt  it.  As  a  rule  then  all  attempts  at  improvements 
of  Indian  agfriculture  should  be  based  on  demonstration.  The 
non-experimental   area   of  every   experimental   farm   should  be  a 


REVIEWS. 


295 


model  demonstration  tnini  for  tlie  tract  it  represents,  and  subor- 
dinate demonstration  farms  sliould  Ije  established  in  other  sections 
of  the  tract.  The  greatest  possible  use  should  be  made  of 
agricultural  colleges  and  experimental  farms  as  educational 
instituti(jn8,  as  advocated  b}-  the  bulletin.  Some  good  can  also  be 
done  by  a  wide  circulation  of  agricultural  papers  in  the  vernac- 
ulars. The  experts  of  agricultural  departments  in  India,  as  in 
America,  can  give  the  cultivator  advice,  too,  as  to  the  most  profitable 
system  of  farming  to  adopt;  but  in  our  most  backward  tracts  our 
colleges,  experimental  farms  and  advice  mean  very  little  to  the 
illiterate  cultivator.  To  make  him  believe  in  an  improved  plan  of 
farming  he  must  first  b(.'  made  to  see  its  advantages  with  his  own 
eyes,  and  if  that  plan  involves  operations  which  are  new  to  him,  he 
must  be  trained  to  do  them. 

For  the  })urpose  of  illustration  the  Raipur  Experimental 
Farm  ma}'  betaken  as  an  example  of  how  a  new  type  of  farming- 
can  be  substituted  with  profit  in  a  backward  tract  for 
that  which  has  been  practised  for  centuries  by  the  rijots.  Tlie 
soil  of  that  farm  is  fairly  representative  of  that  of  much  of 
Chhattisgarh,  but  contains  only  a  small  portion  of  the  best  rice 
soil.  The  area  of  the  farm  is  170  acres  including  about  20 
acres  occupied  by  roads  and  buildings.  If  leased  to  a  culti- 
vator, the  type  of  farming  adopted,  outturns  and  profits  obtained, 
would  be  approximately  as  shown   below  : — 


(Vop. 

Area 
in  acres. 

Value, 

Rs.    A. 

Kicc  .sown  broadcast 

ss-.-) 

787    8 

Koilon  and  tur  mixed 

.■)S-0 

957    S 

Dry  crop  wlieat 

•.'4-() 

4S0    0 

(Jrani 

1(C() 

140    0 

Maitur 

7-0 

70    0 

Peas 

4-0 

40    0 

Linseed  ... 

8-0 

170    0 

150-0 

2,B45    0 

The  statement  was  prepared  with  the  assistance  of  a 
neighbouring  maJf/nyf);  who  was  thoroughly  conversant  with  the 
local  conditions.     It   was   framed    on   the    assumption    that   the 


296  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF  INDIA.  [V,   III. 

cultivators'  cattle  had  free  access  to  the  common  village  grazing 
land,  and  that  the  whole  area  of  150  acres  could  be  cropped. 
Such  land,  according  to  the  malguzars  estimate,  should  yield 
crops  worth  on  an  average  about  Rs.  18  per  acre.  This  is 
evidently  very  nearly  correct  as  the  average  profits  obtained 
under  Government  management  for  the  first  two  years  by  the 
local  system  of  farming  was  only  Rs.  19.  The  farm  has  been 
entirely  replanned  with  the  result  that  the  receipts  for  the 
same  period  of  twelve  months — April  to  April,  have  risen 
from  an  average  of  Rs.  1,684  for  the  first  two  years  to  Rs.  7,095 
this  year.  The  expenditure  including  that  spent  in  labour, 
manure  and  food  for  the  work  cattle,  in  the  same  time  has  only 
risen  from  Rs.  1,908  to  Rs.  3,636  ;  while  the  receipts  have  more 
than  quadrupled,  the  expenditure  has  less  than  doubled.  Inci- 
dentally the  farm  pa3\s  very  handsomely,  though  at  least  10% 
of  the  expenditure  may  reasonably  be  taken  as  unproductive  in 
so  far  as  it  is  spent  on  what  is  purely  experimental  work.  The 
mere  question  of  profit,  however,  is  of  importance  only  in  so 
far  as  it  proves  that  as  a  model,  this  type  of  farming  is  suitable 
for  the  tract.  The  merits  of  the  new  plan  are  :  (i)  that  it  provides 
for  the  cultivation  of  two  new  and  very  profitable  crops,  namely, 
sugarcane  and  groundnut  ;  (ii)  it  has  produced  greatly  increased 
outturns  of  rice  and  wheat  by  transplanting  the  rice  area  and  bj^ 
irrigating  both  crops  ;  (iii)  it  provides  for  the  copious  manuring 
of  part  of  the  farm  area  each  year  with  poudrette,  a  localh' 
available  manure  which  has  increased  the  fertility  of  the  soil  ; 
and  (iv)  it  provides  too  for  the  reduction  of  the  grazing  area,  the 
work  cattle  being  largely  stall-fed  with  fodders  grown  on  the  farm. 

This  new  type  of  farming  is  suited  to  local  conditions.  Any 
fairly  well-to-do  cultivator  in  that  neighbourhood  can  adopt  it 
with  absolute  certainty  that  it  will  prove  profitable  if  carried 
out  properly.  One  enterprising  member  of  the  agricultural 
association  has  purchased  land  adjoining  the  experimental  farm, 
which  he  is  now  working  on  this  new  plan. 

Much  of  the  dire  poverty  so  apparent  among  Indian  cultiv- 
ators in  backward  tracts  is  due  to  neglected  opportunities.     They 


RK  VIEWS.  297 

do  not  know  that  there  are  new  lines  of  farming  more  profitable 
than  their  own.  They  do  not  fully  appreciate  the  value  of  irriga- 
tion, manure,  and  the  general  thoroughness  in  cultivation  which 
a  new  and  more  profitable  system  of  farming  may  demand.  They 
stand  in  much  greater  need  of  assistance  than  do  the  compara- 
tively intelligent  farmers  of  America,  but  that  assistance  to  be 
effective  must  be  of  a  very  practical  nature.  To  the  Indian  ryot 
theoretical  advice  means  nothing  unless  it  is  backed  up  by  demon- 
stration in  his  village.  He  nmst  be  convinced  by  ocular  proof 
that  the  extra  profits  derived  from  the  new  system  will  make 
it  worth  while  to  adopt  it,  and  he  must  be  trained  to  perform 
any  new  agricultural  methods  which  the  system  involves— 
(D.  Clouston) 


^tf 


"  FATA  MORGANA." 

liY  C.  y\.  HUTCHINSON,  b.a, 
Imperinf  Agricultural  Bacteriologist. 

Nothing  can  be  more  refreshing  to  those  engaged  in  the 
somewhat  thankless  task  of  introducing  scientific  methods  into 
the  every-day  operations  of  agriculture,  than  the  spectacle  of  the 
enthusiastic  acceptance  by  one  of  their  number  of  the  purely 
poetical  theories  of  a  contributor  to  the  Fortnkjldly  Review  for 
June,  as  set  forth  in  his  article  entitled  "■  Hj^gienic  Treatment 
of  Fruit  Trees."  The  Editor  of  the  Indian  Forester^  adopts 
Mr.  Morgan's  views  with  enthusiasm  and  applies  them  to  Indian 
agriculture  with  a  divine  carelessness  as  to  the  facts  of  the  case. 
"  Here,"  he  says,  "  is  a  nice  poetic  conception  of  the  needs  of  the 
poor  plant  ;  no  nasty  evil  smelling  '  animal '  manure ;  nothino- 
but  '  vegetable'  manures  must  be  used,  so  as  to  ensure  'hygienic 
conditions  for  the  crops.'  Are  not  the  cultivators  of  India 
moved  by  the  same  spirit  so  that  they  burn  their  cow-dung  before 
applj^ing  it  to  their  fields,  even  although  in  so  doing  they  act  in 
direct  opposition  to  the  advice  of  Dr.  Voelcker  (  Here  is  '  much 
food  for  thought ; '  here,  it  may  be,  is  the  reason  why  the  grain 
of  English  wheat  is  soft  and  that  of  Indian  wheat  hard,  and 
why  '  one  of  the  things  that  strikes  the  ordinar}''  observer  in 
India  is  the  generally  health}'  state  of  the  crops.  '  (What  by 
the  way  m  m\  '  ordinary  oh^Qvxev'  and  would  he  recognize  rust, 
mildew,  smut  and  the  multitudinous  diseases  of  every  cultivated 
crop  in  India  ()  "  Further  he  points  out  that  "the  most  fertile 
soils  in  the  world  are  almost  free  from  animal  constituents  ; "  this 


The   Iiiduiii   Fore-itn;  Septcnibrr  l!tlO,   Pioneer  Press,  Allahabad. 

21 


300  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   IV. 

remarkable  statement  is  followed  by  the  suggestion  that  "  this 
may  indeed  be  one  of  the  principal  reasons  why  so-called  virgin 
soil  is  so  fertile."  The  poetic  spirit  carries  our  encomiastic 
commentator  still  further  when  he  says  "  Rotten  vegetable 
matter  is  also  one  of  the  reasons  why  allowing  land  to  be  fallow 
improves  its  fertility."  Now  Virgil,  who  wrote  extensively  on 
agriculture  and  established  an  immortal  precedent  for  associating 
it  with  poetical  conceptions,  never  allowed  his  licence  to  include 
the  enunciation  of  platitudes  under  the  guise  of  advancing  new 
theories,  although  had  he  been  moved  to  suggest  that  '*  the  West 
may  have  something  to  learn  from  the  East,"  he  would  probably 
have  ignored  the  claims  of  the  Japanese  to  hold  the  highest 
position  as  cultivators  in  the  Orient,  and  possibly  for  a  similar 
reason. 

Mr.  Morgan,  extracts  from  whose  article  are  given  in  the 
Indian  Forester,  does  not  confine  himself  merel}^  to  enunciating 
such  poetic  theories  as  the  "sacrilege  "  involved  in  feeding  "  the 
queen  of  flowers  with  sewage  or  manure  ; "  he  boldly  states  that 
*'  anything  which  produces  ammoniacal  decomposition  should  be 
avoided  by  cultivators,"  and  whilst  we  are  still  tottering  from  this 
blow  to  our  preconceived  notions  as  to  the  uses  of  organic  nitro- 
gen, he  restores  our  mental  balance  by  utterly  condemning  nitro- 
genous *'  artificials,"  and  at  the  same  time  recommending  the  use 
of  rotten  cauliflower  leaves.  Mr.  Morgan  concludes  his  article 
by  saying,  with  the  same  degree  of  modesty  which  characterises 
it  throughout,  "  I  consider  that  this  paragraph  contains  the  secret 
of  all  fertility,"  and  it  might  be  of  interest  to  give  a  series  of 
extracts  from  it  illustrating  his  method  of  argument. 

"  Powdered  stones  for  ofrain  ofrowine-  *  *  '^  are  of  incontest- 

o  o  o 

able  value."  This  may  be  characterized  as  a  hard  saying  and  difiicult 
of  acceptation  even  by  "  the  ordinary  observer  "  :  "Experience  is 
the  best  guide."  "  Practice  is  better  than  precept."  "In  these 
matters  things  must  not  be  judged  b}^  the  dictum  of  th^  chemist 
but  by  the  result  of  experience,  "  presumabl}^  by  the  experience 
of  Mr.  Morgan  and  not  by  that  of  chemists  at  Rothamsted, 
Woburn  and  elsewhere.     "  With  the  aid  of  rich  non- stimulating 


FATA    MORGANA  :    HUTCHINSON.  301 

humus,  obtained  from  decayed  leaves,  the  fruit  grower  can  liter- 
ally blow  out  his  fruits  like  air  bubbles."  A  truly  desirable  result, 
but  it  seems  hard  on  the  humus  to  call  it  "  non-stimulatinsf." 

Finally,  as  a  corollary  to  repeated  denunciations  of  nitro- 
genous manures  and  specially  those  which  owe  their  available 
nitrogen  to  the  action  of  our  friends,  B.  Subtilis,  B.  Mycoides 
and  other  ammonifiers,  this  amazing  exponent  of  what  he  himself 
describes  as  "  the  new  method  of  culture  "  concludes  with  this 
remark  : 

"As  it  has  been  said  'a  soil  rich  in  humus  is  rich  in  nitro- 
gen,' the  importance  of  rotted  leaves  of  the  nature  of  those  refer- 
red to  is  evident."  With  this  the  ordinary  observer  will  cordi- 
ally agree,  but  what  about  that  ammoniacal  decomposition  ? 


RURAL  ECONOMY  IN  THE  BOMBAY  DECCAN— I. 

By  G.  F.  KEATfNGE,  i.c.s., 
Director  of  A(jricuJhire,   Bombay. 

I — Introduction, 

In  teaching  agriculture  at  a  college  it  is  usual  to  begin 
with  the  sciences  which  underlie  the  subject ;  and  by  taking  the 
student  through  a  course  of  chemistry,  botany,  physics,  etc.,  to 
furnish  him  with  the  equipment  necessary  to  enable  him  to  refer 
back  the  ordinary  phenomena  of  agriculture  to  their  fundamental 
causes.  When  the  ground  is  thus  cleared,  the  real  professional 
training  begins,  and  the  student  is  instructed  in  the  technicalities 
which  govern  the  raising  of  crops,  animals  and  animal  products  ; 
while  in  some  matters  he  m?iy  be  trained  in  the  craft  involved 
in  working  up  the  raw^  produce  into  its  most  marketable  form, 
as  in  the  case  of  butter-making  or  r/i^Z-making.  This  com- 
pletes the  technical  education,  but  does  not  complete  the  sum 
of  knowledge  that  is  necessary  for  success  in  farming.  It 
is  not  so  much  that  a  higher  degree  of  technical  knowledge 
and  experience  is  necessary  ;  though  no  doubt  the  intelligent 
farmer  will  continue  all  his  life  to  add  to  his  stock  of  technical 
knowledge.  Nor  is  it  intended  here  to  refer  to  the  necessity  for 
personal  qualities ;  though  these,  of  course,  are  of  paramount 
importance  ;  since  in  farming,  at  any  rate,  no  man's  knowledge 
can  be  of  more  value  than  to  the  man  himself.  There  is,  however, 
another  kind  of  knowledge  which  the  farmer  should  possess,  and 
may  to  some  extent  acquire  otherwise  than  by  painful  and  expen- 
sive experience  ;  and  this  is  business  knowledge.  It  is  no  use  to 
breed  fine  animals  if  they  are  bred  at  a  loss,  or  to  grow  crops 


kURAt    ECONOMY  :    KEATIXCK.  303 

suited     to    the    climate    if    they    are    not    also    suited    to     the 
market. 

The  (juestions  of  cost  and  value  must  be  considered  before  the 
farmer  can  decide  where  his  best  chances  of  success  lie  ;  and  this 
will  involve  a  careful  study  of  all  the  factors  of  production  ;  the 
external  factors  over  which  he  has  no  control,  but  which  he  may 
turn  to  his  own  uses,  as,  for  instance,  a  general  abundance  of 
labour  or  deficiency  of  capital  ;  and  the  internal  factors  wliii-h  he 
can  control,  such  as  the  system  of  production  to  be  adopted  as 
best  suited  to  his  own  circumstances.  Now  it  is  true  that  the 
ordinary  farmer  does  not  set  about  such  a  systematic  survey  of 
economic  conditions.  He  is  usually  content  to  follow  the  lines 
which  the  experience  of  centuries  has  indicated  as  suitable  for 
the  locality  in  which  he  lives  :  and  in  this  he  is  to  a  great  extent 
ri^ht.  He  cannot  aftbrd  to  ignore  them  ;  and  he  may  do  much 
worse  than  imitate  the  methods  of  successful  neighbours.  But 
before  he  can  be  content  to  follow  another  man's  methods  and 
to  expect  similar  results,  he  must  be  sure  that  all  conditions  are 
in  his  case  similar  to  those  of  his  model  ;  that  his  land  is  of  equal 
fertility,  and  his  capital  and  skill  sufficient  for  the  purpose.  This 
in  itself  will  involve  nmch  of  the  consideration  above  indicated, 
and  it  will  only  take  him  a  short  way  ;  for  unless  he  is  to  be 
content  to  copy  others  all  his  life,  he  must  take  a  general  survey 
of  the  whole  case.  Now  in  agriculture,  as  in  other  businesses, 
it  is  not  the  man  who  is  content  to  follow  the  lead  of  others  at 
a  safe  distance  who  is  most  likely  to  come  to  the  top,  but  the 
iii.in  who  is  quick  to  grasp  the  possibilities  of  the  situation, 
and  to  strike  out  a  new  line  ;  the  man  who  can  detect  or  antici- 
pate a  change  in  conditions,  and  lay  his  [)lans  accordingly.  No 
amount  of  paper  study  can  give  an  aptitude  for  business  to  a 
man  who  docs  not  possess  it  ;  but  there  are  many  economic 
CMjnditioiis  vitally  aflecting  Indian  agriculture,  some  knowledge 
of  which  will  well  repay  both  the  farmer  with  business  aptitude 
and  the  farmer  who  is  devoid  of  it.  To  the  one  it  may  suggest 
lines  of  new  enterprise  and  development ;  to  the  other  it  may 
suggest  the  necessity  for  caution.     It  is  proposed  to  deal  here 


304  AGRICOLTURAL   JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V, 


IV. 


with  a  few  of  the  most  obvious  of  such  considerations,  affecting 
agriculture  in  the  Bombay  Deccan,  in  as  full  a  way  as  the 
space  of  a  single  article  will  permit.  It  is  obvious  that  such 
an  attempt  can  only  touch  lightly  on  a  small  part  of  the 
subject,  and  can  in  fact  aim  at  little  more  than  indicating  in  a 
general  way  the  advantages  that  might  be  derived  from  a  more 
detailed  study  of  the  subject. 

By  the  "  Bombay  Deccan  "  it  is  intended  to  denote  roughly 
the  part  comprised  in  the  central  division  of  the  Bombay 
Presidency  and  the  adjoining  portion  of  the  Southern  Maratha 
Country  ;  the  tract,  in  fact,  from  Bhusawal  on  the  north-east  to 
Dharwai"  on  the  south-west.  It  is  not  proposed  to  describe  in 
detail  the  physical  characteristics  of  this  area  ;  and  it  will  be 
sufficient  to  state  that  excluding  the  narrow  strip  on  and  adjacent 
to  the  crest  of  the  ghats,  where  the  rainfall,  crops  and  cultivation 
approximate  to  those  obtaining  in  the  Konkan,  the  tract  falls 
into  two  natural  divisions  running  from  north  to  south,  viz.  : — 

(1)  The  undulating  western  division  with  a  moderate  and 
fairly  assured  rainfall,  many  parts  of  which  are  watered  by  irri- 
gation wells  and  channels,  and  grow  good  garden  crops. 

(2)  The  open  eastern  division  characterised  by  a  heavy 
black  soil.  Here  the  rainfall  is  liable  to  be  scanty  and  badly 
distributed  ;  and,  except  in  the  limited  areas  where  the  Govern- 
ment canals  have  converted  an  arid  stretch  into  a  garden,  irriga- 
tion is  markedly  deficient.  The  typical  crops  of  this  region  are 
joivari  and  cotton. 

It  is  proposd  to  examine  the  agricultural  conditions  of  this 
tract  with  reference  to  the  three  main  factors  of  production,  viz.i 
land,  labour  and  capital. 

II-Land. 

In  the  Deccan,  as  is  well  known,  the  land  tenure  is  ryoUoari, 
each  cultivator  holding  his  land  direct  from  Government.  He 
has  the  right  to  the  full  agricultural  use  of  his  land  in  perpetuity, 
subject  to  the  payment  of  his  land  revenue.     The  land  revenue 


RURAL    ECONOMY  :    KEATINGE.  305 

is  a  tax  which  has   some  of  the  characteristics  of  rent,  and  varies 
from  field  to  field  according  to  the  fertility   of  the  soil  and  other 
natural  advantages.      It  has,  however,  been  intentionally  fixed  at 
a  much    lower    rate    than   the  economic  rent  ;   and  when  one  man 
leases  his  field  to  another,  the  rent  charged  is  usually  many  times 
more  than  the  land  revenue  assessment.     It  is  not  permanent,  but 
has    many    elements    of  permanency.     To  be    more   precise,   the 
assessment  is  fixed  for  a  period  of  30  years.     At  the  end  of  that 
period  it  is  not  possible  for  Government  to  vary  the  rent   of   any 
one    field  as  against  any  neighbouring  field,  for  the  classification 
aheady  made  has  been  accepted  as  final  ;  but  the  general  pitch  of 
assessment    for   a  tract  is  liable  to  variation  on  a  consideration  of 
a  change  in  general  conditions,  such  as  the  opening  up  of  new 
markets  by  improved  communications,  a  general    rise  or  fall  in 
prices,  or  a  change  in   the   purchasing  value  of  money.     Large 
and  general  reductions  of  assessment  were  made  in  the  middle 
of  the  last  century  when  the  value  of  grain  suddenly  fell  to  l/3rd 
of  its  previous  value  ;  and  since  that  time  increases  of  assessment 
have  resulted  in   many  cases  from  the  revision  settlements  and 
reductions  in  some  cases.     A  special  feature  of  the  arrangement 
is  that  a  specific  guarantee  is  given  against  any  increase  of  assess- 
ment due  to  improvements  eftected  by  the  cultivator.     This    was 
the    point  which  Arthur  Young  had  in  mind  when,  at  the  end  of 
the  18th  century,  he  contrasted  the  Belgian  land  system  with  the 
English,  and  talked  of  "  the  magic  of  property  which  turns  sand 
into  gold.  "     The  Bombay  land  system,  in  fact,  aims  at  giving 
the  cultivator  the  greatest  security  of  tenure,   while  reserving  to 
the  state  the  right  to  appropriate  at  intervals  some  part  of  the 
unearned  increment  in  value,   resulting  from  causes  beyond  the 
control    of    the    cultivator.     It  is    said    that  the  liability  of  the 
assessments  to  revision  still  causes  a  feeling  of  insecurity  ;  and  it 
must  be   remembered  that  in  olden  days  any  increase  in  assess- 
ment or  rent  was  in  most  countries  regarded,  and  often  justly,  as 
an   attempt  to  tax  the  cultivator  on  his  own  improvements  ;  and 
the  resentment  which  it  was  liable  to  cause  generally  led  Govern- 
ments or  landlords  to  adopt  some  other  expedient,  or  at  any  rate, 


306  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDLV.  [V,   IV. 

to  disguise  the  process.  In  the  Deccan  the  Peshwa's  Govern- 
ment usually  preferred  to  leave  the  assessment  alone,  while  impos- 
ing cesses  often  numerous  and  crushing,  when  the  necessity  or 
the  desire  for  additional  taxation  made  itself  felt.  The  same  is 
the  case  in  China  to  the  present  day.  Even  in  England  it  must 
be  remembered  that  up  to  the  end  of  the  16th  century  it  was  im- 
possible for  the  landlords  to  raise  rents  except  indirectly.  With 
this  experience  of  the  past  before  us  it  is  not  a  matter  of  surprise 
that,  even  with  its  guarantee  against  the  taxation  of  improve- 
ments, the  power  of  revising  the  settlement  should  be  viewed  by 
some  with  suspicion.  This  suspicion  is,  however,  wearing  away, 
as  the  true  nature  of  the  case  becomes  better  known.  Every 
year  thousands  of  cultivators  effect  permanent  improvements  in 
their  land  with  the  knowledge  that  these  will  not  be  taxed  ;  and 
it  may  be  doubted  whether  any  man  who  really  wants  to  improve 
his  land  is  deterred  from  doing  so  by  any  feeling  to  the  contrary^ 
The  land  itself  is  divided  into  small  holdings  which  average 
fiom  20  to  30  acres  in  the  west  Deccan,  and  from  30  to  50  in 
the  east.  About  jlths  of  the  land  are  held  by  the  cultivators  them- 
selves direct  from  Government,  and  about  ,Vth  is  held  by  non-agri- 
cultural classes  and  leased  out  to  cultivators.  From  what  has 
already  been  said,  it  will  be  realised  that  the  land  is  divided  into 
quite  small  holdings,  most  of  which  are  worked  by  the  cultivator 
himself  and  his  family,  with  possibly  the  assistance  of  some  hired 
labour  at  certain  seasons.  The  typical  advantage  which  econo- 
mists ascribe  to  such  a  system  is  that  the  cultivator  and  his  family 
live  on  their  holding  and  devote  their  full  and  constant  care  to  the 
raising  of  crops  and  the  permanent  improvement  of  the  land,  mak- 
ing up  for  deficiency  of  capital  by  strenuous  labour  and  realising  a 
high  standard  of  intensive  culture.  Now  there  are  some  localities, 
mainly  in  the  w^estern  Deccan,  where  these  advantages  are 
obtained.  In  the  garden  tract  to  the  north  of  the  Poona  district, 
for  instance,  many  of  the  old  village  sites  have  been  almost  deserted, 
and  the  people  have  gone  to  live  in  lunnlets  or  isolated  houses, 
adjoining  or  situated  on  their  holdings.  Here  will  be  found  land 
well  tilled,  levelled  and  embanked  ;   a  leguminous  crop  sown   the 


RDKAL    ECONOMY  :     KHATIiN(iE.  307 

moment  that  the  AAar//' cereal  has  been  reaped;  well-kept  fruit 
and  vegetable  gardens  and  well-managed  irrigation,  to  provide 
for  which  the  cultivator  will  l)egin  to  work  his  well  before  dajdight 
and  continue  after  dark  ;  the  owner  on  the  spot,  ready  at  all  times 
to  improve  and  guard  his  property.  This  is  as  it  should  be,  but 
it  is  anything  but  general.  Over  nmch  of  the  western,  and  most 
of  the  eastern  Deccan  the  cultivators'  houses  are  confined  to  the 
village  site,  from  which  many  of  the  fields  are  three  or  four  miles 
distant.  Into  the  confined  space  occupied  by  each  family  are 
crowded  the  cattle  and  implements  ;  the  manure  heaps  scattered 
about  outside  the  village.  For  the  most  part  of  the  year  the 
fields  are  deserted  ;  the  women  and  children  seldom  visit  them, 
the  cultivator  himself  only  to  perform  the  mininmm  of  field  work 
which  the  current  crop  demands.  Even  when  the  critical  season 
of  sowing  is  on  him  and  it  is  essential  to  get  the  seed  in  (juickly 
before  the  moisture  dries  out  of  the  soil,  he  may  often  be  seen 
starting  for  his  distant  fields  about  nine  o'clock  in  the  morning, 
when  the  sun  is  already  getting  hot,  and  he  ought  to  have  been 
at  work  for  hours.  Under  these  circumstances  tillao-e  is  neg-lected 
and  no  permanent  improvements  are  made  ;  the  land  remains 
uneven  and  unembanked,  and  the  lowest  part  of  the  field  which 
gets  most  water  and  should,  in  an  arid  tract,  be  the  most  fertile, 
is  so  subject  to  scour  that  it  produces  practically  nothing.  There 
are  several  causes  which  have  contributed  to  confine  the  houses 
to  the  village  site.  It  is  only  a  century  since  the  country  side 
WHS  subject  to  the  depredations  of  the  marauding  armies  and 
ravaging  bands  of  robbers  and  the  substantial  walls  and  forti- 
fications still  to  be  seen  in  many  places  tell  theii-  own  tale.  Even 
in  the  present  day  in  parts  where  wundei-ing  tribes  of  Lambanis, 
Haran  Shikaris  and  Phansepardis  are  common,  there  is  danger  for 
the  isolated  dweller  in  the  fields  and  serious  risk  of  theft  to  the 
man  who  grows  a  valuable  garden  crop.  Another  reason  is  the 
al)sence  of  di  inkinLi-water.  The  village  sites  have  their  public 
wells,  but  a  man  niu>t  liaxc  a  [)iivat('  well  if  he  is  to  live  in  his 
own  holding.  The  direct  ad  vantage  to  agriculture  of  irrigation  wells 
will  be  dealt  with  under  the  headings  of  "  labour  "  and  "  L'a[)ital  ;  " 


308  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  IV. 

but  the  indirect  benefits  which  they  confer  in  permitting  cultivators 
to  hve  on  their  own  holdings  can  hardly  be  overestimated.  The 
averao'e  size  of  the  holdings  has  already  been  stated  to  be  from  20  to 
50  acres  ;  but  it  must  not  be  supposed  that  these  holdings  are  solid 
blocks  of  contiguous  land.  The  several  plots  making  up  a  holding 
are  frequently  scattered  throughout  the  village  lands  ;  and  in  many 
cases  sub-division  of  garden  land  has  gone  so  far  that  plots  may 
often  be  found  of  only  one-fourth  or  one-tenth  of  an  acre.  This 
is,  of  course,  not  peculiar  to  India.  In  France  there  are  several 
departments  in  which  sub-division  has  reduced  the  size  of  the 
average  plot  to  less  than  one  acre.  With  land  so  sub-divided  the 
difficulty  of  proper  development,  the  loss  of  time  and  supervision 
involved,  and  the  liability  to  disputes  regarding  the  passage  of 
water  channels,  etc.,  constitute  a  serious  drawback,  which  has  in 
some  countries  prompted  measures  for  the  readjustment  of 
boundaries.  A  very  remarkable  case  of  such  measures,  which 
occurred  in  Saxony,  is  officially  vouched  for.  The  village  in 
question  contained  nearly  1,500  acres  belonging  to  35  proprietors, 
and  had  in  the  course  of  time  become  divided  up  into  774  separate 
plots  averaging  about  2  acres  each.  The  readjustment  reduced 
the  number  of  plots  to  60,  of  about  25  acres  each  ;  nearly  10  acres 
of  unnecessary  roads  and  boundary  fences  were  saved,  while  at 
the  same  time  communications  were  improved.  The  operations 
were  completed  within  a  year  and  cost  less  than  Rs.  2,000,  which 
was  more  than  made  good  by  the  10  acres  gained.  The 
immediate  result  was  that  it  was  found  necessary  to  add  to  the 
storehouses  to  make  room  for  the  increased  produce. 

To  turn  now  to  the  land  held  by  non-agriculturists  ;  the  law 
regarding  it  is  of  the  simplest.  It  has  not  been  found  necessary 
to  fix  any  limit  to  the  rent  that  may  be  asked,  nor  to  provide  for 
securing  to  the  tenant  the  value  of  any  improvements  that  he 
may  make.  The  rent  may  be  agreed  on  at  any  rate,  in  money 
or  in  kind,  between  landlord  and  tenant,  or  a  fixed  amount  or  a 
share  in  the  total  produce.  When  no  definite  agreement  is  made, 
it  is  held  to  be  governed  by  the  custom  of  the  localit}^  For  the 
recovery  of  the  rent  in  ordinary  cases  a  simple  process  is  provided 


RURAL    ECONOMY  :    K EATING E.  309 

in  the  Mamledar's  court,  obviating  the  necessity  fur  civil  Htiga- 
tion.     Now  the  majority  of  leases  granted  are  annual  leases,  and 
in  a  large  number  of  cases  applications  for  assistance  in  recover- 
ing their    rents    are   annually   made    in    the   Mamledar's    courts. 
Under  these  circumstances,  with  landlord  and  tenant   pulling  in 
opposite  directions,  it  is  obvious  that  good  cultivation  is  unlikely 
and  permanent  improvement  of   the  land  impossible.     The  land- 
lord looks  merely  to  his  rent,  and  the  tenant  tries  to    extract  what 
he  can  out  of  the  land  with  the  minimum  of  labour.      From  the 
economic  point  of  view  nothing  could  be  more   unsatisfactory.     In 
cases  where  the  lease  is  longfer  and  the  rent  consists  of  a  share   of 
the  produce,   both  get  an   additional  interest  in    improving  the 
cultivation  ;  but  nothing  in  the  nature  of  permanent  injprovement 
is  likely  to  result.     This  system   of  giving  out  short   leases  of 
unimproved  land  to  any  tenant  who  will  agree   to  pay  the  rent, 
and    trusting    to     extract    it    from    h'uu    with    the    help    of    the 
Mamledar,    must    be   as  unsatisfactory   to    the   landlord   as   it   is 
from  the  general  point  of  view.     Some  landlords  have  inherited 
family  land,  others  have  bought  land  as  a  safe  investment,  but 
have   either    no    inclination    or   no    time    to    interest  themselves 
further    in    the    matter.     The    sooner    they     realise    that    they 
cannot    expect    to    get    the    best    profit    from    the    land    unless 
they  select  good  tenants  and  make  it  worth  their  while  to  treat 
the   land    properly,    the   better  it  will   be   for   all   parties.     For- 
tunately there  exist  in  the  Deccan  many  examples  of  admirably 
adjusted    arrangements    between   landlords  and  tenants,   under  a 
system  closely  analogous  to  the  French   metayer  teiuire.     This 
consists  of   a  partnership    between   a   landholder  of   njeans   and 
a  cultivator,  extending  over  a  period  of  years,  often  a  life-time, 
whereby  the  former  finds  the  land  and  much  of  the  capital,  and 
to  some  extent  directs  operations,   while  the  latter  supplies  the 
labour   and    the    rest    of    the    capital.     This  arrangement   often 
results  in  prolitablc  improvements  being  effected  by  the    landlord 
and    skill    and   diligence    being    applied    by   the   tenant,   thereby 
achieving  a  very  etticient  degree  of  cultivation.     Where  the  land- 
lord   further    takes    the    trouble    to    acquire    a    knowledge    of 


310  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   IV. 

advanced  agriculture  and  devotes  his  intelligence  to  the  enter- 
prise,  this  sj^stem  is  probably  the  best  possible,  and  it  would  be  a 
distinct  gain  to  the  rural  economy  of  the  Deccan  if  it  were  more 
common. 

There  is  another  matter  of  some  interest  to  which  reference 
must  be  made.  In  a  country  of  small  holdings  where  the  organ- 
isation of  agriculture  is  backward,  common  grazing  land  appears 
to  be  almost  a  necessity.  In  many  parts  of  the  Deccan  it  is 
very  deficient  and  suggestions  are  frequently  made  for  increasing 
the  orrazino-  area ;  while  it  is  often  alleo-ed  that  the  existence  of 
Government  forests  and  the  rules  made  in  connection  with 
them  are  the  cause  of  deficiency  of  grazing.  As  a  matter  of  fact, 
the  Government  forests  provide  almost  the  only  common  grazing 
that  exists  and  over  most  of  the  Deccan  very  little  more  relief  in 
this  direction  can  be  expected  from  them.  The  forest  area 
amounts  to  6,363  square  miles.  A  very  large  part  of  this  lies  in 
the  mountainous  parts  of  Khandesh  and  along  the  western  Ghats, 
and  could  not  in  any  case  serve  as  a  common  grazing  land  for  the 
cattle  of  the  cultivators  who  till  the  open  plains  of  the  Deccan. 
Apart  from  this  consideration,  however,  the  forests  do  at  present 
afford  a  large  area  of  common  grazing  as  the  following  figures 
will  show  : — 

Sq.  Miles. 
Area  of  forest  open  to  all  animals  all  the  year         •••  ...   1,798 

Do.         do.  do.         cattle  but  closed  to  sheep  and  goats  ...  2,752 

Do.         do.      open  for  part  of  the  year  ...  ...      795 

Do.         do.      closed  all  the  year  ...  ...  ...   1,018 

This  closed  area  of  1,018  square  miles  which  forms  less  tlmn 
3  per  cent,  of  the  whole  Deccan  tract  could  hardly  be  much 
further  reduced  if  any  reasonable  provision  is  to  be  made  for  the 
timber  and  fuel  of  the  future,  nor  would  any  considerable  advan- 
tage to  the  general  body  of  cultivators  result  if  even  the  whole 
of  this  area  were  thrown  open  to  grazing  ;  for  in  common 
land,  production  is  and  must  of  necessity  be  very  small,  since 
it  is  the  business  of  no  one  to  look  after  the  land  or  assist 
nature  in  any  way.      Even    good    land    will    bear  but   little  under 


RURAL     ECONOMY  :    KF.ATINGE.  311 

these  conditions,  and  the  stony  uplands  which  constitute  so 
large  a  part  of  the  so-called  forests  of  the  Deccan,  \Yill  bear 
less.  Anyone  who,  in  a  tract  of  seasonal  and  precarious  rain- 
fall, trusts  to  such  land  for  the  support  of  his  cattle,  is  merely 
courting  failure,  as  the  terrible  mortality  during  the  recent 
famines  proved.  The  pinch  has  been  felt  of  late  years  f)wing  to 
the  great  extension  of  cultivation.  A  century  ago  enormous 
tracts  in  the  east  Deccan  containing  much  good  land,  were  lying 
waste,  and  provided  grazing  for  cattle,  while  now  it  may  safely 
be  said  that  apart  from  occupied  land  and  forest,  there  is  practi- 
cally no  land  capable  of  growing  a  fair  crop  of  grass  or  anything 
else  which  is  not  cultivated.  In  this  connection  the  experience 
of  England  is  instructive.  In  that  country  the  small  farmer  of 
the  15th  century  had  abundant  common  pasture.  The  rate  of 
production  from  his  land  was  small  ;  and  without  the  common 
pasture  it  would  have  been  impossible  for  small  farming  to  have 
paid.  Enclosures  of  land  were  always  resented  ;  and  though 
they  took  place,  England  remained  a  country  of  small  holders 
till  the  end  of  the  18th  century,  and  the  commons  for  the  most 
part  remained.  The  Enclosure  Acts  of  the  1 8th  century  depriv- 
ed the  people  of  their  common  grazing  lands  ;  and  the  results 
would  have  been  very  serious  had  it  not  been  for  the  change  that 
came  over  agriculture  at  the  beginning  of  the  1 8th  centur}^  a 
change  which  really  paved  the  way  for  the  Enclosure  Acts. 
Winter  roots  and  artificial  grasses,  unknown  before,  were  then 
introduced  ;  and  with  the  new  system  of  fodder  crops  and  rotations 
came  the  .scientific  feeding  of  cattle  and  sheep  and  their  vast 
improvement  by  S3^stematic  breeding  and  selection.  The  move- 
ment which  resulted  in  consolidatiiiii'  the  holdinofs  and  diivino^ 
the  yeoman  fai-inor  from  the  land  was  not  felt  till  the  10th 
century,  and  though  it  was  connected  with  the  changed  condi- 
tions of  farming,  it  cannot  be  ascribed  in  large  measui'e  to  the 
enclosure  of  commons.  With  a  well  organised  system  of  agri- 
culture the  withdrawal  of  the  commons  was  not  fatal  to  the  small 
holder  in  England  ;  and  witli  a  well  organised  sj^'stem  of  agri- 
culture the  small  holder  still  thrives    in    other    countries   without 


312  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   IV. 

the  help  of  common  land.  These  facts  appear  to  have  their  moral 
for  India.  It  is  true  that  the  methods  of  Europe  are  not  applic- 
able to  a  tropical  country  with  a  seasonal  rainfall,  but  it  should 
not  be  impossible  by  means  of  systematic  investigations  to  find  in 
this  country  analogous  methods  which  will  solve  the  great  diffi- 
culty of  providing  adequate  fodder, 

III — Labour. 

Under  this  heading  will  be  considered  both  the  manual  and 
the  intellectual  labour  applied  by  the  cultivator  to  his  business. 
It  ma}^  be  thought  by  some  that  the  latter  is  almost  negligible 
in  the  case   of   small   proprietors   who    carry  on  the    traditional 
sj^stem  of  cultivation  from  generation  to  generation,  with  little 
or  no  change.     But  this  is  not  so.      Skill  and  intelligence  play 
their  part  in  the  cultivation  of  a  small  holding,  and  their  exercise 
constitutes  intellectual  labour,   none  the  less  because  they  have 
been  developed  in  the  practical  performance  of  farm  operations. 
The  skill  applied   is  often  considerable  and  varies  greatly    with 
the  individual  and  with  the  locality  ;   and  the  great  difference  in 
cultivation  to  be  seen  between  two  neighbouring  fields  is  often 
due  to    this    cause.      Many    of  the   prominent   characteristics  of 
industrial  labour,  upon  which  economists  dilate,  have  little  con- 
nection   with   the    labour    on    a    small    farm.     The    principles  of 
division  of  labour,  for  instance,  are  hardlj^  applicable  to  such  a 
case.     There  are,  however,  a  few  general  principles  that  maj^  as 
well  be  stated.     The  efficienc}^  of  a  man's  work  depends  partly  on 
the  man  himself  and  partly   on    the  conditions  under  which  he 
performs  it.     The  man  may  be  strong,  industrious  and  intelligent  ; 
but  if  he  is  to  do  good  work  he  must  be  prompted  by  an  adequate 
incentive  and  sustained  by  adequate    food.      Now  in  the  case  of 
the  small  proprietor  of  the  Deccan  many  of  the  necessary  condi- 
tions are  present.     The  man  himself  is   usuall}^  sturd}^   and   in- 
dustrious, accustomed  from  boyhood    to  agricultural  operations, 
and  except   in   years   of  famine   presents  a   well-fed   appearance, 
Subject  to  two   conditions  he    knows  that  he  will  reap   the   full 


RURAL  economy:  keatinge.  81-3 

benefit  of  his  labours.  If  these  two  conditions  were  general,  all 
would  have  the  best  incentive  to  work  ;  but  unfortunately  they 
are  not  o^eneral.  The  two  conditions  are  freedom  from  debt  and 
the  certainty  of  a  reasonably  good  rainfall.  In  many  countries, 
no  doubt,  indebtedness  and  the  vagaries  of  the  weather  are 
common  sources  of  difficulty  to  f^irmers.  In  the  Deccan  they 
assume  pre-eminent  importance.  The  question  of  indebtedness 
will  be  treated  under  the  heading  of  *' capital;"  and  it  is  only 
necessary  to  point  out  here  that  when  a  cultivator  is  so  heavily 
indebted  that  all  the  produce  of  his  land,  excepting  a  bare  sub- 
sistence, must  inevitably  go  to  the  sowccir  (money-lender),  his 
incentive  to  strenuous  work  naturally  decreases.  He  sees  little 
prospect  of  extracting  himself  from  debt  and  he  is  fairly  confident 
that  the  sou'car  will,  in  his  own  interest,  see  that  he  does  get 
that  bare  subsistence.  In  numerous  cases  the  results  of  such  con- 
ditions may  be  seen  in  badly  cultivated  and  undeveloped  lands. 
The  difficulty  of  rainfall  varies  greatly  in  different  tracts  and  is 
severel}^  felt  in  the  east  Deccan.  It  may  be  said  that  with  the 
prospect  of  short  rainfall  it  is  particularly  necessary  for  the  cul- 
tivator to  have  his  land  clean  and  well  tilled,  and  that  in  most 
cases  he  will  reap  the  reward  of  his  labour.  This  is  true  and  is 
often  admitted  bj^  the  man  himself.  But  there  are  j^ears  of  short 
rainfall  when  the  excellence  of  his  cultivation  will  avail  him  little  ; 
and  the  knowledge  of  this  has  a  depressing  efltect  on  him,  and  pro- 
duces an  exaggerated  feeling  that  the  outturn  of  his  fields  will  bear 
little  relation  to  his  eti'orts.  The  etiect  of  this  feeling  may  be 
gauged  l)y  contrasting  the  excellent  cultivation  of  parts  of  Oujarat 
;ind  the  west  Deccan  whei'e  taniiiu'  is  ahnost  unknown,  with  the 
careless  cultivation  of  the  oast  Deccan  where  a  ofood  season  is 
the  exception.  It  may  be  traced  in  the  ceaseless  industry  of  the 
Krishna  valley  cultivatoi-  and  the  compai'ative  slackness  of  his 
brothf'i-  in  Sholapui'.  The  one  has  learnt  that  he  will  reap  what 
he  sows,  the  other  has  learnt  by  bittei*  ex}>erience  that  this  is  not 
necessarily  the  case.  Anyone  who  has  seen  the  eastern  Deccan 
emerging  from  a  famine  like  that  of  the  years  1899-1900  will 
appreciate  the  point  of  view  of  the  latter,  however  much  he  may 


314  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   IV. 

wish  to  combat  it.  There  is  hardly  any  matter  on  which  more 
widely  different  opinions  are  expressed  by  superficial  observers 
than  the  question  of  the  Deccan  cultivator's  industiy.  One 
will  dilate  on  his  careful  industry,  another  on  his  lazy  indifference. 
The  considerations  touched  on  above  may  throw  some  light  on 
this  divergence  of  opinion.  There  are,  doubtless,  some  cultiva- 
tors who  are  naturally  more  industrious  and  intelligent  than 
others,  and  some  countries  where  the  proportion  of  such  men 
is  greater  than  in  others  (though  probably  to  a  less  extent  than 
is  generall}''  supposed) ;  but  the  factor  which  regulates  a  man's 
industry  ma}^  generally  be  looked  for  in  the  conditions  under 
which  he  works.  The  labour  with  which  the  cultivating  proprie- 
tor is  concerned  is  chiefly  his  own  and  that  of  his  family.  If  he 
has  to  hire  labour  at  all,  it  will  generally  be  for  ploughing 
or  harvest ;  and  in  such  cases  he  will  take  part  in  the  opera- 
tions, iand  without  much  difficulty  keep  his  men  up  to  the 
standard  of  work  which  he  exacts  from  himself  So  far  there 
is  little  loss  of  labour.  But  what  happens  at  other  seasons 
w^hen  no  such  exacting  operations  are  required  ?  It  must 
be  admitted  that  a  great  waste  of  labour  takes  place.  In  a 
country  of  seasonal  rainfall  the  essential  farm  operations  are 
of  necessity  confined  to  the  period  of  the  rains,  and  it  is  only  in 
the  case  of  soils  retentive  of  moisture  that  they  can  be  extended 
to  a  period  after  the  rains  have  ceased.  The  kharif  season  may 
last  from  June  to  October,  and  the  rabi  season  from  September 
to  February  ;  but  a  man  is  fortunate  both  in  his  land  and  in  the 
season  if  he  can  divide  his  crop  equally  between  kharif  ?a\di  rabi. 
He  often  has  to  be  content  to  devote  his  whole  land  to  one, 
which  will  leave  him  with  his  fields  bare  for  six  months  in  the 
year,  not  to  mention  many  slack  days  between  seed  time  and 
harvest.  On  an  English  farm  where  permanent  labour  is  hired, 
it  is  an  object  of  much  care  to  provide  w'ork  for  the  farm  hands 
during  the  winter  ;  and  it  is  during  this  season  that  fences  are 
repaired,  ditches  cleaned  out  and  numerous  petty  repairs  done  ; 
wliile  on  a  large  estate  there  will  be  work  in  the  w^oods.  But 
the   care   of  farm   animals  which    demands   more   labour  in    the 


RURAL    economy:    KKATINOE.  315 

winter  than  in   the  summer  is   the  main    factor    whicli  in  that 
country   produces  an   equilibrium   of  labour  all   the  year  round. 
The  small  proprietor  of  the  Deccan  is  naturally    less   anxious    to 
provide  labour  at  all  seasons  for  himself  than  he  would  be  to  find 
work   for    paid    servants  ;    and    in    many    cases  his  organization 
results  in  leaving  him  without  any  obvious  work  to  do    during  a 
great   part   of  the   year.      After    harvest   he   has,  of  course,   to 
thresh,  winnow  and  market  his   grain,   and    he   does    this   at  his 
leisure    by    methods   which  cost  him  little  in  capital  but  much  in 
labour,  which  has  little  market  value    at    this    season.      In    some 
localities    he    may    plough    his    land  till  the  ground  becomes  too 
dry  and  hard  to  permit  it.     In  other  places    he    may    harrow    to 
a   limited    extent ;    here  and  there  the  retting  of  fibre  crops  may 
give  some  occupation  ;  but  so  far  as  obtaining  steady  work  in   the 
off   season    is  concerned,  the    majority    of  cultivators    have   two 
courses  open  to  them  ;  they  must   either   go    ofi:'  to  a  town    and 
look  for    work  or  they  must  have    an  irrigation   well.     The    for- 
mer alternative    is    perforce    adopted   by    many  poorer  men  who 
cannot  afford  to  remain  idle,  and    no    doubt   affords    some    relief. 
But  where  the  cultivator  is  fortunate  enough  to  have  land  adapt- 
ed to  well  irrigation  and  is  provident  enough  to    take    advantage 
of  the  fact,  the  irrigation  well  relieves  him    of    the    necessity    of 
leaving  his  home  and  provides   a    profitable    employment    during 
the    dry     season     not   only   to    men    who    would    otherwise    be 
constrained  to  go  afield  to  find  work  but  also  to  many  a  cultivator 
who  would  otherwise  remain  idle.     This  is  the  second    important 
function  of   the    irrigation    wells    to    which    reference   has    been 
made.     The  organization    of    the    cultivator  requires    to  be   re- 
modelled to  some  extent  if  he  is  to  find  work  on  his   farm    at   all 
seasons  and  several  suggestions  in   this    direction    will   find    their 
place  under  the  heading  "  capital  ;"  but  it   is   a  question  whether 
in  all  cases  the  cultivator  wants  to  find  work   for  all   seasons.     A 
great  part  of  his  social  organization  is  based   on    the   assumption 
that   he    will    have    time    to    spare    in    the    hot    weather.     The 
marriage  feasts  to  wliich    packed    cartloads    of   cultivators    may 
be    seen    wending   their    way,    the    largely    attended     fairs   and 

22 


316  AGRICULTURAL    JOURXAL    OF    TXDL'i.  [V,   TV. 

pilgrimages,  the  smaller  village  v.rvfi  with  its  wrestling  and  games, 
all  proclaim  that  the  hot  weather  is  the  slack  season  and  the  time 
for  social  and  religious    relaxations.     There    is  nothing    new    in 
this.     The  rains  have  always  been  the  traditional  time  for  work 
and  the  hot  weather  for   relaxation  ;  and  the  only  difference  is 
that  the  army  of  Mavalis  which  in  former  days  would  take  the 
field  at  Dasra  (October)  to  loot  Gujarat  or  the  Karnatak  now 
makes  its  way  to  Bombaj^  to  work  in  the  docks  and  mills.     No 
one  need  grudge  the  cultivator  any  holiday   that  he  can   afford, 
but  in  many   cases   he  cannot  really  afford  a  holiday  and  would 
frequently  be  glad  to  find  work  to  do  at  home.     There  is  plenty 
of  work  for  him  to  do  in   the    w^ay    of  effecting  permanent  im- 
provements as  will  be  shown   later  on.     But  such  work  is  not 
always  immediately  remunerative  ;  and  by  habit  or  necessity  he 
is    inclined   to  look    to  the  present  rather  than    to   the    future. 
There  are,  however,  ways  for  him  to  arrange  his  system  of  pro- 
duction so  as  to  distribute  his  w^ork  more  evenly  over  the  j^ear. 
It  is  impossible  here  to  deal  at  length  with  this  subject ;  but  it 
may  be  mentioned  that  most  of  these  possibilities  of  rearrange- 
ment involve  the  use  of  extra  capital.     And  this  brings   us  back 
to  the  fundamental   proposition  of  economists  that  it   is  capital 
which    employs     labour,     a     fact    equally    true    in     the    case    of 
the    small    proprietor   who    finds   work    for   himself  and   of  the 
captain  of  industry  who  finds  work  for  a  thousand  mill  hands. 
There  are  further  losses  of  labour  both  on  the  farm  and  in  the 
market  which  are  partly  attributable  to  the  same  cause.     Simple 
implements  which  are  easily  made  and  repaired  have  their  advan- 
tages,  but  they  are  seldom  economical  of  labour.     Half  a  dozen 
men  carrying  earth   in  baskets  on   their   heads  might  often   be 
replaced  by  a  single  man  with  a  wheel-barrow  ;   a  man  with  a  hoe 
can  do  as  much  weeding  as  several  men  sitting  on  the  ground 
with  a  small  bent  knife  ;  a  man  with  a  scythe  does  more  w^ork 
than  a  man  with  a  sickle.     It  may  be  confidently  said  that  there 
are    many    such    wa3^s    in    which    labour    could    be    saved,   some 
involving  much  outlay,  others  very  little.     The  matter  however 
is  one   which  requires  special  study  and  would  well   repay  it  ;  for 


RURAL    ECONOMY  :    KEATINGE.  317 

the  iiitrodiiction  of  an  elaborate  implement  will  certainly  cost 
money,  and  unless  the  matter  is  thought  out  very  carefully  may 
easily  prove  a  failure. 

In  marketing  produce  the  organization  is  usually  very  defec- 
tive. A  common  sight  on  market  day  is  a  continuous  stream  of 
people  pouring  into  the  town  often  from  distances  of  15  or  20 
miles,  each  carrying  a  bundle  of  produce  for  .sale,  wood,  grass, 
hkusa  or  what  not.  The  effort  to  the  man  is  considerable  ;  the 
value  of  the  produce  which  he  sells  is  often  only  a  few  annas. 
In  the  evening  he  will  return  home  with  a  bottle  of  oil,  a  little 
salt  and  spices  or  some  such  trifling  purchases  ;  and  his  day's 
labour  is  gone.  With  organization  the  whole  of  the  marketing 
which  used  up  the  labour  of  5  or  10  thousand  people  might  have 
been  done  by  one  thousand  ;  and  the  remainder  might  have  put  in 
a  day's  work,  on  their  land.  To  effect  this  we  can  only  look  to  an 
increase  of  the  co-operative  spirit  which  in  other  countries  has 
done  so  much  to  make  marketingr  efficient  ;  and  this  in  turn 
denotes  a  degree  of  mutual  confidence  which  is  not  commonly  met 
with  in  the  Deccan,  and  which  it  will  be  difficult  to  introduce  in 
connection  with  marketing  transactions  in  a  country  where  prices 
are  very  indefinite,  and  the  personal  element  enters  so  largely 
into  every  bargain  that  is  struck. 

One  other  serious  leakaofe  of  labour  must  be  mentioned, 
namely  that  due  to  sickness.  Malaria  is  common  in  many  parts 
and  causes  the  cultivator  a  very  substantial  loss  of  labour, 
debilitating  some  to  such  an  extent  as  to  render  them  almost 
permanently  unfit  for  good  work.  In  many  localities  there  is  little 
doubt  that  this  could  be  prevented  without  great  outlay.  In 
some  villages,  otherwise  quite  healthy,  a  large  part  of  the  people 
are  temporarily  disabled  every  year  by  guinea-worm  and  a  loss 
results  of  much  valuable  labour  which  might  easily  be  saved.  In 
the  aggregate  such  losses  must  be  enormous,  and  put  the  country 
where  they  occur  at  a  great  disadvantage  as  compared  with  more 
favoured  regions. 

There  are  many  questions  connected  with  the  supply  of 
labour  and  the  rate  of  washes  which  cannot  be  even  touched  on 


318  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   IV. 

here.  The  supply  in  the  Decean  is  undoubtedly  plentiful  and, 
so  far  as  quantity  is  concerned,  has  met  the  increased  industrial 
demand  of  recent  years  without  much  difficulty.  The  pity  is 
that  so  much  of  the  plentiful  supply  should  be  lost.  If  labour 
wasted  in  the  ways  indicated  above  could  be  aj^plied  to  the  per- 
manent improvement  of  the  land,  the  country  side  would  soon 
present  a  very  different  appearance. 

[To  he  continued.) 


PLATE  XXVIII. 


fiil  UHffilHIiltitli 


^   i 


Agricultural  College  ani>  IIeseakch  Institute,  Coimbatoke. 


A.  J.  I. 


The  same  from  Principals  Bun<jalu\v. 


THE  COLLEGE  OF  AGRICULTURE,  COIMBATORE. 

By  R.  CECIL  WOOD,  b.a., 
Principal  of  (he  Agricidtiiral  College  and  Research  Institute,  (Joimbatore. 

In  the  general  re-organization  of  the  Provincial  Agricultural 
Departments  which  has  recentl}^  taken  place,  the  Presidency 
of  Madras  has  not  been  behindhand.  As  soon  as  it  was  realised 
that  the  existing  College  of  Agriculture  at  Saidapet  was  insuffi- 
cient to  meet  the  demands  of  an  expanded  staff,  a  site  for  a  new 
college  was  sought,  and  Coimbatore  being  found  suitable,  the 
land  was  at  once  acquired  and  work  was  commenced  in  the  early 
part  of  1906.  The  foundation  stone  was  laid  by  His  Excellency 
Sir  Arthur  Lawley  on  the  24th  of  September  of  that  year,  and 
the  college  was  formally  opened  by  him  on  the  14th  July  1909, 
Lady  Lawley  also  being  present  on  the  latter  occasion.  As  a 
matter  of  fact,  work  had  commenced  some  time  before  this,  as 
the  first  batch  of  students  entered  in  June  1908,  and  were  tem- 
porarily accommodated  in  vacant  buildings  until  the  laboratories 
and  class  rooms  in  the  college  were  ready  for  them.  These 
students  have  now  entered  their  third  year,  a  second  batch  entered 
ill  July  last  year,  while  the  third,  which  makes  the  full  number, 
entered  in  June  this  year.  The  total  number  that  can  be  accom- 
modated is  sixty  — so  that  twenty  students  are  expected  to  pass  out 
each  year.  The  selection  of  students  is  left  to  the  Principal,  and 
endeavour  is  made  to  select  those  who  will  get  the  most  advant- 
age from  their  training  and  have  the  widest  influence  after 
they  leave.  For  tliis  reason  men  of  the  land-owning  or  farming 
classes  are,  in  general,  selected,  care  being  taken  at  the  same  time 
to  recruit  representatives  from  as  many  districts  as  possible.  The 
applications  last  year  numbered  nearly  150. 


320  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INt)LV.  [V,  IV. 

The  building  itself  is,  as  may  be  judged  from  the  accompany- 
ing plates,  an  exceedingly  handsome  structure,  in  the  Hindu- 
Saracenic  style.  It  is  built  of  red  table-moulded  brick  in 
mortar,  with  finely  dressed  cut  stone  work  :  the  granite  being 
quarried  from  the  adjacent  hills.  Designed  by  Mr.  G.  S.  T.  Harris, 
the  late  Consulting  Architect  to  the  Madras  Government,  it  has 
been  constructed  at  a  total  cost,  including  fittings,  of  Rs.  4,65,000, 
under  the  immediate  direction  of  Mr.  H.  T.  Keeling,  the  District 
Executive  Engineer,  whose  experience  and  readiness  to  meet  the 
needs  of  the  various  experts,  have  been  all  along  invaluable. 
The  building  faces  due  north,  and,  as  will  be  seen  from  the  plans, 
is  built  in  the  form  of  the  letter  H.  The  total  length  of  the 
building  is  over  300  feet,  the  width  of  each  block  being  50  feet, 
consistino-  of  a  25-foot  room  with  12  feet  verandah  each  side.  A 
noticeable  feature  of  its  construction,  and  one  of  no  little  value 
in  this  country  is  its  spaciousness  :  some  of  the  views  show  this 
well,  especially  No.  6.  The  compound  has  been  partly  laid  out 
in  grass,  and  trees  have  in  the  front  been  already  planted,  while 
the  work  of  laying  out  the  southern  side  is  being  gradually'  pro- 
ceeded with.  A  compound  wall  is  under  construction  with  two 
handsome  entrances  on  the  front  drive. 

Accommodation  is  arranged  for  five  officers,  the  Principal, 
Chemist,  Botanist,  Mycologist  and  Entomologist,  all  of  whom, 
with  the  exception  of  the  last,  have  been  appointed,  and  are 
at  work  in  the  college.  The  Principal's  office  room  is  situated 
next  the  main  entrance,  and  his  clerks  work  in  a  room  next  to  it, 
which  also  serves  as  a  record  room.  He  lectures  in  a  spacious  room 
on  the  upper  floor,  which  can,  by  means  of  sliding  doors,  be  made 
continuous  with  the  room  next  to  it,  and  thus  aftord  a  hall  7(S  ft. 
long,  which  is  available  for  general  meetings.  The  Agricultural 
Chemist  occupies  the  whole  of  the  ground  floor  of  the  rear 
block,  having  two  large  laboratories,  one  for  analytical  work 
and  one  for  students,  besides  his  own  office  and  w^ork  rooms, 
lecture  room,  balance  rooms,  store  room  and  preparation  room. 
A  ])ot-culture  house  of  ample  projiortions  is  now  being  built 
just  outside  the  compound  wall  in  the  south-east   corner.     The 


PLATE  XXIX. 


h" 


PLAN  or   GBOONO    FU009 
3  2  7'  -   o"      


Plan  of  Lower  Floor. 


ACoieuLTuRkL    COkLcct    fcfie? 


COIMOAT  ORE 


Plan  Or  UPPt«  Fi,OOB 


A.  J.  I. 


Plan  of  Upi'KH  Fux>k. 


PLATE    XXX. 


COLLEGE    OF    A(iKICULTUKE  :    CECIL    WOOD.  321 

upper  })ortion  of  the  fVijnt  block  is  shared  by  the  Government 
Botanist  and  the  Mycologist,  \vh<j  here  get  the  benefit  of  the 
north  light  for  microscopical  work  :  while  accommodation  is  also 
found  for  the  splendid  herbarium,  which  now  contains  over 
40,000  sheets.  The  rear  block  contains  the  entomological  section 
and  the  necessary  class  rooms  for  the  teaching  of  biolog}"  by 
these  three  officers  and  the  veterinary  assistant.  Access  to  the 
upper  storey  is  given  by  two  staircases  on  either  side  of  the 
spacious  hall,  over  which  is  the  library.  This  room,  with  its 
polished  limestone  (Cuddapah  slab)  floor,  will,  when  the  fittings 
are  complete,  be  an  exceedingly  handsome  room  :  at  present  the 
books  are  temporarily  kept  in  almirahs.  With  this  exception, 
all  the  rooms  are  tiled,  some  with  ordinary  si^uare  floor-tiles, 
others  with  special  hexagonal  Marseilles  tiles,  w'hich  make  an 
extremely  durable  and  clean  surface.  The  walls  are  smooth 
polished  plaster,  rubbed  down  with  soapstone.  The  appended 
plates  will  give  an  idea  of  the  way  in  which  the  rooms  have 
been  fitted  up.  Water  is  supplied  to  all  these  rooms  \vhere  it 
is  necessary,  from  tanks  in  the  towers  at  the  extremities  of  the 
building.  These  are  filled  at  present  by  hand  power,  but  an 
electric  installation  is  under  consideration,  to  be  erected  on  the 
south  side  of  the  college  which  will  not  only  do  this  work,  but 
will  supply  electric  light  to  all  rooms,  and  will  also  dris'e  two 
small  engines,  for  the  pressure  and  exhaust  pipes  of  the  chemical 
laboratories.  Gas  to  the  chemical  and  other  rooms  is  supplied 
from  a  gasometer  filled  by  two  Mansfield's  oil  gas  system  retorts 
burning  kerosine  (jil.  ^Mention  of  the  clock-tower  must  be  made. 
Seventy  feet  in  height,  it  gives  a  finish  to  the  whole  appearance 
of  the  building,  and  affords  a  place  for  the  clock  whose  hands  can 
be  seen  from  practically  any  part  of  the  farm,  and  whose  sonorous 
notes,  striking  the  hours  and  quarters,  keep  the  whole  machinery 
of  the  college  and  larni  working  up  to  time. 

The  subordinate  staff'  are  housed  in  three  types  oi"  quarters, 
which  surround  the  maidf.ut  stretching  behind  the  college.  Five 
A  type,  10  B  type  and  24  C  type  meet  present  requirements, 
but  further  expansion  will  probably  soon  be  rendered  necessary. 


32*2  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   IV 

The  students  are  housed  in  ten  blocks,  each  of  which  is  arranged 
to  contain  six  private  rooms  with  a  common  dining-room, 
bath-room,  store-room  and  kitchen.  Accommodation  for  fifty  of 
the  menial  establishment  is  found  in  three  blocks  disposed 
conveniently  about  the  estate. 

The  farm  itself  lies  mainly  to  the  north  and  west  of  the 
college,  and  comprises  a  total  area  of  457  acres,  of  which  45 
acres  are  "wet"  lands  irrigated  from  a  tank,  1"24  acres  black 
regada  loam  suitable  for  growing  sorghum  and  cotton,  and  2G0 
acres  are  red  soil,  part  of  which  is  occupied  by  buildings,  part  is 
dry  cropped,  and  part  garden  land  ;  that  is  to  say,  crops  can  be 
grown  under  irrigation,  by  means  of  water  drawn  from  the 
numerous  wells  which  are  such  a  feature  of  this  district.  Such 
lands  are  cropped  more  or  less  continuously  throughout  the  year, 
while  the  dry  lands  produce  but  a  single  crop,  and  there  is,  thus,  a 
particularly  wide  variation  in  agricultural  conditions  which  may 
be  taken  advantage  of  in  the  prosecution  of  numerous  manurial 
and  cultural  investigations. 

The  staff  which  at  j)i'esent  is  responsible  under  the  Princi- 
pal for  the  management  of  this  area  is  composed  of  an  assist- 
ant who  also  takes  the  students  in  their  practical  field  classes, 
a  farm  manager,  and  extra  farm  manager,  three  assistant 
managers,  who  each  supervise  the  whole  of  the  work  in  one  of 
the  three  blocks  into  which  the  farm  has  been  divided,  a 
mechanic,  store -keeper,  office  manager,  clerk  and  five  mais- 
tries  or  foremen,  all  the  last  being  local  men,  one  being  indeed 
the  original  owner  of  much  of  the  present  farm  land.  The 
veterinary  assistant  and  the  engineering  assistant  besides  their 
teaching  work,  also  deal  with  matters  needing  their  attention 
on  the  farm.  Thirty  pairs  of  cattle,  and  three  oil  engines, 
one  portable,  provide  the  necessary  power  for  the  farm  work, 
including  the  temporary  water-supply  to  the  bungalows  and  some 
of  the  quarters.  The  machinery  installed,  comprises  a  small 
fixed  threshing  machine,  two  portable  machines,  a  complete  oil 
crushing  and  pressing  plant,  three-roller  cane  crusher,  chaft-cutter, 
mill  for  grinding  gram,  and  cotton  seed  and  cake  breaker. 


^    0        ^CL/ 


y 


PLATE  XXXII. 


Teaching  ix  the  Biological  Lacokatokv. 


A.  J.  J, 


Botany  Research  Laboratory. 


PLATE  XXXIII. 


f^   '"■% 


Kancavam"  Stch  Brr.i., 


A.  J.  I. 


BUAOIAM. 


PLATE  XXXIV 


Yakd. 


Some  Live-Siock. 


COLLEGE    OF    AGllICULTUUE  :    CKCIL    WOOD.  323 

The  buildings  include  three  cattle  sheds,  one  with  the  cattle 
facing  outwards,  one  with  the  cattle  facing  inwards,  and  the 
third  constructed  on  the  loose  box  system  in  which  the  cattle 
t»-et  plenty  of  litter  to  convert  into  manure.  Two  threshing 
floors,  grain  and  cattle  food  store  rooms,  engine  shed,  carpenters' 
and  blacksmiths'  shops,  and  implement  sheds  are  disposed  around 
three  sides  of  the  cattle  sheds,  and  form  a  compact  and  weil- 
arranoed  steadino-. 

The  dairy,  plans  for  which  have  been  submitted,  has  not  yet 
beoii  built.  A  beginning  has  been  made  in  getting  together  a 
dairy  herd  mostly  of  pure  or  half-bred  Nellores.  The  local 
kaiujayam  breed  has  been  found  to  be  well  adapted  to  the 
district  for  draught  purposes,  but  the  cows  are  extremely  bad 
milkers,  and  separate  herds  will  have  to  be  kept  for  the  draught 
and  milch  cattle.  The  Plate  XXXIII  shows  the  stud  bull  of 
the  kaiKjayain  breed  at  present  in  use  on  the  farm,  and  the 
best  cow  which,  in  the  author's  opinion,  is  the  ideal  of  what  a 
milking  cow  should  be.  Her  daily  yield  of  milk  is  about  IG  lbs., 
and  since  she  calved  last  on  July  24th,  she  has  yielded  3,358  lbs. 
of  milk.  She  is  cross-bred  with  Ongole  (Xellore)  Kerry  and 
Aden  blood  in  her,  and  is  at  present  twelve  years  old.  One  of 
her  calves  will  shortly  become  the  dairy  stud  bull,  while  three 
of  her  female  progeny  are  at  present  on  the  farm. 

A  beginning  has  just  been  made  in  sheep  breeding  by  the 
purchase  of  a  cross-bred  Merino  ram  from  the  central  jail, 
Coimbatore.  The  local  sheep  has  a  reputation  for  mutton,  while 
it  produces  a  very  fair  clip  of  wool.  Poultry  will  be  kept  later 
on. 

This  short  note,  with  the  assistance  of  the  illustrations,  will 
it  is  hoped,  convey  a  fairly  clear  idea  of  the  college  and  the  farm, 
but,  before  closing,  some  mention  nmst  be  made  of  the  climate 
and  general  environment.  The  district  is  a  dry  one  and  tlie 
rainfall  is  only  a  little  over  twenty  inches  a  year.  The  drouo-ht 
is  aggravated  by  the  hot  weather  winds  which  blow  from  the 
north-east  from  February  to  June,  followed  by  still  more  furious 
gales  from  the  west  from  June  to  September,  which  are  extremely 


324  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,    IV. 

tr3dng,  and  to  a  certain  extent  interfere  with  laboratory  work. 
Against  this  must  be  put  the  equable  temperature  :  during  the 
short  hot  weather  from  March  to  June,  the  thermometer  only 
occasionally  registers  above  100  in  the  shade,  while,  as  soon  as 
the  south-west  monsoon  commences  in  June,  the  skies  become 
cloudy  and  the  weather  cool  and  pleasant. 

The  situation  of  the  college,  three  miles  from  the  town  and 
close  under  the  hills  of  the  eastern  Ghats,  provides  a  type  of 
scenery  not  often  enjoyed  by  dwellers  on  the  plains.  The  horizon 
for  more  than  half  its  circumference  is  bounded  by  lofty  hills 
which  show  an  ever-changing  range  of  colours,  while  the  eye 
dazzled  by  the  dust  and  glare  of  the  white  roads  and  barren  red 
fields,  turns  with  relief  to  the  verdant  crops  of  the  garden  lands 
and  the  varied  greens  of  the  plantain  and  coconut  topes  which 
fringe  the  perennial  streams  that  flow  from  the  foot  of  the  hills. 
Altogether  a  pleasant  place,  and  one  which  should,  so  far  as  an 
environment  can  do  so,  stimulate  both  teachers  and  pupils  to  the 
displa}^  of  their  best  activities. 


A  PROBLEM  IN  AGRICULTURE. 

Uv  J.  MOLLISON,  M.R.A.c, 
Inspector -General  of  Ayricultiire  in  India. 

A  FEW  years  ago,  ]Mr.  W.  J.  Wilson,  an  Engineer  of  the 
United  Provinces  of  Agra  and  Oudh,  visited  the  western  prov- 
inces of  the  L'nited  States  of  America,  with  a  view  to  studying 
the  conditions  of  alkah  lands  and  the  methods  of  reclamation  as 
practised  in  tliose  regions.  In  his  report  he  referred  to  the 
circumstances  connected  with  the  existence  in  India  and  in  the 
western  parts  of  the  American  States,  of  salts  at  the  surface  of 
particular  soils  which  caused  infertihty.  In  many  parts  of  India, 
particularly  in  upper  India,  large  areas  are  injuriously  affected  for 
agricultural  purposes  by  such  salts.  The  question  of  reclaiming 
alkali  lands  has  received  a  good  deal  of  consideration  by  the 
United  States  Department  of  Agriculture.  Expert  advice  and 
other  assistance  have  been  offered  to  farmers  regarding  the 
improvement  of  such  land.  The  problem  of  improving  alkali 
soil  has  particularly  engaged  the  attention  of  Professor  E.  W. 
Hilgard  of  the  University  of  California.  His  advice  regarding 
methods  of  improvement  has  been  widely  adopted  by  farmers  in 
America.  The  American  literature  on  the  sujbect  should  be 
studied.  The  term  alkali  refers  to  excessive  accumulation  at  or 
near  the  surface  of  a  soil,  of  water-soluble  mineral  salts  which 
render  the  soil  more  or  less  infertile.  A  very  small  percentage 
of  such  salts  near  the  surface  causes  sterility.  The  principal 
substances  whifli  have  this  harmful  effect  are  chlorides,  sulphates 
and  carbonate  of  sodium,  magnesium  and  calcium,  and  this  effect 
is  usually  caused  by  a  mixture  of  several  of  these  salts.  The 
most  harmful  alkali  salts  are  sodium  carbonate,  sodium  sulphate 


326  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  IV. 

and  sodium  chloride.  Though  all  of  these  salts  in  undue  pro- 
portion in  the  soil  are  more  or  less  injurious  to  plants,  the 
first  is  the  worst.  The  presence  of  this  salt  in  the  surface 
soil  causes  what  is  commonly  known  as  black  alkali.  It 
causes  the  soil  to  become  so  dense  that  rain  or  irrigation  water 
cannot  easily  soak  through  it.  The  other  salts  together  with 
maofiiesium  chloride,  constitute  white  alkali  which  is  less 
harmful  to  crops,  and  by  irrigation  or  rainfall  associated  with 
drainage  can  be  washed  out  of  the  soil.  Some  of  the  alkaline 
salts  in  soils  are  actually  of  manurial  value  but  they  are 
useless  unless  the  noxious  salts  are  removed  from  the  soil.  A 
chemical  investigation  regarding  those  salts  which  are  useful 
and  those  which  are  harmful,  should  be  made  before  attempts 
at  reclamation  are  started.  The  object  of  reclamation  should 
be  to  get  rid  of  deleterious  substances  and  retain,  if  possible, 
a  suitable  percentage  of  manurial  salts,  such  as  those  of  nitro- 
gen, potash,  phosphoric  acid  and  lime.  Alkali  or  usar  lands 
in  India  are  quite  difterent  from  the  salt  lands  of  the  sea- 
coast,  which  derive  their  salt  mostly  from  sea  water  which,  at 
high  tides,  occasionally  covers  them  or  makes  the  sub-soil  water 
saline  at  a  depth  very  near  the  surface.  Most  of  the  alkali 
lands  have  no  definite  relation  to  the  sea.  The  salt  lands  of  the 
Sunderbans  and  on  the  Bombay  coast  are  quite  different  from 
the  Ufiar  lands  of  the  United  Provinces,  the  Punjab  and  Sind. 

The  soluble  salts  in  alkali  soils  have  accumulated  in  most 
cases  by  the  decomposition  of  the  minerals  composing  these  soils. 
In  the  processes  of  soil  formation,  these  salts  are  formed.  In 
humid  regions,  they  are  washed  away  more  or  less  by  the  drain- 
age from  rain.  In  arid  regions,  where  the  small  rainfall  does  not 
penetrate  far  into  the  sub-soil,  the  moisture  in  the  soil  evaporates 
during  dry  and  hot  weather  and  brings  up  the  soluble  salts  to 
the  surface.  The  existence  of  injurious  salts  in  soils  is  thus 
chiefiy  due  to  climatic  conditions  and  in  most  cases  is  the 
result  of  deficient  rainfall.  Alkali  in  soil  tends  in  India  to 
increase  in  districts  of  very  light  rainfall  (15"  or  less  per  annum), 
but   with    this    rainfall,   the     benefits    of    irrigation   are    usually 


A    PROBLEM    IN    AGRICULTURE  :    MOLLISON.  327 

certain  over  the  greater  proportion  of  land  commanded.  Irri- 
oation  may  remove  alkali  or  increase  it  in  particular  areas 
according  to  whether  the  soil  is  porous  to  a  considerable  depth 
or  not.  Many  farmers  of  the  western  parts  of  the  United 
States  of  America  found  that  after  irrigation,  alkali  appeared 
where  they  never  thought  of  its  occurrence  and  we  have  the 
same  experience  in  India,  especially  in  the  new  Canal  Colonies 
of  the  Punjab.  In  some  parts  of  upper  India,  some  people 
believe  that  '^isar  is  caused  by  irrigation.  It  is  sometimes  indirectly 
the  result  of  irrigation,  but  on  irrigated  lands  it  is  really  almost 
alwa3^s  due  to  defective  drainage.  Professor  E.  W.  Hilgard 
refers  to  a  soil  which  contained  'OSo  per  cent,  of  alkali  to  a  depth 
of  15".  The  alkali  increased  in  the  sub-soil  until  it  reached  a 
maximum  of  "53  per  cent,  at  33".  The  same  soil  was  examined 
after  several  years  of  irrigation  and  it  was  found  that  the  alkali 
had  accumulated  near  the  surface,  the  first  inch  containing 
•74  per  cent.,  while  at  the  depth  at  three  feet  where  originally 
most  of  the  alkali  had  been,  there  was  only  about  '04  per  cent. 

Alkali  lands  in  India  are  generally  considered  as  permanently 
waste  lands  ;  but  successful  attempts  have  been  made  to  improve 
them  for  ordinary  agriculture.  Usually  improvement  will  be  effect- 
ed by  flooding  the  land  for  a  suflicient  length  of  time  and  then  drain- 
ing off  the  water.  The  water  dissolves  the  salt  and  the  draiuao-e 
carries  it  away.  Such  attempts  have  been  successfully  made  in 
different  parts  of  the  United  States,  in  Egypt  and  in  recent  years 
in  India.  This  method  is  believed  to  be  the  most  succe.ssful 
remedy  for  alkali.  The  drawbacks  are  the  expense  and  the  neces- 
sity for  obtaining  an  outlet  for  the  drains  or  ditches  which  cannot 
always  be  found  on  the  owner's  land.  Co  operation  is  therefore 
required  amongst  land-owners.  There  is  no  doubt  that  the  rec- 
lamation of  ii.sar  land  in  India  is  hastened  by  growing  suitable 
crops  after  the  land  has  been  washed  and  drained.  The 
experience  in  Sind  is  that  with  abundant  canal  irrigation  coarse 
rice  should  be  the  crop  for  the  first  two  years,  the  land  beino" 
properly  levelled,  embanked  and  drained  for  the  purpose.  After- 
wards, ordinary  crops  such   as   jitwar  and  cotton   can   be  grown 


328  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   IV. 

successfully  if  rotated  with  a  pulse  crop  such  as  Egyptian  clover 
which  grows  ver}^  successfully  in  Sincl.  Various  methods  of 
reclamation  of  tisar  lands  have  been  adopted  in  India  for  many 
years,  but  until  very  recently  have  nearly  alwa3\s  failed  on 
account  of  costliness  and  for  other  reasons.  Expensive  tillage, 
expensive  manuring,  expensive  tree-planting,  fencing  to  encourage 
the  growth  of  trees  and  natural  grasses  and  the  planting  of 
salt  bushes  in  such  enclosed  areas,  have  all  practically  failed. 

I  invite  correspondence  on  this  subject  in  the  Agricidtural 
Journal  of  India,  because  the  question  is  a  pressing  one.  I  do 
not  think  we  want  particularly  to  enter  into  technical  details, 
but  I  feel  strongly  that  we  should  discuss  work-a-day  methods 
of  improvement.  I  have  shown  this  article  to  Mr.  Barnes,  the 
Punjab  Agricultural  Chemist.  He  has,  in  a  short  note,  referred 
to  several  points  of  importance  which  should  be  borne  in 
mind  if  any  large  scheme  of  reclamation  is  instituted.  He 
thinks  that  the  problem  is  very  similar  in  the  Punjab  to  that 
in  the  Western  States  of  America  excepting  that  in  the  former, 
there  is  not  so  much  black  alkali  and  that  an  almost  extreme 
lack  of  contour  and  well-defined  drainage  in  the  Punjab  calls  for 
special  attention  from  the  engineers.  He  urges  that  co-operation 
for  improvement  would  be  essential  betw^een  owners  of  land  and 
that  the  work  of  reclaiming  their  lands  in  India  should,  in  the 
probable  absence  of  this  condition,  be  taken  up  and  financed  by 
Government  as  a  large  scheme  and  worked  by  the  Irrigation 
Branch  of  the  Public  Works  Department  in  co-operation  with 
the  Agricultural  Department.  He  thinks  that  such  reclaimed 
lands,  if  not  specially  required  for  agricultural  expansion  in  seed 
growing  and  such  like,  could,  with  great  advantage  to  the  agricul- 
ture of  the  new  Canal  Colonies  of  the  Punjab,  be  utilised  as 
forest  reserves  or  as  fodder  and  fuel  reserves  which  are  urgently 
required  in  the  irrigated  tracts  of  northern  India,  or  as  fodder 
farms  for  the  Army  Remount  Depots,  and  in  least  degree,  as 
demonstration  areas  for  the  Agricultural  Department,  because 
such  areas  have  to  be  very  specially  selected.  Mr.  Barnes  con- 
siders that  any  scheme  of  draining  salt  land  should  include  not 


> 

X 

X 
X 

< 


A    PROBLEM    IN    A(iKirULTrRE  :    MOLLISOX.  320 

merely  the  withdrawal  of  the  injurious  salts,  but  also  the  reten- 
tion of  as  large  a  proportion  as  possible  of  salts  of  manurial  value. 
He  thinks  that  some  of  the  removed  saline  matter  can  be  made 
the  source  of  marketable  material,  and  the  commercial  possibili- 
ties of  this  should  not  be  overlooked.  He  does  not  suggest  that 
the  income  derived  from  the  sale  of  such  material  will  be  com- 
parable with  the  cost  of  reclamation,  but  it  should  certainl}^  do 
something  towards  reducing  this  cost.  Many  Indian  alkaline 
soils  contain  large  quantities  of  sulphate  of  soda  which  can  be 
readily  made  a  source  of  carbonate  of  soda  and  sulphur — both 
valuable  articles  of  commerce — the  latter  being  of  considerable 
importance  in  the  industrial  development  of  India  as  a  source 
of  sulphuric  acid. 

I  have  also  shown  this  article  to  Mr.  Henderson,  the 
Deputy  Director  of  Agriculture  in  Sind.     His  views  are  : — 

(1)  Besides  the  substances  mentioned,  some  salts  of  potas- 
sium are  often  important. 

(2)  Black  alkali  occurs  often  in  light  soil  and  has  no 
effect  in  making  these  impenetrable. 

(3)  It  is  impossible  to  distinguish  between  deleterious  and 
manurial  substances  while  reclaiming  alkali  soil.  Everything 
that  is  soluble  and  not  fixed  by  the  soil  must  be  got  rid  of  and 
thereafter  the  soil  made  fertile  by  cropping. 

(4)  Salt  lands  near  the  coast  often  show  large  percentages  of 
sodium  carbonate,  and  consequently  may  not  derive  these  salts 
from  the  sea  water. 

(5)  Alkali  lands  commanded  by  a  good  supply  of  irrigation 
water  are  not  considered  waste.  Such  should  be  taken  up  at  once, 
heavily  Hooded  and  coarse  red  rice  cultivated.  This  is  often  done 
by  zemindars  on  low  land  on  inundation  canals  in  Sind.  It  is 
seldom,  however,  that  the  land  is  ever  brought  beyond  this  stao-e. 

(G)  Flooding  the  land  and  draining  off  the  water  are  lengthy 
and  uncertain  methods  ;  this  is  simply  surface  washing.  A  better 
method  is  to  force  the  alkali  into  the  sub-soil  by  keeping  a 
constant  layer  of  water  on  the  surface,  or  where  the  sub-soil 
water-level  is  high,  into  drains  constructed  at  a  proper  depth. 


330  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF  INDIA.  [V,   IV. 

(7)  Reclamation  should  only  be  attempted  with  a  suitable 
scheme  having  the  financial  and  engineering  aspects  properly 
worked  out.  Individual  and  even  co-operative  operations  by 
land-owners  are,  as  a  rule,  not  to  be  encouraged,  except  where,  as 
in  some  cases  on  the  Sind  inundation  canals,  unlimited  water  is 
available  part  of  the  year,  and  it  is  not  a  matter  of  much  impor- 
tance what  happens  to  neighbouring  lands. 

(8)  More  attention  might  be  drawn  to  the  economic  side  of 
reclamation.  There  are  no  lands  which  cannot  be  reclaimed  b}^ 
some  method,  but  only  a  proportion  of  these  can  be  made  to  show 
a  profit. 


PLATE  XXXVI. 


/^ 


A.  J.  I. 


CITRUS  HYSTRIX,  D.C. 


THE  SHAUK-NOO  {CITRUS  HYSTIUX,  D.   C). 

H5y  a.    M.   sawyer, 

Assistant  BotdMist,  Ihivma. 

The  Burmese  shcmk-noo  is  the  least  known  member  of  the 
famihar  group  of  valuable  plants  represented  by  the  lime  and 
lemon.  Economicall}'^  it  is  still  of  small  value ;  botanically  it 
reveals  features  of  interest.  The  sjiauk-noo  may  be  described 
as  a  small  tree,  o-rowino^  from  15  to  20  feet  hio:h  and  attaininof 
a  girth  of  2  feet  at  the  base.  It  has  crooked,  reddish-brown 
stems  and  branches,  with  jointed,  dark-green,  glossy  leaves.  It 
is  found  wild  in  the  forests  of  Tenasserim  and  is  cultivated 
there  and  elsewhere,  in  gardens.  It  is  said  to  be  remarkably 
slow  in  its  growth,  but  to  live  for  years  once  it  has  grown.  It 
thrives  best  in  rainy  places,  flourishing  on  the  banks  of  rivers 
and  streams,  on  the  borders  of  swamps  or  the  margins  of  lakes. 
The  stout  young  shoots  that  spring  up  from  the  stem  are  not 
cylindrical  nor  rounded  but  ridged  and  grooved.  These  shoots 
bear  the  longest  and  sharpest  spines  ;  the  older  twigs  have  short 
blunt  ones,  while  the  oldest  twigs  and  branches  have  none.  The 
spines,  whatever  their  functions  may  be,  would  appear  to  be 
TPtjuired  to  perform  those  functions  only  in  the  younger  parts  of 
the  stem.  The  leaves,  when  young,  are  soft  and  light-green  on 
both  the  uj>per  and  lower  sides,  but  when  mature,  become  stiff 
.ind  dark-green  only  on  the  shining  upper  sides.  The  edges  of 
the  leaves  are  toothed,  but  the  teeth  are  short,  blunt  and 
louiided.  The  stalk  of  the  leaf  is  long  and  winged  :  it  is  longest 
ill  the  leaves  of  the  thick  young  shoots  and  shortest  in  those  of 
the  normal  twiifs.  The  winofs  of  the  leaf-stalk  are  broad  and 
fig-shaped,  being  broader  at  the  top  than  at  the  base  ;  they  are 

23 


332  AORICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,    IV. 

almost  as  long  as  or  longer  than  the  leaf.  The  oval  or  egg- 
shaped  leaf  itself  is  notched-in  at  the  rounded  tip,  and  is  borne 
at  the  end  of  the  stalk  to  which  its  base  is  joined  b}''  an  elbowed 
hinge.  This  hinge,  which  would  appear  to  be  sensitive,  enables 
the  leaf  to  bend  in  and  out  or  to  turn  about  through  almost  anj^ 
angle  to  take  up  positions  suited  to  the  source  of  light.  The 
flower  of  the  shauh-noo  is  unknown  to  me,  but  the  Burmese  say 
it  is  small  and  four-leaved,  white  in  colour  and  agreeably 
odoured.  The  tree  is  said  to  shed  its  old  leaves  once  a  year  in 
the  month  of  December,  and  to  put  forth  its  blossoms  together 
with  the  new  leaves  within  a  month  from  the  dropping  of  the 
old.  This  may  be  true  ;  but,  as  I  collected  the  little  green  fruit 
which  is  figured  in  the  coloured  plate  on  the  15th  May  when  it 
must  have  been  but  a  few  days  old,  it  is  probable  that  the  tree 
flowers  later  in  the  year  or  that  it  continues  to  blossom 
for  some  length  of  time.  The  flowers  are  borne  in  clusters 
of  five  or  more  at  the  ends  of  the  branches,  besides  springing 
up  singly  or  in  two's  or  three's  from  the  inner  angles  formed 
by  the  bases  of  the  leaf-stalks  with  the  twigs  and  smaller 
branches.  The  young  fruits  shown  at  the  top  of  the  coloured 
plate  were  three  that  had  set  in  a  cluster  of  five  flowers.  The 
rind  of  the  youngest  fruits  is  smooth,  the  peculiar  knobbed- 
and-crumpled  rind  of  the  older  ones  being  formed  at  a  later 
stage  in  its  growth.  The  long-drawn-out  nipple-like  base  of 
the  fruit  is,  however,  an  early  formed  feature  ;  for  it  is  to  be 
seen  in  the  j'"Oungest  fruits.  Similar  nipples  or  knobs  that  pro- 
trude from  the  top  ends  of  fruits  grown  in  some  parts  of  Burma 
(Sagaing)  are  absent  from  those  grown  in  some  other  parts 
(Moulmein).  Again,  the  knobs  and  crumpled  foldings  of  the  rind 
are  not  always  formed  in  the  fruits  of  the  shauk-noo,  nor  are  they 
developed  to  the  same  degree  in  all  the  fruits  of  any  one  locality  ; 
the  character  would  appear  to  be  far  from  constant,  because  it  is 
not  always  present.  What  is  always  present  is,  however,  the 
strong  and  peculiar  odour  of  the  rind,  stronger  perhaps,  than  an^^ 
other  odour  which  emanates  from  the  rind  of  a  citrus  fruit  and 
peculiar  enough  to  be  easily  distinguished  from  a  hundred  of  tlie 


PLATE  XXXVII 


;1^^    f 


3  i  >- 


PLATE  XXXVIII. 


■■■% 


r 


t^ 


i; 


\ 


f 


% 


A.  J.  /. 


ClTULS    UV.STKIX,    D.C 


sHal'k-noo  :  ^^A^VYtH.  333 

t'itiiiie  odours.  The  rind  of  the  fruit,  until  it  is  quite  ripe,  is  of 
a  beautiful  bright  green  colour  and  contains  large  quantities  of 
a  resinous  odoured,  but  far  from  unpleasant-smelling  essential  oil. 
When  the  fresh  rinds  are  distilled  with  water,  the  oil  passes  out 
as  a  clear,  colourless  liquid,  with  an  agreeable  aroma  and  a  hot 
bitter  taste.  The  light-green  expressed  oil  of  the  rind  resembles 
the  oil  of  the  true  Bergamot  ;  it  is  uKjre  mildly  odoured  than 
the  distilled  oil,  but  the  yield  is  relatively  small  and  uncertain. 
The  rind,  when  ripe,  is  soft  and  yellow  with  comparatively  small 
(juantities  of  an  oil  which  is  of  a  pale  yellow  colour  when  ex- 
pressed or  distilled.  The  pulp  of  the  young  fruit  is  tasteless  and 
insipid,  besides  being  thick  and  mucilagin<nis  :  it  is  so  gummy  as  to 
stick  paper.  As  the  fruit  matures  this  mucilage  is  replaced  I>y 
ah  acid  iuice  which,  thouo'h  not  abundant,  is  a  thin  watery 
liijuid.  The  juice  is  not  aggressively  acid  and,  though  pleasant- 
Havoured,  is  not  used  like  the  juice  of  the  allied  lime  or  lemon 
It  is  not  poi.sonous  nor  dangerous  to  health,  but  is  grateful  and 
refreshing  like  common  lime-juice.  The  pulp,  which  is  of  a 
greyish  colour,  is  closely  packed  in  10  or  L2  wedge-shaped  bulbs 
like  lemon-bulbs  ;  the  bulbs  are  firmly  attached  to  the  rind  which, 
on  the  inside,  is  not  crumpled  but  even.  The  chief  use  to  which 
the  fruits  of  the  ^hauk-noo  are  at  present  applied  in  Burma  is  as 
a  detergent  for  wa.shing  the  hair.  The  fruits  (Sagaing)  ripen 
from  October  onwards  through  the  cold  weather  and  sell  at  from 
o  to   4    annas    the   hundred,   but   the    demand    for   them    beo-ins 

o 

loiig  before  they  ripen,  so  that  fruits  in  various  stages  of  growth 
enter  the  markets  for  many  months.  For  washing  the  head  the 
entire  fruit  is  boiled  to  i)ulp  with  the  })ods  and  bark  of  some  of 
the  commoner  climbing  acacias  {ic,  Acacia  cuncinna,  D.  C), 
and  the  li(jU(^r.  when  cool,  used  after  being  strained.  The  ripe 
truit  is  sometimes  also  eniployed  in  the  fomentation  of  painful 
joints.  The  seed  is  longish  with  shrivelled  seed-coats  which  are 
[)itted  ncai-  the  round  free  ends  and  splayed  out  at  the  attachetl 
ends  into  broad  flat  axe-like  edges.  The  kernel  is  soft  and  con- 
sists of  two  e(|ual  ol»long  oi-  egg-shaped  seed  leaves  which  en- 
close a  single  bud  at  the  base. 


334  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,    IV. 

EXPLANATION    OF    PLATES. 

Frontispiece — Citrus  Hystrix,  D.  C. 

Shauk-Noo. 

Fig.      1.  Mature  leaves  and  young  fruits  ...  |  x  Natural  size. 

2.  Very  young  fruit  ...  ...  Natural  size. 

3.  Ripe  fruit  ...  ...  ...  ,, 

4  ,,  in  transverse  section  ...  ,, 

5.  Seed,  showing  side,  front  and  back  ...  ,, 

Plate  XXXVII— Citrus  Hystrix,  D.  C. 

Shauk-Noo. 

Figs,      1,  2  &  3.     Young  leaves  ...  ...    Natural  size. 

,,  4    &    0.     Mature    ,,  ...  ...  ,, 

Plate  XXXVIII— Citrus  Hystrix,  D.  C. 
Shauk-Noo. 

Fi".      1.     Young  shoot  with  long  spines  ...    Natural  size. 

.,        2.     Old  twig  with    scars  of    fallen    spines    and 

leaves  ...  ...  ...  ,, 

(These  plates  were  prepared  by  nie   from  living  subjects  furnished  by  trees, 
from  15  to  20  years  old,  growing  in  a  Burmese  garden  at  Sagaing.) 


THE  PRESENT  POSITION  AND  PROSPECTS  OF 
COTTON  CULTIVATION  IN  INDIA— I. 

(Presented  to  the  Brussels  Congress,  May   1910.) 

By    G.   A.  G  A. MM  IE,   k.l.s., 
Imperial  Cotton  Specialist. 

The  acreage  devoted  to  cotton  in  India  as  reported  in  the 
final  general  memorandum  of  the  crop  of  the  season  1909-10  is 
computed  to  be  20,227,000  acres,  a  net  increase  of  228,000  acres 
or  1  per  cent,  on  19,999,000  acres  recorded  at  this  time  last  year. 
The  total  estiinated  outturn  is  4,502,000  bales  of  400  lbs., 
as  against  3,(391.000  bales  estimated  last  year,  representing 
an  increase  of    811,000  bales  or  22  per  cent. 

Only  on  one  occasion  (1906-07)  has  the  estimated  crop 
exceeded  the  figure  now  returned.  In  that  year  the  crop  of 
4,934,000  bales  was  the  produce  of  22,484,000  acres.  The 
relatively  favourable  character  of  the  present  season  is  shown  in 
the  higher  yield  of  about  one  pound  per  acre.  The  average 
annual  yield  per  acre  throughout  the  cotton  districts  appears  to 
be  about  89  lbs.   of  clean  cotton  per  acre. 

In  the  Bombay  Presidency,  including  the  British  districts  and 
Native  States,  the  total  area  under  cultivation  this  year  is 
estimated  at  about  6,000,000  acres  yielding  10,607,000  bales  of 
clean  cotton.  In  addition  to  being  the  largest  cotton-producing 
area  in  India,  this  Presidency  is  also  remarkable  for  the  diversity 
of  the  varieties  of  cotton  grown  within  its  borders. 

In  the  southern  Maratha  country  oi-  Karnatak  nearly 
12,000,000  nci'es  are  under  cultivation.  The  predominant  variety 
belojigs   to   the  sppoif^s   (r.   hcrlxicrn id ,   laiowii    in    the   vernacular 


336  AGRICDLTGRAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V, 


IV 


as  jovxtri  hatti  or  kumpta.  The  latter  name  is  applied 
commercially  to  this  cotton,  or  rather  the  term  is  more 
strictly  confined  to  the  superior,  while  the  inferior  samples 
are  preferably  considered  joivari  hatti.  In  many  wa3's  it 
resembles  Broach,  but  it  fails  in  its  darker  colour  and  lower 
ginning  percentage.  In  favoured  localities,  for  example,  in  the 
vicinity  of  Dharwar  the  cultivation  of  Broach  cotton  from 
imported  seed  has  been  successfully  established,  and  it  is  probable 
that  a  continuous  introduction  of  this  will  tend  to  materially 
raise  the  standard  of  the  cotton  over  the  whole  kumpta  area. 

A  variety  of  New  Orleans  cotton,  known  to  the  trade  as 
Dharwar  American,  was  successfully  introduced  by  the  Cotton 
Department,  and  this  still  persists  in  the  southern  parts  of  the 
Dharwar  district,  round  Hubli  and  Dharwar  for  example. 
This  seems  to  have  slightly  deteriorated  since  its  introduction, 
but  there  are  sufficient  indications  on  tiie  experimental  farms 
to  sh(nv  that  a  judicious  extension  of  some  promising  recently- 
introduced  American  varieties  will  materially  assist  in  raising 
the  standard  of  this  cotton. 

Experiments  with  various  tree  cottons  in  this  tract  have 
resulted  in  failure  and  there  is  now  no  definite  reason  why  they 
should  be  continued,  but  there  is  a  slender  possibility  that 
Bourbon  and  perhaps  Cambodia  and  hiiri  may  thrive  on  the 
western  hilly  country  which  is  at  present  outside  the  sphere 
of  regular  cotton  cultivation. 

In  the  Deccan  districts  a  total  area  of  about  1,500,000 
acres  is  covered  by  a  cotton  of  the  species  neglectum,  which 
yields  the  inferior  cottons  of  India,  and  this,  in  one  or  rther 
of  its  forms,  occurs  throughout  Berar,  the  Central  Provinces, 
Central  India,  Rajputana,  the  United  Provinces  and  the  Punjab. 
Research  has  confirmed  the  fact  chat  this  cotton  is  really  a 
mixture  of  from  four  to  six  distinguishable  and  separable  varieties, 
and  that,  by  careful  selection  of  the  best,  a  decided  improvement 
can  be  effected  in  the  type  of  cotton  produce.  Messrs.  Main  in 
Bombay,  Clouston  in  the  Central  Provinces  and  Milne  in  the 
PunjaV)  liave  all  succeeded  in   not  only  isolating  these  types  but 


COTTON    CULTIVATION  :    GAMMIE  337 

even  in  producing  seod  of  the  best  in  quantities  sufficient  for  pur- 
poses of  distribution.  It  is  difficult  to  suggest  any  alternative 
scheme  for  the  Deccan  as  all  superior  introduced  varieties  have 
been  found  to  deteriorate  at  once  to  the  Deccan  standard.  The 
chief  points  aimed  at  for  the  present  are  the  propagation  of  the 
superior  forms  and  minimising  the  mixture  with  greater  attention 
to  cleanliness  in  picking  the  cotton. 

In  Gujarat,  with  a  total  area  of  about  3,500,000  acres,  there 
are  in  the  southern  districts  perhaps  a  million  acres  devoted  to 
the  hiofher  class  of  herbaceum  cotton  known  as  Navnari  and 
Sural. 

The  tract  which  grows  the  finest  type  of  this  cotton  in  the 
ISurat  district  is  roundabout  Jalalpur  extending  northwards 
through  JBaroda  territory  to  Maroli  and  down  to  Bilimora.  It  is 
from  this  region  that  seed  is  procured  for  trial  in  other  tracts  such 
as  the  southern  Maratha  countr}^  From  Broach  to  Miyagam 
or  even  to  Etola  is  the  black  soil  tract  known  as  the  kahnam. 
Broadly  speaking,  this  extends  from  Broach  to  Etola  over  to 
Chandod. 

Jambusar  and  Ainod  grow  mostly  the  variety  (/oghari. 
Rajpipla  State,  since  the  famine,  has  taken  to  growing  a  cotton 
which  is  slightly  inferior  to  that  of  Broach.  The  variety  kuriri 
is  grown  in  Dabhoi  and  Sankheda  tcdukas  in  Baroda  and  a  part 
of  Chliota  Udaipur  State.  Gundi  <jo(jh<iri,  distinguished  by  its 
small  bolls,  is  grown  somewhere  near  Dabhoi  and  Bodeli. 

On  the  south-west  of  Anand,  on  the  Petlad-Cambay  line. 
Broach  cotton  is  ijrown  in  the  Kaira  district.  From  Anand 
northwards  vozi  is  tjfrown.  From  Anand  eastwards  to  the  Panch 
Mahals,  Broach  cotton  is  grown  between  Dakor  and  Godhra. 
In  the  Ahmedabad  coUectorate,  rozi  is  grown  except  in  the 
parts  from  Sanand  to  Viramgaum,  Dholka  and  Danduka  where 
there  are  Jalio  and  irinjaij.  In  the  Panch  Mahals,  kanvi  is 
grown  in  Kalol  to  the  southward  of  Godhra.  In  Cutch,  there 
are  over  100,000  acres  of  cotton  which  is  mostly  a-a</ad  of 
Kathiawar,  from  Morvi,  part  of  Cutch,  extending  probably  as 
far  n[)  as  J'ahlaiipur  and  Jladhan[»ur.      The  best  iragad   in  Cutch 


338  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   IV, 

and  Kathiawar  fetches  a  price  equally  to  that  of  good  Broach. 
It  is  a  hardier  cotton  than  hdio  and  thrives  under  a  lower  rainfall. 
One  reason  for  its  cultivation  is  that  on  account  of  its  closed 
bolls,  the  cotton  cannot  be  perceived  by  thieves  in  the  fields 
at  night.  Kanvi  dift'ers  mainly  from  lalio  in  that  the  bolls  do 
not  properly  open.  This  is  the  cotton  which  is  being  selected 
at  Baroda  by  the  Director  of  Agriculture  of  that  State. 
Although  there  is  no  appreciable  difference  in  the  appearance  of 
kanvi  and  navsa)'i,  still  the  cultivators  of  the  former  persis- 
tently refused  to  import  the  seed  of  the  latter  into  their  district — 
the  kahnam — on  the  plea  that  it  is  an  uncertain  crop  to  grow  in 
their  soil. 

A  recent  examination  of  the  fields  roundabout  Broach  and 
Chamargaum  disclosed  the  fact  that  cjoghari  now  exists  as  a  de- 
cided mixture.  Cultivators  have  unfortunately  abandoned  the 
practice  of  hand -ginning  seed  for  their  own  annual  requirements 
and  accept  whatever  is  given  them  from  the  ginning  factories,  and 
the  consequence  is  that,  through  what  is  nothing  short  of  criminal 
carelessness,  the  southern  parts  of  Gujarat  are  losing  their 
long-standing  reputation  for  the  production  of  the  finest  cotton  in 
India.  It  seems  certain  also  that  (/(xjlinri  which  occurs  in  tlie 
mixture,  thrives  better  in  the  (joradii  than  in  the  black  cotton  soil. 
Cotton  is  the  staple  crop  of  the  province  of  Kathiawar  and  it 
occupies  about  one- third  of  the  area  under  the  crop  in  the  Presi- 
dency excluding  Sind.  For  the  sak*:^  of  convenient  description 
Kathiawar  can  be  divided  into  four  divisions,  namely,  Jhalawad^ 
Sorath,  Haiar  and  Gohilwad. 

In  the  Jhalawad  division  which  iiicludes  six  chief  Native 
States  together  with  son^e  petty  States,  three  varieties  of  cottons 
are  grown,  iva(/(cd,  kanvi  and  matliio.  The  two  first  named  greatly 
predominate  In  the  Sorath  division  which  inchides  the  States 
of  Junagad,  Purbunder,  Manavadar,  Jetpur,  etc.,  there  are  four 
varieties  of  cotton,  kanvi,  [filio,  dliumadio  or  ira<jad,  niathio 
or  sotio.  Of  these,  dliumadio  nnd  mafhio  varieties  are  largely 
cultivated.  Lalio  is  grown  sparingly  not  as  an  independent 
crop,    but  as  a  mixture  in  other    cottons  :     kauri  is  grown  in  parts 


COTTON    CULTIVATION  :    (lAMMIE.  339 

of  Juiuigaclh,  ]\Iriiiav;idar,  Jetpiir,  etc.  Since  1907,  trialfi  are  in 
i)ro«j"res^   to  v^row  Broach   deshi  throuo-hout  Juiiaoaclh  State  and 

LOO  O  O 

with  that  object  1,000  lbs.  of  seeds  of  this  variety  were  intro- 
(hiced  through  the  Deputy  Director  ot"  Agriculture  in  the 
Homhay  Presidency.  The  first  year's  results,  on  account  of"  the 
unfavourable  season,  were  not  satisfactory,  but  the  State  is 
fortunately  likely  to  continue  the  trials.  In  the  Halar  division, 
which  includes  the  chief  Native  States  of  Janinagar,  Gondal, 
Morvi,  Rajkot  and  Wankaner,  three  varieties  of  cotton  are 
gi'own,  icagad  (jr  d/mmad,  kanvi  and  mafliio.  Wa</((d  is  grown 
to  a  very  large  extent. 

In  the  Gohilwad  division,  which  includes  the  chief  states  of 
Bhavnagar,  Vala,  Pali  tana,  Jasdan  and  Lathi,  only  two  varieties 
are  grown,  way  ad  or  dhuinad  and  mathio  of  which  the  latter 
occupies  the  larger  area.  Experiments  towards  the  introduction 
of  exotic  cottons  have  invariably  failed  and  it  is  rather  an  extra- 
ordinary fact  that  in  all  southern  Gujarat,  the  only  exotic  which 
shows  the  best  promise  of  success  is  the  Cambodia  at  Surat.  In 
southern  Gujarat,  therefore,  in  Kathiawar  and  in  fact  in  all  the 
area  which  bears  one  or  other  of  the  many  forms  of  herbaceum 
cottons,  the  problem  is  to  exclude  or  interrupt  further  importa- 
ti(jn  of  such  an  inferioi'  cotton  as  inafhio  and  to  improve  as  much 
as  possible  each  race  of  cotton  in  the  tract  in  which  it  actually 
occurs.  In  northern  Gujarat,  on  the  lighter  soil,  the  indigenous 
cottons  are  of  no  particular  value,  but  fairly  successful  results 
have  been  obtained  fnjin  experiments  with  Bourbon  cotton.  An 
extension  of  these  trials  is  desiiable,  and,  I  think,  it  will  be 
ultimately  fountl  that  such  exotic  cottons  will  thi'ive  best  on 
what  ar*.'  considered  at  [)resent  non-cotton  [deducing  ai'cas.  In 
Sind,  theie  are  about  i^r)(),(M)()  acres  undei'  cotton,  .dl  practically 
l)elonging  to  \t'ry  coarse  varieties  <»f  in'^Jcctn m^  except  in  the 
north  where  a  variety  of  (x.  ohtiisi/o/inni  is  grown  in  limited 
ipiantities  for  domestic  purposes. 

As  i-eg;ii(l,s  the  present  position  of  l^gvptiun  eottitn  in  Sind. 
-Mr.  Ilrndi'ison  has  eoine  to  the  following  eonelusioiis  in  the  light 
of    recent    results.      These  arc,   briefly,   that  no  further  extension 


340  AGKICULTL   EAL    JOUKNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   IV. 

of  the  area  suitable  for  .sowing  Egyptian  cotton  outside  the 
Jamrao  canal  district  can  be  counted  on  till  a  further  system  of 
perennial  canals  is  constructed.  The  Jamrao  canal,  on  a  yearly 
average,  might  command  100,000  acres  of  kharif  cultivation 
and  of  this  not  much  more  than  10  to  20,000  acres  of  Egyptian 
cotton  could  be  sown  as  a  maximum  under  favourable  conditions. 

Owing  to  the  large  holdings  of  the  zemindars,  scarcity  of 
population,  the  often  alkaline  condition  of  the  soil  and  the 
occasional  scarcity  of  water,  the  Jamrao  cultivators  are  not  inclined 
to  give  the  requisite  care  to  the  cultivation  of  Egyptian  cotton. 
They  prefer  a  surer  if  less  profitable  return  in  the  cultivation  of 
millets  and  the  short-stapled  indigenous  cotton.  MeUtJifi  is  a 
more  hardy  and  prolific  variety  and  will  probably  be  found 
more  suitable  for  j^eneral  cultivation.  Abassi,  thouo-h  more  valu- 
able,  grade  for  grade,  deteriorates  more  quickly.  Last  year, 
metajifi  was  classed  as  above  "  fully  good  fair,  "  while  ahassi  was 
not  graded.  If  a  grade  cotton  can  be  produced  in  Sind  then 
its  value  is  a  readily  ascertainable  quantity  depending  upon  the 
market  quotations  of  the  day.  On  the  contraiy,  a  below  grade 
cotton  has  a  very  uncertain  value. 

Despite  the  unsatisfactory  results  hitherto  obtained,  it  is  be- 
lieved from  the  evidence  of  several  growings  that  where  Egyptian 
methods  of  cultivation  are  closely  followed  and  more  particularly 
the  rotation  of  the  crop  with  Trifolium  alexandrium  or  berseem, 
good  results  can  be  got  with  Egyptian  cotton.  Want  of  care  in 
cultivation  will  undoubtedly  result  in  failure. 

The  points  which  must  be  impressed  on  the  cultivators 
are  : — (a)  sowing  early,  latest  date  the  first  week  of  April,  {b) 
the  choice  of  the  best  land,  avoiding  all  "  kalar,"  (c)  to  grow,  if 
possible,  in  rotation  with  berseem,  {d)  to  get  an  even  germination 
and  thereafter  keeping  the  land  clean  and  avoiding  over-watering. 

The  results  of  Egyptian  cotton  in  Sind  are  as  follows  : — 

Outlmii 
Year.  Area  Bales  (400  lbs.) 

1905  ...       1,000  acres  ...  450 

1906  ...      5,000  acres  ...  700 

1907  ...       6,300  acres  ...  1,800 


COTTON    LLLTIVATK^N  :    GAMMIE.  341 

American  Upland  cotton,  Texas  \)\g  boll,  Boyd  prolific  and 
also  a  variety  of  American  acclimatised  in  Bombay — Dharwar 
American — have  been  sown  in  Halla,  Hasaratt  and  the  Na)a 
valle}^  and  are  promising.  It  is  proposed  to  extend  these  areas 
to  Sukkur  and  the  uj)per  Sind  frontier  and  the  Fuleli  district. 
They  possess  the  advantage  of  being  fairly  hardy  and  having  a 
shorter  growing  period  than  Egyptian  cotton,  enabling  them  to 
be  sown  on  inundation  canals. 

In  the  Central  Provinces  and  Berar  which  comprise  the 
second  largest  area  under  cotton  in  India,  the  total  area  for  this 
season  is  returned  at  4,229,000  acres  ( 1,197,000  acres  in  the  Cen- 
tral Provinces  and  3,032,000  acres  in  Berar)  The  total  yield  is 
estimated  to  be  1,014,000  bales  (339,000  in  the  Central  Provinces 
and  675,000  in  Berar).  The  whole  of  the  cotton  crop  is  obtained 
from  two  varieties,  one  a  mixture  of  forms  of  G.  neglect  am  called 
jari,  the  other  a  form  of  G.  indicum  known  as  hinganghat  or 
ghat  Icapas.  In  Berar  the  area  under  cotton  has  probably 
reached  its  maximum;  in  the  Central  Provinces  there  is  consider- 
able room  for  expansion.  The  soil  and  climate  in  the  cotton  tracts 
which  are  so  admirably  suited  for  the  indigenous  cotton  now 
grown,  seem  to  be  inimical  to  exotic  kinds  of  which  so  far  only 
the  huri  cotton  of  Chota  Nagpur  and  the  Upland  Georgian 
(both  forms  of  the  same  species)  hold  out  any  promise  of  success. 
There  seems  to  be  distinct  evidence  to  prove  that  jari,  which 
will  ultimately  be  the  kind  universally  grown,  and  which  produces 
the  coarsest  and  shortest  stapled  cotton  in  India,  some  thirty  years 
ago  was  a  superior  cotton,  spinning  up  to  20's,  while  at  present 
it  rarely  spins  cn-er  lO's.  About  this  time,  a  white-flowered 
variety,  yielding  a  very  high  percentage  of  coarse,  short  cotton 
was  introduced  from  Khandesh  into  Bei'ar.  The  seed  of  this 
bears  a  sharp  thorn-hke  point  at  one  end  and  this  peculiarity  led 
to  it  being  named  "  katil  vilayati  "  or  the  "  foreign  thorn  cotton" 
by  the  cultivators,  Thi.-?  variety  readily  adapted  itself  to  the 
conditions  of  Berar  and  quickly  usurped  the  position  so  long- 
occupied  by  the  indigenous  race,  and  Mi'.  Clouston  now  estimates 
that    it    comprises    7')    to    SO    per  cent,   of   the    mixture   in    the 


342  AGRICtJLTUKAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  fV,   IV. 

present  clay.  The  reasons  he  gives  are  pertinent,  for  he  says 
that  the  cultivators  recognising  that  "  katil  vilayati "  is  a 
hardy  cotton,  suffering  less  than  other  varieties  from  the 
exigencies  of  the  climate  and  giving  large  flufi'y  bolls  with  a  very 
high  percentage  of  lint  to  seed,  prefer  it  to  the  finer  types  which 
have  less  bulky  bolls.  The  good  cultivator  in  Berar  who  selects 
and  gins  his  own  seed,  chooses  onty  the  big  fluffy  bolls.  The 
percentage  of  the  coarser  types  in  this  mixed  cotton  c^Wed  jar i 
is  thus  gradually  increasing.  He  proceeds  to  say  that  while 
the  coarser  types  of  jari  are  thus  ousting  the  finer,  the  jari 
mixture  is  at  the  same  time  ousting  Jjcmi.  The  percentage  of 
clean  cotton  to  seed  in  this  is  about  26  compared  with  32  per 
cent.,  for  the  finer  types  o^  jari  and  40  per  cent,  for  the  coarser. 
The  staple  is  about  one  inch  or  double  the  length  of  the  coarser 
kinds  of  jari,  while,  at  the  same  time,  it  is  very  fine  and  silky. 
It  is  suitable  for  spinning  up  to  40's.  At  one  time,  the  bulk  of 
the  cotton  produced  in  Berar  was  hani,  now  this  is  more  or  less 
confined  to  the  plateau  districts  extending  from  Nimar  ii^  the 
west  to  Chanda  in  the  east.  This  includes  most  of  Buldann, 
Yeotmal  and  parts  of  Akola  in  Berar,  and  parts  of  Nimar, 
Wardha  and  Chanda  in  the  Central  Provinces.  It  is  known  as 
nimari  in  Nimar,  as  cluinda  cold  season  jari  in  Chanda  where 
it  is  grown  as  a  winter  crop,  as  hinganghat  in  Wardha,  and  as 
yliat  kapas  in  Berar  and  the  Nizam's  dominions,  from  whence 
two  celebrated  marks,  the  harsi  and  karkeli  still  come.  The 
j(rri  is,  however,  steadily  encroaching  on  the  harti  area,  but  a 
succession  of  good  rainy  seasons  may  retard  its  progress  as  it  is 
hampered  with  the  inabilit}^  of  withstanding  an  excess  of  rainfall. 
As  the  climate  and  soil  are  only  suitable  for  the  cultivation  of 
short  season  cottons,  which  take  from  5  to  6  months  to  mature, 
all  attempts  to  introduce  longer  stapled  and  more  slowly  matur- 
ing varieties  have  failed.  An  acclimatised  Upland  Georgian, 
long  cultivated  in  Chota  Nagpur,  was  introduced  some  years 
ago  and  has  given  such  distinct  pi'omise  of  success  that  this 
year  it  is  grown  on  seed  farms  extending  to  ],00()  acres.  The 
staple  has  been   i-eported    to  be  so  goi^d  as  fully  good   middling 


COTTON    crLTlVAIMOX  :    OAMMIK.  :'^48 

American.  Some  tkrniei-s  liave  taken  up  the  cultivation  of 
tliis  cotton  witli  confidence  in  the  ultimate  result.  Mr.  Arno 
Schmidt  was  greatly  impressed  with  its  possihilit}'  anrl  it  will 
Ue  a  fortunate  cir(?umstance  if  the  Central  Provinces  and  Rerar, 
notorious  now  for  the  bad  (quality  of  their  cotton,  succeed  in  the 
ambition  to  put  a  cotton  into  the  market  which  will  compete  on 
equal  terms  with  the  American  product. 

The  Central  Provinces  now  possess  man}^  seed  farms,  devoted 
to  the  production  of  seed  of  the  finer  varieties  of  cotton  selected 
at  their  experimental  stations  and  as  these  seed  farms  are  scat- 
tered throughout  the  cotton  tract,  the  cultivators  in  main^  places 
now  have  an  opportunity  of  exercising  their  personal  judgment 
on  the  work  done  by  the  department.  At  the  same  time,  care 
is  taken  to  see  that  the  cultivator  receives  a  just  price  for  his 
produce.  In  the  course  of  time  when  he  realises  the  waj's  and 
means  of  gaining  profit  by  putting  a  higher  class  of  cotton  on 
the  market,  he  can  be  safely  left  to  look  after  himself. 

In  the  Madras  Presidency,  the    total  area  under  cotton  is 
taken  to  be  about   1,636.000  acres   with  the    estimated  outturn 
of  176,000  bales.     The    principal  cotton-producing  districts  are 
Bellary,    Kistna,    Kurnool,    Anantpur,    Cuddapah.    Coimbatore, 
Madura  and    Tmnevelly.      The  races    of    cotton    known   in    the 
market  are    Tinnevellys,   Westerns,  Coconadas  and  Salems.     Of 
these,  Tinnevellys  are    produced  in  the  district  of  that  name  and 
the  southern  portion   of  Madura.     They  include  the  nppam  or 
mandaikai    (a    small     boiled     variet}'     of    G.     Jiorhneeum    and 
karanr/ani  or  muiijikai  (a  form   of    (t.    Indicmn).      Mr.    Benson 
says   that  the    two    sorts    are    habitually    sown    mixed,    but  the 
proportion  of  nppam  is  larger  in    the  iioi'th  and  of  kavangani  in 
the  south.     It  is  probable  that  the  latter  is  the  true  Tinnj'^  cotton, 
for  uppam  is  known  in  some  places  as  Udumalpet  cotton,  Udumal- 
pet    being   a   town    in  the    Salems    area,       Mr.    Couchman    has 
ascertained  that  karangaiti   is   fai-  superior   to   uppam   and  the 
Department  is  taking  the  steps   necessary  to  enable  it  to  become 
the  predominant   variety.     According  to  a  note  by  the  Madras 
Chamber    of  Commerce    in    1880,    the   Tinnevelly    is    the    ino.st 


344  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  TV,  IV 


L  ^  > 


valuable  of  the  Madras  cottons.  It  has  a  strong,  though  not 
particularly  long  staple  and  a  very  pure  white  colour.  It  is 
accordingly  in  considerable  demand  among  spinners  at  home 
for  mixing  with  American  cottons,  and  it  is  one  of  the  few 
Indian  cottons  suitable  for  the  purpose. 

Westerns  have  been  sub-divided  into  Westerns  and 
Northerns,  the  latter  being  the  chief  cotton  of  Cuddapah  and 
Kurnool.  The  principal  markets  for  Northerns  are  Tadputri, 
Prodatur  and  Koilkuntla  ;  and  for  Westerns,  Bellary,  Adoni 
and  Raichur.  These  are  mainly  of  the  herbaceum  t^'pe  and 
their  principal  defects  are  bad  colour  and  low  percentage  of 
cotton  to  seed.  The  officers  of  the  Department  will  probably 
succeed  in  their  efforts  to  improve  the  cottons  on  these  points, 
and  at  the  same  time,  they  may  be  able  to  demonstrate  to  the 
cultivators  the  necessity  of  avoiding  the  overcrowding  of  the 
plants  in  the  fields.  The  staple  of  Westerns  is  rough  but  fairly 
long  and  strong,  but  owing  to  careless  picking  it  always  contains 
a  considerable  proportion  of  broken  leaf  Northerns  resemble 
Westerns  closely  in  length  and  strength  of  staple,  but  it  is 
silkier,  and  were  it  not  for  the  slio'ht  reddish  tinofe  which  it 
usually  possesses,  it  would  be  in  greater  demand. 

Coconadas,  for  which  the  centre  of  trade  is  at  Guntur,  is 
a  varietj^  of  G.  obtusijolium  with  drab-coloured  cotton.  The 
staple  is  fairly  long,  strong  and  silky,  but  owing  to  its  colour, 
this  cotton  is  also  used  by  comparativ^ely  few  spinners.  It  is, 
however,  employed  in  the  manufacture  of  lace  and  is  said  to 
take  d3^es  more  readily  than  any  other  growths. 

According  to  Mr.  Benson,  the  Salems  include  three  different 
varieties,  viz.,  uppam,  nadam  or  ladam  and  Bourbon.  The 
uppam  resembles  in  every  way  except  that  the  lint  is  harsher, 
the  uppam  of  the  districts  farther  south  and  is  the  crop  of  clays 
and  loams.  Nadam  and  Bourbon  are  the  crops  of  the  lighter 
and  more  gravelly  soils.  These  are  found  especially  in  the 
eastern  portion  of  the  area. 

The  nadam  is  a  form  of  G.  ohtusifoUum.  It  is  grown 
generally  on  red  or  gravelly  soils  and  lasts  from   3  to  5  years 


COTTON    C  I' 1. 11  V  A  HON  :     (iAM.MlK.  -545 

i]i  the  Tinnevelly,  Coinibatore  and  Salem  districts.  A  former 
Collector  of  Tinnevelly  reports  that  this  cotton  3'ields  about 
63  lbs.  of  uncleaned  cotton  in  the  first  year  and  about  125  lbs. 
per  acre  in  each  of  the  second  and  third  years.  The  cotton  is 
s;\\d  to  be  fine  and  to  be  used  in  the  manufacture  of  superior 
cloths.  In  the  third  year,  the  plants  are  pruned  down  to  a 
height  of  one  foot  from  the  ground  and  then  only  one  more  crop 
is  obtained.  The  Bourbon  cotton  grown  with  this  variety  is 
said  to  have  been  introduced  by  a  Mi'.  Robert  Heath  in  1819,  and 
as  it  has  persisted  in  this  part  ever  since  then,  the  note  drawn  up 
(Ml  its  possibilities  l)y  Mr.  Sam[)son  may  be  of  more  than  passing 
interest. 

The  Bourbon  cotton  is  practically  confined  to  the  east  of 
Coimbatore  district,  though  there  is  bound  to  be  some  extension 
into  the  Salem  district.  Stray  plants  are  sometimes  seen 
in  other  places.  It  is  reported  to  be  grown  to  a  slight  extent 
in  the  Nanguneri  talnh,  Tinnevelly  district,  where  it  is  supposed 
to  be  a  remnant  of  the  crops  introduced  hy  the  American 
cotton  planter  emploj'ed  by  the  East  India  Compan}^  in  that 
district.  I  have  seen  also  samples  of  hnpas,  which  have  seed 
and  lint  identical  with  that  of  Bourbon  obtained  from  crops 
grown  from  seed  brought  down  from  the  Godaveri  district.  The 
people  who  are  now  growing  it  state  that  this  is  reported  to  be 
the  cotton  which  made  Godaveri  famous  in  the  past  for  its 
muslins.  To  all  intents  and  purposes  there  is,  however,  onlv 
one  tract  in  which  Bourbon  cotton  is  grown,  viz.,  in  the  east  of 
Coimbatore,  and  even  here  it  is  .seldom  seen  as  a  pure  crop.  It  is 
usually  inixe'd  witli  the  country  cotton  called  nadam,  but  the 
proportions  of  tlir  mixture  vary  with  the  soil  and  this  is  evident 
even  in  the  fields  in  one  village.  Wherever  there  is  kankar 
(nodular  limestone  or  tufa)  in  the  soil  or  sub  soil  Bourbon  forms  a 
.substantial  part  of  the  mixture,  while  if  this  is  absent,  nadcun  is 
practically  a  pure  crop.  If  there  are  a  larger  number  of  pebbles 
or  nodular  limestone,  Bourbon  as  a    mile  largely  predominates. 

Even  under  these  conditions,  it  is  possible  to  get  samples 
of  each  variety  of  cotton  practically  pure    as   the    bolls   burst    at 


.'^46  AGRICULTTRAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  |  V,    lY 

difierent  times.  Bourbon  ripens  mainly  in  November-Deceniber 
and  nadam,  though  it  bears  some  cotton  all  the  year  round, 
yields  its  main  crop  in  December- January  just  after  the  Bourbon. 
Occasionally  it*  tliere  be  rains  in  April-May,  as  happened  this 
year,  the  Bourbon  will  give  a  second  crop  which  also  will  be 
practically  pure,  as  rain  in  sufficient  quantities  to  produce  this, 
is  too  heavy  for  the  nadnni,  which  drops  its  flowers  without 
formino-  bolls.  The  bulk  of  this  cotton  is  used  in  the  mills  in 
Coimbatore  district.  Some  saifi^  at  Tirupur  are,  I  understand, 
the  bityg^est  buyers.  These  men  have  their  petty  agents  stationed 
in  different  villages  to  buy  cotton  and  it  is  these  men  who  really 
do  the  sorting,  i.e.,  separating  saniples  where  Bourbon  predom- 
'  inates  from  those  where  iiadain  predominates.  Some  of  the 
bigger  yv/o/.s-,  however,  also  separate  their  krtpas  and,  if  the}' 
have  sufficient  cotton  to  dispose  of,  the}^  get  the  equivalent  of 
Rs.  20  per  candy  of  500  lbs.  lint  increase  in  price  for  pure  Bour- 
bon, Some  of  this  cotton  finds  its  way  down  to  Tinnevell}' 
where,  if  the  percentage  of  Bourbon  is  high,  it  is  greatl}^  appre- 
ciated, but  as  a  rule,  the  samples  I  have  seen  there  are  ver}^ 
inferior  to  those  of  pure  Bourbon  seen  in  the  Bourbon  tract. 

llie  Po!<fiihilit}i  or  AdrisahHity  of  Increasing  the  Area  vnder 
Ciflfiration : — The  Bourbon  as  well  as  the  nadarn  are  both 
treated  as  perennial  crops  without  irrigation,  the  crop  being 
left  in  the  ground  for  3  or  4  years  and  sometimes  even  longer. 
It  can  readily  be  understood  that  in  such  tract  with  an  uncertain, 
small,  and  widely  distributed  rainfall  and  a  shallow  loose  soil, 
the  crop  is  often  in  a  very  unhealthy  condition,  making  it  much 
more  liable  to  insect  attacks.  The  crops  in  this  tract  are  all 
badly  attacked  by  the  cotton  stem  weevil  (Lefroy's  Indian  Lisecf 
Pests,  page  103)  which  rings  the  plants.  Often  every  plant  in 
the  field  is  attacked  and  often  in  two  or  three  places.  Here  on 
this  stony  red  soil,  the  plants  which  tend  to  make  wood,  seem  to 
be  able  to  heal  over  the  damage,  that  the  same  pest,  noticed  on 
the  crops  of  iippam  cotton  on  the  Coimbatore  college  farm 
black  soil  where  the  plants  are  much  more  slender,  usually  kills 
the   plant.     Tliis   is  only   one   of  the  pests  noticed  :  besides  this, 


COTTON    CULT[VATI()X  :    (iAMMIK.  347 

white  and  yellow  iiiealy  hugs  are  comiiioii  and  are  reported  to 
often  do  considerable  damage.  Thus  there  seems  to  be  some 
danger  of  introducing  Bourbon  into  tracts  where  cotton  is  always 
treated  as  an  annual.  Unless  therefore  it  is  found  profitable  to 
treat  Bourbon  as  an  annual,  I  do  not  think  its  introduction  into 
other  tracts  is  advisable.  In  the  present  Bourbon  tract  this 
would  be  impossible  as  long  as  the  crop  is  pureh'  rain-fed  as  the 
first  year's  yield  is  so  small  that  the  people  do  not  reckon 
its  value  when  stating  its  yield.  In  fact,  they  always  say  that 
this  is  sold  and  the  proceeds  spent  entirely  for  purchasing- 
material  for  thank-ofterings  in  the  temples.  On  the  Coimbatore 
agricultural  station  last  season,  this  v^ariety  of  cotton  was  grown 
on  a  good  piece  of  land,  a  shallow  reddish  black  cotton  soil 
lying  on  hinkar  and  the  acre  yields  were  : — Season  picking 
252  lbs,  ;  summer  picking  276  lbs.  as  compared  with  upjxim : — 
Season  picking  200  lbs.  ;  summer  picking  148  lbs.  of  the  ordinary 
crop.  This,  however,  has  been  an  exceptional  year  as  unexpected 
heavy  rain  fell  in  May  which  caused  the  cotton  to  flush  for  the 
summer  picking.  There  are  other  areas  where  the  soils  are 
quite  suited  for  Bourbon  cotton,  but  as  cotton  is  already  there 
as  an  annual  crop,  it  remains  yet  to  be  proved  whether  the 
Bourbon  can  be  treated  in  the  same  wd-y.  So  far  the  results  at 
Coimbatore  seem  to  point  to  this  being  possible.  The  extension 
of  pure  Bourbon  cotton  in  its  own  area  as  a  dry  crop  is  not 
practical  either,  for  the  reason  that  the  area  suitable  is  confined 
to  such  land  which  overlies  kankar  and,  also  for  the  reason  that  a 
certain  amount  of  nadam  is  neces.sary  as  this  is  the  petty  cash  of 
the  cultivator  and  he  can  always  pick  sufficient  of  this  all  the  year 
round  to  barter  in  the  weekly  sJiftudics  for  the  necessities  of  life. 
In  the  Punjab  the  total  area  under  cotton  is  returned  at 
1,435,000  acres  with  an  estimated  outturn  of  about  4,000,000 
bales.  The  bulk  oi'  the  crop  is  yielded  by  a  mixture  of  inferior 
types  ol  h'.  aeijlectnm  and  (i.  indicum  with  a  small  proportion  of 
an  annual  variety  of  the  red  tree  cotton  named  (r.  .sanr/uineum. 
The  introduction  of  American  Upland  cotton  seems  to  hold  out 
signs  of  ultimate  success  although  as  Mr.  Milligan  writes  many 

9d 


348  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   IV. 

difficulties  have  to  be  surmounted.  The  area  sown  with  this 
cotton  had  enormously  increased,  but  fears  expressed  regarding 
exceedingly  bad  preparation  of  the  lands  were  abundantly 
realised.  An  epidemic  of  plague  hindered  cultural  operations, 
locusts  did  a  great  deal  of  damage,  there  was  practical!}^  no  rain 
in  the  monsoon  and  the  mature  crop  w^as  attacked  b}^  a  plague 
of  rats.  The  final  outturn  was  very  low,  comparing  badly  with 
that  of  the  indigenous  varieties  which  are  better  able  to  with- 
stand the  vicissitudes  of  the  Punjab  season.  In  spite  of  all 
these  drawbacks,  the  best  of  the  cultivators  did  not  abandon  the 
idea  of  growing  American  cottons.  Trials  of  Egyptian  cotton  did 
not  meet  with  success.  This  was  not  due  apparently  to  an}^  defect 
in  the  soil  as  the  plants  grew  well,  but  to  their  late  ripening  and 
consequent  liability  to  frost.  For  some  years  also  the  possibility 
of  improving  the  indigenous  varieties  has  been  constant!}^  kept 
in  view,  but  so  far  the  results  have  been  disappointing.  It  has 
been  reported  that  the  cotton  grown  from  selected  seed  is  no 
better  than  that  grown  in  the  ordinary  way,  and  the  people, 
who  were  anxious  to  see  the  experiments  succeed,  are  now  inclined 
to  reofard  them  as  useless.  Mr.  Kenouf  states  that  the  Bhatla 
cultivators,  by  methods  usually  confined  to  an  experimental  farm, 
have  succeeded  in  breeding  a  superior  strain  of  cotton. 

The  area  under  cotton  in  the  United  Provinces  is  estimated 
at  1,241,000  acres  with  an  outturn  of  884,000  bales  of  clean 
cotton.  The  commonest  variety  is  G.  neglectum  which  yields  the 
coarsest  and  shortest  staple  in  India.  It  is  difficult  to  obtain 
any  record  of  the  distribution  of  the  crop  in  this  province. 

In  Burma,  the  area  under  cultivation  is  estimated  at  196,000 
acres  with  an  outturn  of  about  34,000  bales.  What  we  at 
present  know  of  the  varieties  of  cotton  and  their  distribution  in 
this  province  is  derived  from  information  given  by  Mr.  Burkill 
in  a  note  which  he  drew  up  some  years  ago.  He  says  that  there 
are  six  kinds  of  cottons  grown  in  Burma — 

1.  Wa-f/ale  (little  cotton),  which  is  b}^  far  the  connnonest, 
being  a  field  crop  in  every  district  of  the  dry  centre  of  Burma. 
The  average  length  of  the  staple  is  Jio  more  than  J  inch. 


COTTON    CULTIVATION'  :    OAMMTK.  349 

2.  ]Vai-iii  (red  cotton),  a  khaki  cotton,  not  distinguishable 
from  Wa-gale  until  the  fibre  is  seen.  It  only  occurs  as  a  mixture. 
The  Burmese  of  Monywa  and  perhaps  elsewhere  weave 
it  at  timps  into  an  undyed  cloth  for  personal  wear  called 
"  pinni." 

3.  Wa-(jijl  (big  cotton),  a  larger  plant  than  irn-cjale  and 
longer  on  the  ground.  It  3'ields  a  very  slightly  longer  staple. 
Wa-gyi  is  cultivated  about  natoggyi  in  Mjnngyan  and  in  the 
districts  of  Thayetmyo  and  Minbu. 

4.  Is  a  khaki  cotton  grown  throughout  the  Shan  States. 
Cloth  woven  from  it  is  said  to  be  very  durable. 

5.  Is  a  white-flowered  cotton  grown  hy  the  Chins. 

6.  Is  a  tree  cotton,  in  some  parts  of  Burma  known  as 
themhaniva  (ship  cotton),  the  Pernambuco  of  English  authors. 
This  is  nowhere  a  field  crop,  but  it  produces  a  long  silk}"  fibre 
of  greater  value  than  any  of  the  cottons  named  above.  It  is 
chiefly  to  be  found  in  Tennasserim  and  is  even  more  plentiful 
in  the  Amherst  district  towards  the  Siam  border  than  in  the 
much  moister  climate  on  the  coast.  It  occurs  in  gardens  at 
Pegu  and  is  also  to  be  seen  at  Kj'^aukse,  Mingin  and  Minbu. 
For  many  years,  attempts  to  introduce  American  and  Egyptian 
varieties  into  Burma  have  uniforml}^  failed. 

In  Bengal,  the  estimated  area  is  GO, 000  acres  with  a  yield 
of  17,000  bales.  The  early  variety  of  cotton  is  chiefly  grown 
in  the  Santal  Parganas,  Manbhum,  Singbhum,  Angul,  Kanchi 
and  Sainbalpur  and  the  late  variety  is  mostl}''  cultivated  in 
north  Behar  and  Singbhum  ;  Saran  alone  comprises  almost 
half  of  the  total  cotton  area.  It  is  sown  partly  before  and 
partly  after  the  rainy  season.  In  the  month  of  October,  sowings 
of  the  late  vaiiety  had  not  commenced  in  Bankura,  Cuttack, 
Balasore  and  Angul.  The  late  variety  of  north  Behar  probably 
consists  wholl)'  of  an  endemic  species  known  as  <JisJi//a,  Ict/ii  or 
IxKjihx.  It  is  a  tall  bush}'  productive  plant  and  is  generally 
grown  in  fields  of  rahar  {Cajamis  indicuf^).  It  is  really  perennial 
in  its  nature  and  occupies  the  ground  for  a  whole  year  before 
completing  its   crop.     The  late  variety  in  the  Santal  Parganas, 


350  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    TNDTA.  [V,  IV  . 

Singbhum  and  other  hilly  tracts,  appears  to  be  a  long  introduced 
variety  of  Upland  Georgian  known  as  hhitri.  This  is  yielding 
good  results  in  the  Central  Provinces  and  parts  of  the  Bombay 
Presidency.  In  Cuttack  and  possibh^  other  parts  of  the 
province,  the  prevailing  cotton  seems  to  be  varieties  of  the 
common  Indian  cotton — G.  neglectum. 

In  Eastern  Bengal  and  Assam,  the  total  area  sown  is 
estimated  to  be  98,000  acres  with  an  outturn  of  17,000  bales. 
The  production  is  practically  confined  to  the  hill  tracts  of 
Tippera,  Chittagong,  Sylhet,  Nowgong,  Garo  hills  and  Lushai 
hills.  It  appears  that  only  one  variety  is  grown — the  (t.  cerneum, 
which  resembles  the  common  G.  ner/Iectum  in  many  particulars 
and  differs  in  the  largfer  size  of  its  bolls,  which  in  the  most 
typical  form  found  in  the  Garo  hills,  sometimes  attain  a  length 
of  8  inches.  The  percentage  of  cotton  to  seed  in  the  finest 
example  is  51  while  the  staple  is  so  short  and  coarse  that  the 
produce  is  said  to  be  only  fit  for  mixing  with  wool.  The  whole 
of  the  cotton  is  grown  by  the  wild  hill  tribes  on  the  system  known 
as  jhum,  which  means  that  a  piece  of  land  is  reclaimed  from 
the  forest,  roughly  burned,  cleared  and  cultivated  for  one  year 
only  after  which  it  relapses  into  jungle  for  about  10  3^ears.  On 
this  land  a  mixture  of  crop  is  grown,  such  as  rice,  tur,  gourds, 
cassava,  brinjals,  cotton,  etc.  These  ripen  at  intervals  and  cotton 
is  the  last  to  occupy  the  jhum.  At  its  period  of  ripening,  it 
has  developed  suflficientl}^  to  cover  the  ground  like  an  ordinary 
crop.  It  is  generally  admitted  that  the  best  variety  giving 
the  most  productive  results  prevails  in  the  Garo  hills  and 
steps  are  being  taken  by  the  Department  to  introduce  the  seed 
of  this  into  other  tracts.  The  heav)^  rainfall  and  perennially 
moist  atmosphere  forbid  the  entertainment  of  the  idea  of  introduc- 
ing higher  class  cottons  into  the  country.  At  the  same  time 
it  must  be  freely  admitted  that  the  wild  people  of  these  tracts 
have,  by  some  mysterious  process,  evolved  a  type  of  cotton 
which  is  quite  amenable  to  the  peculiar  treatment  it  receives 
at  their  hands  by  the  most  primitive  style  of  agriculture  known 
in  India. 


COTTON    CULTIVATION  !    (lAMMIK.  351 

Ajinere-Merwcira,  with  39,000  acres  and  an  estimated  out 
turn  of  13,000  acres;  Central  India,  witli  1,057,000  acres  and 
2'J0,000  bales  ;  and  Rajputana  with  446,000  acres  and  235,000 
bales,  all  grown  cottons  partaking  in  the  general  characters  of 
those  grown  in  Sind,  Punjab,  United  Provinces,  Berar,  Central 
Provinces,  Deccan,  etc.  But  the  actual  details  are  imperfectly 
known. 

In  H3'derabad,  Deccan,  the  total  area  reported  is  3,401,000 
acres  with  a  probable  outturn  of  380,000  bales.  In  the  parts 
adjoining  the  Central  Provinces  and  Bombay,  the  bulk  of  the 
cotton  used  to  be  a  fine  variety  of  hani  or  liingdmjhat  in  which 
a  slight  mixture  of  Upland  Georgian  occurred  but  not  to  its 
disadvantage.  It  is  to  be  feared,  how^ever,  that  the  good  quality 
of  Hyderabad  cotton  has  fallen  greatly  in  estimation  of  late 
years  owing  to  the  introduction  of  inferior  and  more  productive 
kinds  and  also,  unfortunately,  owing  to  fraudulent  mixture  by 
the  middlemen  who  are  the  bane  of  the  cotton  trade. 

[To  he  continued.) 


A  REPORT    OF    THE  FIRST    ENTOxMOLOGICAL 

DEMONSTRATION  MADE  IN  BARODA 

FOR  THE  YEAR  1909-10. 

By  CHHOTABHAI  U.  PATEL, 

Entomological   Assistant,   Baroda  State. 

With  a  view  of  giving  practical  lessons  to  the  cultivators 
in    entomoloofv,    the    undersig-ned    made    pro- 

Introduction.  ^^  .      ■,       .  .  n      , 

posals  for  a  practical  demonstration  of  the 
insect  pests  and  of  the  methods  of  treatment  at  the  Baroda 
model  farm  being  given  every  year.  These  having  been 
approved  by  the  higher  authorities,  the  undersigned  selected  for 
the  year  1909-10  the  boll-worm  of  cotton. 

In  the  beginning  the  selection  of  cultivators  to  attend  the 
operation    had    to    be    made.     Three    tahiJcas, 

Selection     of   cultiva-  .  i    -n.    i  i      •  i  •    i      i 

tors  to  attend  the  dem-  VIZ.,  iDaroda,  Ir^adi'a  and  Dabnoi,  wnicn  have 
the  hiojher  acreaoje  of  cotton  in  the  Baroda 
district,  were  asked  to  hold  meetings  of  the  best  cultivators 
representing  different  villages  on  various  dates.  After  personally 
explaining  the  aims  and  objects  of  the  intended  demonstration, 
five  enthusiastic  cultivators,  each  representing  a  different  village, 
were  selected  from  each  taluka  meeting,  and  all  necessary 
instructions  given  to  those  selected.  These  people  were  to  get 
travelling  expenses  and  halting  allowance.  In  the  course  of 
this  selection,  it  was  observed  that  better  results  could  be 
expected  if  the  work  is  done  b}^  holding  night  meetings  at  selected 
villages,  instead  of  inviting  the  villagers  to  the  Uduka  head- 
quarters, where  a  few  members  from  each  village  attend.  This 
having  been  done,  a  general  notification  was  published  in  the 
Government  gazette,  inviting  the  intending  cultivators  to  attend 
the  demonstration  at  their  own  cost.     In  response  to  this   call 


FIRST    ENTOMOLOGICAL    DEMONSTRATION  :    PATEL. 


353 


only  luLU-  names  were  enlisted.  Such  a  notification  may  produce 
better  results,  if  published  in  the  local  papers  which  generally 
reach  the  people  more  easily.  Side  by  side  the  rahivatdara  {i.e., 
tehsildars)  of  all  the  talukas  of  the  Earoda  district  were 
requested  to  induce  the  cultivators  to  attend  the  demonstration, 
with  the  result  that  out  of  the  seven  vahicatdars  only  two 
succeeded  in  enlisting  eleven  names.  The  rest  could  not  enlist  any. 
After  raising  a  force  of  cultivators,  two  plots  of  \  bigha, 
each    of    uniform    quality,     were     sown     with 

Airangement     of    the  i  ./ 

plots  and  notes  of  treat-     Broach  cottou  on   the   17th   Juuc  1909  in   the 

ment. 

Baroda  model  farm.  These  plots  were  quite 
apart  from  the  cotton  area  of  the  farm,  and  at  the  same  time 
they  were  separated  from  each  other  by  a  sesamum  crop  of  ~i- 
bigha.  No  special  treatment  was  given  to  the  first  plot.  The 
second  was  surrounded  by  three  rows  of  hhinda  [Hibiscus 
esculerdus)  for  trapping  the  boll- worm.  It  was  further  treated 
by  cutting  the  affected  top-shoots.  The  notes  of  this  topping 
together  with  the  corresponding  ones  of  the  first  (untreated) 
plot,  in  which  the  affected  tops  were  only  counted  but  not 
removed,  are  embodied  in  the  following  statement : — 


Plot  I  (non-treated). 


Date. 


22-7-n9 

3809 

13-8-09 

•26-809 


Number  of  affected  top- 
shoots  counted  every 
time. 


50 

65 

93 

2;-0 


Plot  11  (treated). 


Date. 


•22-7-09 

3-8-09 
14809 
•26-8-09 

3-9-09 
13-9-09 
2:<-9-C9 

39(19 
13  9-09 
•2-2-9-09 

3  9  09 


No.  of  attVcted  parts  cut  out 
every  time. 


Cotton 
tops. 


23 
31 
42 
150 
80 
96 
81 
71 
fi5 
59 
46 


Bhinda  tops 
and  pods. 


Total. 


0 

87 

39 

219 


•23 
118 

81 
369 


Tiie  Bhinda  trap 
was  uprooted  on 
the  "29111  August, 
when  it  was  quite 
full  of  boll-worm. 


Time    taken    by   one 
man  for  cutting. 


Hi 


Mts. 


1 

10 

1 

10 

0 

0 

2 

50 

3 

0 

4 

0 

3 

:«) 

3 

0 

3 

(1 

3 

0 

3 

0 

Note. — To  avoid  confusion  in  counting,  the  affected  parts 
were  marked  with  flags  of  different  colours  every  time,  so  that 
those  counted  once,  might  not  be  counted   again. 


354 


AGRtCUL^rURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA. 


[V,  IV 


From   the   above   statement   it   can   be   seen  that   the   boll- 
Remarks  on  the  .^bove      worm    having    been    left    undisturbed    in    the 
statement.  ^^^^  ^j^^  j^^^  increased  more  rapidly  than  in 

the  second.  The  work  of  counting  further  attacks  in  the  first 
plot  was  not  done,  simply  because  the  work  of  showing  the 
comparative  effects  of  the  trap  crop  and  of  the  top  cutting  had 
made  sufficient  impression  on  the  cultivators  by  that  time. 
Although  no  definite  reasons  can  be  assigned  for  the  fresh 
attacks  in  the  treated  plot,  there  is  no  danger  in  supposing  that  it 
may  partly  be  due  to  those  affected  parts  which  might  have 
escaped  notice,  and  partly  to  the  trap  crop  which  might  have 
liberated  some  moths  to  breed  in  cotton. 

The    proper    work    of   this    demonstration    was    finished    in 
three   sessions.     One   more   meeting   was  held 

Four     meetings    were 

held  for  the  demonstra-     at  the  closc  of  the  scasou  to  discuss  the  best 

tion.  „  .      ,       .  ,    . 

means  of  inducing  the  cultivators  to  adopt  the 
method  of  dealing:  with  the  boll-worm.  The  followinof  statement 
2fives  the  classified  information  of  attendance  : — 

Number  of  Attendance. 


Date. 

Session. 

Those  getting 
travelling 
allowance. 

Coming  by 
private  en- 
terprise. 

Induced  by  the 

Vahival- 

dars. 

Total. 

Remarks. 

4-8-09 

18-8-09 

7-9-09 

First 

Second 

Third 

F'oiirth 

12 

13 
9 

7 

2 
4 
4 

3 

0 

17 
20 
13 

7 

1.5-10 

Not  ir 

vited 

The  date  of  each  meetinor  was  communicated  to  all  the 
members  who  had  been  enlisted  by  separate  post-cards  in  such  a 
way  as  to  reach  them  on  the  previous  day  of  the  meeting.  A 
notification  of  the  2nd  and  3rd  sessions  was  also  published  in  the 
Government  gazette  for  the  use  of  the  general  public.  The  pro- 
ceedings of  the  first  three  meetings  were  carried  out  on  the 
plots,  and  that  of  the  last  one  in  the  office.  On  the  previous  day 
of  each  meeting,  the  affected  top-shoots  were  all  marked  out  by 
Hags  in  both  the  plots.       They  were  then  counted  in  the  presence 


FIRST    KNlOMOUXilCAL    DKMoNSTKATlo.N  :    PATEL.  355 

of  tlie  cultivator."?  and  the  figures  entered  in  a  rough  note.      Then 

again,  they  were  cut  out  from  the  second  plot  in  their  presence, 

thus   triving   them    a  lesson    in  recognising   sueli    [)arts   and   also 

in  cutting.      Those  in  the  test  plot  were  left  undisturbed. 

Ill  tlie  first  session  the  cultivators  were  made  familiar  with 

I'ruocedings of  the  t'^©  boll-wonu.      The  lifc-liistory  and  hal)its  of 

(irst  demonstration.        ^^^^    j^^^^^.^    ^^.^^.^    ^j^^    narrated    to    them    to 

enable  them  to  realise  in  the  next  session  what  was  said  in 
the  first  one.  Some  affected  tops  which  were  cut  out  from  the 
second  plot  were  placed  in  a  gauze-topped  box  in  the  middle  of 
the  plot  in  their  presence,  in  order  to  convince  them  of  the  bad 
results  which  are  bound  to  follow  if  such  tops  are  allowed  to  lie 
on  the  borders  of  the  fields.  The  members  were  seen  taking- 
sufficient  interest  in  the  proceedings.  After  discussing  various 
subjects,  the  proceedings  of  the  first  session  terminated. 

The  second  session  held  on  the  18th  August  1909,  was 
Proceedings  of  the  attended  by  20  members.  On  comparison  of 
secon.i  demonstration.  ^|^^  atfccted  parts  of  both  the  plots,  they  were 
convinced  of  the  successful  effects  of  the  trap  crop  and  of  the  top 
cutting.  Side  by  side  they  learned  how  the  insect  could  multiply 
and  make  a  ofreat  deal  of  mischief  in  a  few  broods.  Thev  were 
then  asked  tolookinto  the  gauze-topped  box  which,  on  last  occasion, 
was  filled  with  the  affected  top-shoots.  There  they  found  several 
moths  flying  about,  some  cocoons  stuck  to  the  walls  and  a  few 
patches  of  eggs  deposited  on  the  walls  of  the  box.  This  convinced 
them  of  the  bad  consequences  which  would  follow  the  careless 
throwing  away  of  the  diseased  top-shoots  on  the  borders  of  the  field. 
With  these  instructions  the  proceedings  of  this  meeting  were  closed. 

Th.'  third  session  was  held  on  the  7th  December,  when  the 
Piocee.iings  of  the  phuits  worc  foi'iiiing  bolls.      This  time,  it  was 

third  <len)onstration.  ,1  i-ij.       1.     ,  i.i  i        1  1 

ratlier  dirhcult  to  compare  the  actual  number 
of  the  affected  bolls  of  the  two  plots.  All  the  bolls  IV(»m  one 
lurrow  ill  each  plot  wcrf  tlu'refore  picktnl  out.  On  classifying 
them  it  was  noted  that  in  the  first  plot  !>  of  the  total 
bolls  had  fallen  victim  to  the  boll-woini.  while  in  the  second 
3%  had  been  attacked.      The  cultivators  could  recognise  the  boll- 


356  AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   IV, 

worm  which  they  had  seen  in  the  top-shoots  before,  and  were 
thus  finally  convinced  of  the  beneficial  effects  of  cutting  out  the 
diseased  top-shoots.  Tlie  comparison  of  total  yield  was  the 
only  thing  remaining  for  them  to  see. 

The  fourth  and  last  meeting  was  held  on  the  1st  of  May  1910. 

Proceedings  of  the  last  The  total  outtum  froui  the  first  plot  amounted 
demon'stration.  ^^  ^qj  ^^^  against  182  Ibs.  fro.n  the  second, 
thus  leaving  a  margin  of  15  lbs.  per  plot,  or  in  other  words,  60  lbs. 
per  bigha  towards  cost  of  treatment  which  equalled  that  of  only 
12  labourers.  These  figures  were  submitted  to  them,  and  on 
seeing  them  they  very  easily  appreciated  the  worth  of  the 
method  and  were  convinced  of  the  utility  of  adopting  it. 
In  course  of  this  work  a  record  of  the  cotton-o-rowino-  talukas  of 
the  Baroda  district  was  prepared  with  a  view  of  ascertaining 
whether  the  additional  labour  required  for  this  work  was  available. 
The  vahivatdars  were  requested  before  each  operation  of  cutting 
the  tops  to  supply  the  information.  It  has  been  found  that  the 
additional  labour  required  to  cope  with  this  work  is  available  if 
proper  arrangements  are  made.  The  record  was  submitted  to  the 
cultivators,  who  also  confirmed  the  above  conclusion.  The  ques- 
tion of  introducing  this  method  among  the  cultivators  was  then 
discussed,  and  it  has  been  decided  that  the  system  of  competition 
prizes  will  work  well.     The  meeting  then  dispersed. 

The  result  of  this  demonstration  can  be  further  judged  from 

Effects  of  the  demon-     the    following    information.     In   May  last,    I 
stration.  visited  some  five  villages  to  carry  out  the  above 

mission  of  raising  funds  from  the  cultivators  for  the  maintenance 
of  the  competition  prizes,  besides  those  sanctioned  by  the  Govern- 
ment. Niofht  meetinofs  were  held,  and  the  whole  thinof  with  the 
above  record  was  explained  to  the  people,  with  the  result  that 
within  2  days,  Rs.  58  were  collected  from  three  villages  and 
Rs.  76  promised  by  the  leaders  of  the  other  two.  The  work  is  to 
be  continued  till  the  end  of  June,  and  it  gives  hopes  of  success. 
Wherever  I  have  gone,  I  have  succeeded  in  preparing  the  people 
to  adopt  this  method  of  dealing  with  the  boll-worm.  It  remains 
to  be  seen  how  many  of  them  will  actually  follow  my  advice. 


THE  INTERNATIONAL  INSTITUTE  OF 
AGRICULTURE  : 

Its  Functions  in  Regard  to  Commerce  and  Finance. 

By  BERNARD  COVENTRY, 

Olj'ij.   Inspeclur-General  of  Ayricullure  in  India. 

The  expaiLsiun  and  contraction  in  the  volume  of  the  woikl.s 
supply  of"  agricultural  productions  is  a  matter  of  supreme  import- 
ance to  the  world  of  commerce  and  finance.  Without  a 
knowledge  of  this  expansion  and  contraction,  it  would  be  impos- 
sible for  the  law  of  supply  and  demand  by  which  values  are 
fixed,  to  function.  It  is  acquaintance  with  the  returns  showing 
the  o-rowth  and  diminution  in  raw  materials,  which  enables 
business  njen  to  control  the  working  of  the  exchange  of  commod- 
ities. The  more  perfect  the  knowledge  of  these  returns  is,  the 
more  just  and  the  less  violent  will  be  the  working  of  exchange. 
A  want  of  knowledge,  on  the  other  hand,  or  a  lack  of  reliability 
in  the  information  supplied  must  lead  to  unfair  exchange  result- 
ing eventually  in  panics,  crises  and  depressions.  It  must  be 
admitted  that  at  present  there  exists  no  perfect  and  complete 
acquaintance  with  the  movement  of  the  world's  products  as  a 
whole.  Nations  have  their  own  systems  of  information,  some 
based  on  official  returns,  others  depending  on  ill-informed 
and  perhaps,  interested  rc})oits  ;  and  so  it  cannot  be  said  that 
there  exists  Miy  reliable  guide  on  which  those  engaged  in  trade 
can  depend  with  any  degree  of  certainty.  The  desirabilit}'^  of 
securing  the  required  information  in  a  reliable  and  authentic  form 
is  thus  self-evident  and  is  a  pressing  need  ;  and  the  Interna- 
tional Institute  of  xVgriculture  founded  at  Rome  in  1905  has, 
amongst  its  objects,  the  collecting  and  dissemination  of  necessary 


358  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,    IV. 

inforiiiatioii  regarding  agricultural  products.  The  Governments  of 
47  countries  have  signed  and  ratified  the  convention  under  which 
it  was  created,  and  they  are  now  represented  by  a  Permanent 
Committee  in  which  is  vested  the  executive  power  of  the  Insti- 
tute. The  magnitude  of  the  representation  may  be  easily  gauged 
from  the  fact  that  the  countries  adhering  to  the  convention, 
together  with  their  colonies,  dependencies  and  protectorates, 
represent  nearly  all  the  world's  population,  and  almost  the 
entire  area  of  the  agricultural  products  of  the  world  ;  in  fact, 
the}^  represent  a  total  population  of  1,615,574,000  and  a  total 
area  of  47,169,786  square  miles  compared  with  the  population 
of  38,833,000  and  an  area  of  2,517,038  square  miles  in  the 
countries  not  adhering  to  the  convention.  Thus,  the  countries 
whose  interests  are  represented  in  the  Institute,  embrace  nearly 
1)8  per  cent,  of  the  population  and  95  per  cent,  of  the  area  of  the 
whole  world.  The  accompanying  map  taken  from  the  Bulletin 
of  Agricultural  Statistics  of  April  1910  indicates  graphically  the 
proportion  of  the  world's  surface  included  in  the  Statistical 
Service  of  the  International  Institute. 

The  objects  of  the  Institute  are  laid  down  in  full  in  Article 
9  of  the  Final  Act,  [dated  the  7th  June  1905,  and  are  as 
follows  : — 

"  Whilst  limiting  its  action  to  International  questions,  it 
shall  be  the  duty  of  the  Institute — 

(a)  To  collect,  elaborate  and  publish  with  as  little  delay  as 
possible,  statistical,  technical,  or  economical  information  regard- 
ing the  cultivation  of  the  soil,  its  production,  whether  animal 
or  vegetable,  the  trade  in  agricultural  products,  and  the  prices 
obtained  on  the  various  markets. 

(/>)  To  send  to  interested  parties,  in  a  similarly  rapid  manner, 
full  information  of  the  nature  above-mentioned. 

(c)  To  indicate  the  wages  of  rural  labour. 

{d)  To  notify  all  new  diseases  of  plants  which  may  appear 
in  any  part  of  the  world,  indicating  the  districts  affected,  the 
spread  of  the  disease,  and,  if  possible,  efficacious  means  of  resist- 
ance. 


U^.,  h^^ 


INTKRXATTOXAT,    IXSTITUTE  :    BERNARD    COVENTRY.  359 

(e)  To  consider  questions  relating-  to  ao-riculturMl  co-opera- 
(ioii,  insurance  and  credit,  in  all  tlif-ii'  forms,  collectino-  and 
publishing  information  which  ma}'  be  useful  in  the  various 
countries  for  the  organization  of  undertakings  relating  to  agri- 
cultural  co-operation,  insurance  and  credit. 

(r)  To  present,  if  expedient,  to  the  Governments,  for  their 
approval,  measures  for  the  protection  of  the  common  interests  of 
agriculturists  and  for  the  improvement  of  their  condition,  having 
previously  taken  every  means  of  obtaining  the  necessary'  informa- 
tion, such  as,  the  resolutions  passed  b}^  International  Congresses 
or  other  Congresses  relating  to  agriculture  or  to  sciences  applied 
to  Agriculture,  Agricultural  Societies,  Academies,  Learned 
Societies,  etc. 

All  questions  relating  to  the  economic  interests,  the  legis- 
lation and  administration  of  any  particular  State  must  be 
excluded  from  the  sphere  of  the  Institute." 

It  will  be  thus  seen  that  what  the  Institute  has  chiell}'  in 
view  is  the  dissemination  of  useful  agricultural  information 
through  the  active  co-operation  of  the  adhering  countries  and  to 
provide  by  its  regular  statistical  service,  a  "  clearing  house  "  of 
data  on  areas  and  on  productions  and  conditions  of  crops.  Let 
us,  for  a  moment,  consider  what  this  means  and  the  effect  the 
proposals  are  likely  to  have  upon  the  commerce  and  finance  of 
the  world  if  carried  out. 

It  will  be  at  once  conceded  that  agricultui-e  is  the 
foundation  of  industr}^  and  commerce.  Take  away  agriculture 
and  you  take  away  trade  in  cereals,  oil-seeds,  cotton,  jute,  fruit, 
meat,  tobacco,  tea,  coffee,  rubber,  sugar,  wool,  cloth,  fibres  and  a 
host  of  other  articles  without  the  existence  of  which  the  activity 
of  the  human  race  would  cease.  Look  at  it  from  any  point  of 
view  you  like,  agriculture  is  the  fans  et  ori(/o  of  all  woi-ldly 
undertakings.  Even  the  mining  of  minerals  is  due  to  agricul- 
ture, for  what  use  would  iron  and  coal  be  to  us,  were  it  not  that 
wheat  has  to  be  ground  and  cotton  spun  and  the  products  of 
agriculture  conveyed  from  one  place  to  another.  Mother  Eai'th 
is  the  great   producer  of  all  that  assists  in  the  maintenance  of 


360  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   IV. 

life,  and  agriculture  being  the  industry  which  carries  out  the 
process  of  this  colossal  production,  it  is  easy  to  understand  how 
it  is  the  foundation  of  all  human  activity.  This  being  so,  an}' 
amelioration  made  in  its  methods,  any  assistance  given  to 
improve  the  quality  or  quantity  of  its  produce  and  any  perfecting 
of  the  processes  of  information  and  communication  on  agricul- 
tural matters,  must  have  a  direct  and  beneficent  effect  on 
commerce. 

The  International  Institute  of  Agriculture,  as  already  explain- 
ed, proposes  amongst  other  things  to  collect,  classify  and  dis- 
seminate all  necessar}'  data  and  information  regarding  agricultural 
products  all  over  the  world  ;  indeed,  it  has  already  commenced 
to  do  so  in  its  Bulletin  of  Agricultural  Statistics  published 
monthl}'.  This  project  must  be  of  supreme  concern  to  the 
commercial  and  industrial  world.  At  present,  there  are  no  relia- 
ble beacons  to  guide  those  engaged  in  the  trade  and  manufacture 
of  agricultural  products,  and  merchants  and  manufacturers  are 
consequently  subjected  from  da}'  to  day  and  from  hour  to  hour 
to  fluctuations,  oftentimes  violent,  in  the  prices  of  raw  materials, 
brought  about  by  contradictory  and  unreliable  reports  emanating 
from  interested  or  ill-informed  sources.  The  knowledge  of  the 
expansion  and  contraction  in  the  volume  of  the  world's  supply  of 
agricultural  products,  if  authentically  verified,  will  cause  the  law 
of  supply  and  demand  to  act  normally  and  regularly,  and  prices 
will  be  automatically  adjusted  to  true  conditions.  While  this 
authentic  information  is  absent,  we  must  expect  that  the  function- 
ing of  the  law  of  supply  and  demand  will  be  hesitating  and 
spasmodic,  producing  injustice  in  exchange,  which  will  at  times 
end  in  sudden  and  violent  adjustment. 

The  aim  of  the  Institute  is  to  prevent  this.  The  great 
value  of  the  information  which  it  proposes  to  supply,  lies  of 
course  in  its  authenticity.  It  will  collect  this  information  under 
a  system  of  Government  reports  whicli,  at  least,  will  have  the 
merit  of  being  impartial.  It  will  act  in  such  a  way  as  to  induce 
all  producing  countries  to  collect  on  a  dependable  system,  in- 
formation  on  the  condition   and  probabilities  of  crops,  and  send 


IXTRRXAT.'OXAL    IXSTITL'TK  :    BERXARD    COYFXTRY.  301 

tills  iiitonnatioii  to  the  Institute  where  tlie  data  will  l)e  collated 
aiul    published    under    a    t'orui    of    percentage    and    as    a    single 
nunieiical  statement  for  each  country  and  for  the  whole  world. 
The  Institute  will  publish  this  telegrapliicall}-  and  in  its  Bulletin 
of  Statistics  every  month.     The  percentage  figure  will  be  arrived 
at  by  taking   100  as  representing  an  average  concHtion  of  crops 
wliicli,    if  uninfluenced  by  abnoi'mal    conditions,    would   probabl}" 
give  a  yield  equal  to  the  average  of  the  past  ten  years.     Instead 
of  there  being  a  total  percentage  for  one  countr}^  as  at  present, 
there   will    be   a   total   percentage   for   the   whole    world.     After 
these   world  percentages  have  been  ascertained  for  a  number  of 
3'ears  and  their  connection   with   })]ices  have  been   sjiown,   it    will 
l)e   possible   to   review    with   some   degree  of   certitude   the   tiue 
relation   existing   between   total    supply   and   prices.      The    result 
must  perforce  be  in  favour  of  the  normal  operation  of  the  law  of 
supply  and  demand,  and  uncertainty  and  chance  will  give  place 
to  order  and  stability. 

Such  objects  can  be  obtained  oidy  by  an  oi-ganization  having 
functions  of  an  international  character.  It  is  such  an  Institute 
which  has  been  established  in  Rome  under  the  title  of  the 
International  Institute  of  Agriculture  and  wliich  has  been 
authorised  to  do  this  work.  Let  us  hope  that  the  objects  it  has 
in  view  will  become  realised  in  their  plenitude,  for  it  cannot  be 
(l(»ul)ted  for  a  moment  but  tliat  the  fruition  of  such  hopes  will 
confer  not  only  u})on  the  business  community  which  controls  com- 
merce and  fiiiaiiee,  l)ut  upon  humanity,  an  incstimablf  boon. 


CULTIVATION  OF  GUINEA  GRASS. 

By  D.  L.  NARAYAN   RAO, 

Projn-ifitor,  Niirsery  Garden>i,  Hyderabad,  Deccan. 

Acquaintance  with  the  prevaihng  agricultural  conditions  of 
India  assures  us  that  for  generations  to  come,  cattle  will  be  the 
chief  motive  power  for  most  agricultural  operations.  In  many 
parts  of  the  country,  the  prices  of  both  working  bullocks  and  of 
cows  have  risen  by  50%  from  what  they  were  15  years  ago.  Now 
a  good  pair  of  bullocks  costs  not  less  than  Rs.  150.  The  I'ise 
in  price  may  be  attributed  to  four  chief  causes  :— 

(1)  Losses  in  famines  and  epidemics. 

(2)  Increase  of  cultivation. 

(3)  Gradual  neglect  of  cattle-breeding  due  to  the  clearing 
of  jungle  and  the  conversion  of  grazing  grounds  into  arable. 

(4)  The  higher  rent  demanded  per  head  of  cattle  by  the 
owners  of  grazing  grounds. 

In  a  vast  country  like  India  with  its  peculiar  agricultural 
practices  and  uncertain  rainftill,  it  appears  to  be  the  duty  of  both 
the  Government  and  the  ryoti<  to  maintain  in  ever^^  village  a 
certain  portion  of  suitable  land  for  the  grazino*  of  village  cattle. 
But  no  such  arrangement  exists.  In  Japan,  even  the  smallest 
ryot  has  his  own  plot  of  forest,  garden,  etc.,  out  of  his  holding 
of  one  or  two  acres.  But  the  Indian  ryots  make  no  provision 
for  grazmg  grounds,  firewood  and  manure,  and  most  of  the  fei'tile 
tracts  are  treeless. 

What  were  15  years  ago  famous  cattle-breeding  places  are 
now,  even  during  ordinary  years,  almost  bereft  of  fodder  and 
suffering  from  its  high  prices.  As  an  example,  I  may  cite 
Warangul.     This  district  in  the  Plyderabad  dominions  has  been 


CULTIVATION    OF    GUINKA    (iKASS  :    NAHAVAN     KAO.  363 

noted  for  centuries  for  a  short  thick-hardy  kind  of  bullock  which 
used  to  be  supplied  to  Hyderabad  and  the  East  Coast.  Twelve 
years  ago,  a  cartload  of  good  liay  (ramna  grass)  could  be  got  in 
the  town  of  Warangul  for  Re.  1-8  ;  now  the  same  costs  nearly 
Rs.  8,  while  in  Hyderabad  a  ton  of  good  hay  costs  nearly 
Rs.  IG.  This  state  of  things  only  shows  that  a  critical  stage 
has  been  reached  in  the  breeding  of  cattle,  and  that  the 
introduction  and  fostering  of  a  cheap  fodder  is  a  great 
desideratum. 

A  large  number  of  select  fodder  plants,  such  as  imphi, 
juavi  (sorghum),  Reana  luxurians  and  other  grasses  have  been 
experimented  on  in  all  parts  of  India  in  Government  demonstra- 
tion farms,  and  the  merits  of  each  are  recorded  in  reports. 
Among  these  is  guinea  grass  {Panicum  jumeiitorum). 

The  account  given  about  this  plant  in  Watt's  Dictionary  of 
Economic  Products  of  India  (1893),  is  as  follows  : — 

"  A  very  valuable  fodder  plant,  easily  cultivated  in  the 
plains  and  capable  of  yielding  seven  or  eight  cuttings  during 
the  3'ear  under  irrigation.  A  single  cutting  will  yield  as 
much  as  ISO  maunds  of  green  fodder  per  acre."  (Vol.  Ill, 
F,  G72.) 

"  The  numerous  experiments  undertaken  at  Government 
gardens  and  model  farms  in  different  parts  of  India  as  well  as 
those  carried  out  b}^  private  individuals  sufficiently  confirm  the 
general   opinion   as    to   the    excellent    feeding    qualities    of    this 

fodder  grass As  soon  as  the  roots  have  fairly  taken  hold 

of  the  ground  very  little  watering  will  be  necessary  ;  indeed,  the 
capabilities  of  this  grass  for  resisting  the  effects  of  the  severest 
droughts  have  been  fully  tested.  Irrigation,  of  course,  enables 
more  cuttings  to  be  taken  in  a  year,  but  is  never  necessary  for 
the  maintenance  of  the  crop  fodder.  Guinea  grass  is  suitable  for 
all  kinds  of  stock.  At  first,  it  seems  to  disturb  the  digestive 
organs  of  some  animals,  but  this  is  only  temporary.  In  the 
Coimbatore  municipal  garden,  the  cuttings  obtained  during  the 
year  1870  were  reported  to  have  averaged  960  maunds  (32  tons) 
per  year." 

25 


364  AGRICULTUKAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V.   IV. 

Having  had  some  previou.s  experience  in  the  growing  of 
fodder  plants,  I  started  in  1894  what  is  known  as  the  Hyderabad 
fodder  farm,  and  I  planted  four  acres  of  guinea  grass  in  addition 
to  24  acres  of  lucerne.  The  soil  under  ofuinea  o^rass  is  a  thorouo-h- 
ly  drained  sandy  or  gravelly  loam  and  is  irrigated  b}^  the  Hussain 
Sagar  tank  water.  One  acre  of  the  guinea  grass  plots  received 
sewage  in  addition  to  tank  water,  and  the  rest  w^as  manured  with 
night-soil  and  rubbish.  After  ploughing  the  land  in  the  ordin- 
ary way,  it  was  cut  up  into  small  beds  for  irrigation,  and  the 
sets  were  planted  in  lines  1^  foot  apart  both  ways.  The  crop 
was  watered  once  in  four  days  and  manured  abundantly  whenever 
it  was  found  necessary.  The  plot  under  sewage  was  irrigated 
with  sewage  and  tank  water  alternately.  The  crop  was  not 
irrigated  during  the  rainy  season.  The  results  per  acre  were  as 
below  : — 

Per  acre. 
Ist   year  between  1st  of  Feb.  and  end  of  Nov.,  yield  ...  4  tons  grass 

2nd  year  between  1st  of  Feb.  and  end  of  Nov.,  7  cuttings  ...  25  tons  ,, 
3rd  year  between  1st  of  Feb.  and  end  of  Nov.,  7  cuttings  ...  50  tons  „ 
4th  year  between  1st  of  Feb.  and  end  of  Nov.,  7  cuttings  ...  65  tons  „ 
5th  year  between  1st  of  Feb.  and  end  of  Nov.,  7  cuttings  ..  80  tons  ,, 
6th  year  between  1st  of  Feb.  and  end  of  Nov.,  7  cuttings  ...  100  tons     „ 

These  plots  are  now  16  years  old.  In  the  field  in  which  sewage 
is  used,  there  are  no  interspaces  between  the  tussocks,  and  the 
whole  field  is  one  sheet  of  o^rass.  No  interculture  or  weeding^  has 
been  found  necessary  up  to  this  time,  and  there  is  no  sign  of  the 
deterioration  of  the  crop.  In  the  other  plots,  where  solid  manure 
and  tank  water  \vere  used,  the  yield  was  equally  large,  as  long 
as  the  application  of  these  was  maintained  properly.  Whenever 
a  decrease  in  either  of  the  two  was  made,  the  yield  fell.  T\vo 
acres  of  the  original  guinea  grass  plots  have  been  reserved,  and 
anyone  who  desires  to  satisfy  himself  on  the  facts  stated  here 
can  see  them.  I  venture  to  assert  there  is  no  other  plant  wild  or 
cultivated  which  yields  100  tons  per  acre  of  green  stufll'  every 
year  for  a  generation. 

In  feeding  value,  guinea  grass  is  highly  nutritious  and  all 
kinds  of  stock    thrive  on    it    w^ell.     For  the  past  15   years,   20 


CULTIVATION    OF    GUINEA    GRASS  :    NARAYAN    RAO.  365 

working  bullocks,  ten  young  bullocks,  six  milking  cows,  one  dozen 
calves  and  two  or  three  country  ponies  have  had  to  live  practically 
solely  on  guinea  grass.  I  never  give  any  extra  feed,  such  as 
oil-cake  or  gram  to  milch  cows  and  working  bullocks.  Each 
horse  consumes  about  80  lbs.  of  guinea  grass  in  addition  to  gram. 
My  animals  have  kept  better  health  than  those  of  my  neighbours 
and  were  free  from  epidemics  which  used  to  rage  in  the  village. 
From  this,  it  can  be  confidently  asserted  that  in  guinea  grass  we 
have  a  plant  which  contains,  in  the  highest  degree,  all  the  virtues 
of  a  good  fodder  plant  and  is  most  suited  to  the  tropical  parts  of 
India. 

I  summarise  here  below  my  experiences  with  regard  to  this 
plant  : — 

(1)  It  is  a  most  quick-growing  grass  as  it  yields  in  45  days 
a  cutting  6'  to  8'  high,  weighing  14  tons  on  the  average  per  acre. 

(2)  It  yields  the  largest  quantity  of  grass  known  in  a  given 
time  from  a  given  area. 

(3)  It  is  highly  nutritious  and  is  useful  for  feeding  all  kinds 
of  stock. 

(4)  It  is  a  real  perennial  and  occupies  the  ground  for  at 
least  a  generation  without  requiring  change. 

(5)  It  is  the  least  expensive  to  grow,  with  no  costly  seed  bill 
to  start  with,  no  weeding  and  very  little  interculture. 

(6)  It  is  the  best  fodder  plant  for  intensive  cultivation  as 
it  yields  a  quantity  of  fodder  which  we  cannot  hope  to  get  from 
eight  times  the  area  of  juari  at  double  the  cost.  It  is  a  most 
hardy  and  drought-resisting  fodder  plant,  useful  in  times  of 
scarcity, 

(7)  It  is  free  from  pests  and  fungus  diseases  to  which  lucerne 
and  other  fodders  are  liable. 

(8)  It  always  yields  a  good  return  to  a  cultivator,  whose 
object  is  sale  of  fodder.  From  a  connnercial  standpoint,  the  cul- 
tivation of  guinea  grass  is  a  profitable  undertaking.  As  stated 
above,  each  acre  j'ields,  during  the  year,  100  tons  of  green 
grass  which,  sold  at  the  rate  of  300  lbs.  a  rupee,  fetches  about 
Rs.  800.     NVhere  tank  or  river  water  is  available  for  irrigation,  the 


366  AGRICL^LTURAL    JOURNAL    ()F    INDIA.  [V,   IV. 

growing  of  guinea  grass  is  exceedingly  easy,  the  only  expensive 
item  being  manure.  Guinea  grass  requires  frequent  manur- 
ing with  sewage,  night-soil,  sheep -dung  and  bone-dust  in  large 
quantities.  Well-rotted  conservancy  rubbish  and  cow-dung  can 
also  be  freely  used  in  the  absence  of  the  above.  It  never  costs 
me  more  than  a  hundred  rupees  per  acre  to  get  the  maximum 
yield.  There  is  considerable  profit  in  growing  guinea  grass,  near 
all  municipal  towns  where  a  demand  for  green  grass  alwaj^s 
exists.  For  private  use  of  ryots  in  villages  it  is  enough  to  have 
one  acre  under  guinea  grass  for  every  25  heads  of  cattle,  and  for 
dairy  farmers  w^hose  cows  would  have  to  depend  almost  solely  on 
guinea  grass,  one  acre  is  necessary  for  every  ten  milch  cows. 


'^nrmmy*m^.^ 


*^ 


THE  DHUBRI  AGRICULTURAL  AND  INDUS- 
TRIAL EXHIBITION  OF  19 10. 

By  F.  W.  strong,  i.c.s  , 
Offg.    Director  of  Agriculture,  Eastern  Bengal  and  Assam. 

An  Agricultural  and  Industrial  Exhibition  which  was  open- 
ed b}'  His  Honour  the  Lieutenant-Governor  was  held  at  Dhubri 
from  the  3rd  to  tlie  15th  of  Februar}-  and  was  patronised  by  a 
large  number  of  cultivators  and  others.  The  importance  of  this 
exhibition  can  scarce]}^  be  over-estimated.  Its  educative  effects 
were  considerable,  and  it  provided  an  opportunity  of  showing  the 
progress  which  had  been  made  during  the  last  few  3'ears  in  that 
part  of  the  province  and  of  indicating  the  practical  results  wliich 
were  being  acliieved  in  the  Agricultural  Department.  The  con- 
servatism of  the  Bengali  and  Assamese  cultivators  is  well  known, 
but  it  was  evident  that  when  processes  such  as  were  shown  at 
Dhubri  were  proved  to  be  cheap  and  simple  as  well  as  adapted 
to  local  methods,  they  were  willing  to  break  through  custom 
with  great  advantage  to  themselves  and  to  production    generally'. 

The  exhibition  was  in  two  parts.  Both  parts  were  rec- 
tangular in  shape,  measuring  300  by  250    feet. 

Site  of  Exhil)ition.  ,  •  i  ,-      i 

Along  the  sides  01  the  more  nnportant  part 
were  sheds  with  a  uniform  breadth  of  15  feet  with  the  excei)tion 
of  the  east  shed  which  was  20  feet  wide.  The  latter  side  was  set 
aside  fn-  demonstrations  in  weaving  by  Salvation  Army  and 
Serampur  looms,  in  lac  manufacture,  etc.,  and  formed  an  import- 
ant as  well  as  an  interesting  feature  of  the  exhibition.  In  the 
centre  of  one  of  the  rectangles  was  a  spacious  pavilion  or  pandal 
48  feet  in  diameter.  This  was  used  at  the  opening  ceremony 
and  was  pleasingly  decorated.     The  total  cost  of  construction  was 


368  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDLV.  [V,   IV. 

about  Rs.  10,000.  The  sheds  were  of  reeds  with  mud-plastered 
walls  which  were  white-washed.  The  roofs  were  of  corrusfated 
iron.  The  pandal  was  of  wood  with  a  dome  of  bamboo  and 
canvas.  The  ground  round  the  pandal  was  beautifully  laid 
out  and  here  and  there  were  figures  of  malin,  hhistis, 
etc.  The  decoration  was  contracted  for  Rs.  GOO,  and  the 
electric  light,  which  was  unfortunatel}^  not  a  success,  cost 
Rs.  1,500. 

The   arranfyement    and    classification   of  the    exhibits  niifrht 
have  been  improved,  but  the  committee  were 
"^''Sbits.^  "^         confronted  with  practical  difficulties  in  organ- 
ization.    No  properly  classified  list  of  exhibits 
was  prepared  and   the  judges   were   consequently   put    to   great 
inconvenience.     Special  attention  should  be  paid  to  this  in  future. 
There  was  practically   no  last  day  for   receiving  the  exhibits,  and 
this  made  the  preparation  of  a  catalogue  before  the  opening   day 
quite  impossible. 

In  the  section  dealing  with  economic  products  an    effort  was 
made  by  the  Agricultural  Department  to  make 

Economic  Products.  ,  .  ,„  ,  ,  j_ii'  i 

the  section  selt-explanatory  by  attacning  to 
each  exhibit  a  description  in  simple  vernacular.  The  collection 
of  the  staples  of  the  province  was  a  comprehensive  one  including 
as  it  did  a  sample  of  almost  every  kind  of  agricultural  product  of 
Eastern  Bengal  and  Assam.  Paddy,  for  example,  was  shown  in 
28G  varieties  (husked  and  unhusked).  These  were  classified  into 
a'.t.s-  (early,  mid-season  and  late),  cmian  (transplanted  sail  of  three 
or  four  grades  and  broadcast  aman)  and  horo.  An  excellent 
sample  of  fine  aiin  rice  called  charai  tuni  from  Sibsagar  was  on 
view.  The  grains  were  small  and  the  cleaned  rice  white.  Of 
fine  sali  paddy,  the  katarihhog,.  hadsahhog,  daclkhani,  kalijira, 
maniki-madhuri  and  halam  were  specially  attractive  and  in 
localities  where  they  are  not  grown  are  deservedly  worthy  of 
trial.  There  is  a  coarse  sali  called  hathishail  which  has  done 
well  on  the  experimental  farms.  It  has  two  excellent  qualities  : 
the  stalk  is  strong  and  remains  erect  when  ripe  and  it  has  been 
known  to    produce    as   nuich   as    14j    maunds    of   paddy  to   the 


DHL'BIil    AtiKlCL'LTUKAL    AND    INJiL'sTUlAL    KXHIUITIOX  :    STKOXG.       369 

bigha.*  Amongst  the  pulses,  the  soy  bean  attracted  notice  as 
being  in  great  demand  in  Europe  for  various  agricultural  and 
intkistrial  purposes.  In  this  province,  it  is  grown  only  in  Assam, 
chiefly  in  the  Khasi  hills,  Kamrup  and  Sylhet.  The  sugarcane 
exhibits  were  particularly  interesting  and  instructive.  Careful 
experiments  are  at  present  being  made  on  the  Jorhat  and 
Rangpur  association  farms  with  Mauritius  and  Barbados 
canes,  as  compared  with  the  local  varieties,  such  as  may  and 
pura  of  Assam  and  samsara,  k/iei-i,  gauderi  of  Eastern  Bengal. 
Owing  to  the  perishable  nature  of  fruits  and  vegetables,  no  attempt 
was  made  to  make  an  exhaustive  collection  of  these.  Some 
Ceylon  pine-apples,  a  variety  of  which  some  of  the  experi- 
mental farms  have  been  endeavouring  to  popularise  and  a  collec- 
tion of  up-to-date  varieties  of  potatoes  from  the  upper  Shillong 
farm  which  the  Agricultural  Department  is  trying  to  introduce  in 
preference  to  country  potatoes  were  especially  worthy  of  mention. 
There  was  a  very  comprehensive  display  of  fibres,  mostly  con- 
tributed by  the  Fibre  Expert  to  the  Government  of  Eastern 
Bengal  and  Assam,  including  jute  of  various  grades,  flax,  sida, 
agave,  sann-hemp  and  pine-apple  fibres.  This  was,  perhaps,  the 
best  collection  of  economic  products.  A  collection  of  artificial 
manures,  such  as  saltpetre,  ammonium  sulphate,  oil-cakes,  etc., 
were  exhibited  along  with  seeds  of  crops  suitable  for  green 
manuring,  such  as  dhamcha,  sann-hemp  and  cowpea.  The  exhib- 
its of  tobacco  were  disappointing,  considering  the  proximity  of 
the  tobacco-growing  districts  of  Rangpur  and  Cooch  Behar. 
It  is  also  to  be  regretted  that  the  Indian  Tea  Cess  Committee  did 
not  exhibit  their  fine  collection  of  Indian  teas  from  the  Surma 
valley,  Assam  and  Dooars. 

In  the  entomological  section,  the  chief  pests  found  in  rice, 

sugarcane,    maize,     tobacco,    jute,     etc.,    were 

Entomological  Section.      ^^^^^^.^^  ^^.j^j^  explanatory  notes  attached  to  the 

mounted  specimens.     There   were    also    shown    various    spraying 
machines,  such  as  knapsack  sprayers  and  the-  bucket  spray  pump. 


•  Tlie  Bengal  bigh.T  equals  \  acre. 


370  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   IV. 

Special  mention  must  be  made  of  the  fisheries  stall  got 
up  by  Mr.  K.  C.  De,  Registrar  of  Co-operative 
Credit  Societies.  The  exhibits  consisted  of 
the  various  species  of  fish  found  in  the  province,  fish  oils  and  a 
collection  of  interesting  nets  and  traps.  Live  specimens  of  the 
tiny  mosquito-eating  fish,  a  most  useful  destroyer  of  mosquito 
larvae,  were  exhibited.  A  most  interesting  demonstration  was 
given  of  the  new  method  of  preserving  fish  in  Soiling's  paper. 
The  fish  must  first  be  cleaned  and  bled  by  almost  severing  the 
head  from  the  body.  It  is  then  wrapped  in  this  patent  paper 
which  costs  J-  to  1  pice  per  sheet.  Fish  thus  prepared  may  be 
preserved  fresh  for  a  long  time  with  the  help  of  a  little  ice. 
The  fish  does  not  lose  its  flavour  as  it  does  when  preserved  in 
ice  alone. 

The  chief  demonstrations    were   undertaken   by  the  Depart- 
ment of  Agriculture.     The  most    important  as 

Demonstrations.  .  . 

well  as  the  most  mterestmo-  was  the    manufac- 


o 


ture  of  sugar  by  the  Hadi  process.  It  is  unnecessary  here  to 
describe  the  details  of  the  process.  The  total  cost  of  the  appara- 
tus would  be  approximately  Ks.  500  exclusive  of  the  mills, 
which  cost  about  Rs.  150  extra.  The  Agricultural  Department 
is  not  yet  prepared  to  recommend  this  process  for  general  adop- 
tion in  this  province.  A  demonstration  of  shallow  pans  of  the 
ordinary  shape  and  size  as  compared  with  the  ordinary  deep  pans 
showed  that  a  much  better  quality  oi  (jur  could  be  turned  out  by 
the  former.  Another  demonstration  which  excited  more  than 
ordinary  interest  was  that  of  canning  fruits  and  vegetables.  The 
apparatus  necessary  is  inexpensive  and  the  process  is  very  imple 
so  that  it  should  prove  a  suitable  industry  on  a  small  scale. 
Pine-apples  canned  in  Shillong  in  July  1908  were  opened  and 
found  to  be  of  excellent  quality.  The  cost  of  production  per  tin 
at  Shillong  was  about  4|^  annas,  but  the  cost  in  the  plains  would 
be  much  less.  Such  tins  fetch  7  annas  to  8  annas  a  tin,  which 
giv^es  a  handsome  profit.  Unfortunately  owing  to  defective 
tinning  the  actual  experiment  carried  out  on  the  exhibition 
yround  was  not  as    successful    as    it    oujrht  to  have  been.     Other 


DHUBRl    A(;KICL'LTUKAL    AN1»     IM)USTKIAL    KXIIIIJITK  )N  :    STRONG.        371 

demonstrations  included  the  proper  method  of  preserving  cow- 
dung  in  a  pit  to  prevent  wastage  b}^  rain  and  sun,  the  extraction 
of  fibre  from  Hax  and  phmtain  trees  by  simple  hand- worked 
machines,  the  manufacture  of  cream  and  butter  with  improved 
appliances  and  the  manufacture  of  lac,  an  influstry  hitherto 
unknown  in  Assam  although  the  law  materifd  is  hugely 
produced  there.  Winnowers,  husking-machines,  oil-mills  and 
chaff-cutters  were  also  shown,  not  to  mention  demonstrations 
of  weaving  by  the  Seram[)ur  and  Salvation  Army  looms. 
The  demonstrations  in  plouohino-  were  watched  with  ofreat 
interest.  The  plough  with  which  the  cultivators  seemed  to  be 
most  favourably  impressed  was  the  Meston-plough  from  the 
United  Provinces,  costing  Rs.  4-8.  This  was  preferred  to  the 
Hindustan  plough  which  costs  Rs.  12-8.  The  English  turn-wrest 
plough  which  was  also  tried  worked  vei}'  well  and  was  shown  to 
be  suitable  for  breaking  up  new  land.  The  objection  to  it  is  its 
comparatively  high  cost  (Rs.  27)  and  the  fact  that  it  requires 
four  strong  bullocks  to  work  it.  It  was  a  matter  for  regret  that 
no  suitable  site  for  the  demonstration  of  improved  tillage  imple- 
ments could  be  found  close  to  the  exhibition  ground  and  conse- 
quently the  attendance  at  these  important  demonstrations  was 
not  as  laro^e  as  it  ouofht  to  have  been.  On  future  occasions, 
notices  might  be  distributed  in  the  villages  beforehand  with  the 
object  of  securing  a  larger  attendance  at  such  demonstrations. 
Representatives  of  the  various  co-operative  credit  societies 
might  also  be  invited  to  witness  such  trials  as  it  is  hoped  that 
with  their  help  these  implements  may  be  brought  into  wider  use. 
By  these  means  the  educative  effect  of  the  exhibition  would  be 
increased.  Within  the  demonstration  ground  n  small  vegetable 
garden  was  laid  out  by  Babu  D.  R.  Ghose  which  had  in  addi- 
tion to  foreign  vegetables  a  collection  of  useful  economic  plants. 
Mention  must  be  made  not  only  of  the  fine  artistic  work 
of    the  ladies    of    the   hi^i^her    sections   of  the 

Otlier  Kxliibits.  .  r     i        i  • />    i  i 

community  but  also  of  the  beautiful  handiwork 
peculiar  to  the  M<'rh  women  inhabiting  the  frontiers  of  Bhutan. 
There    were   also    exhibits  of  cotton  and   silk  textiles,  especially 


372  AGRICULTUKAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  IV, 

Dacca  muslins,  wares  and  utensils,  decorations  and  furniture,  fine 
arts,  school  exhibits  from  the  Assam  valley  and  the  Deaf  and 
Dumb  School  in  Calcutta,  forest  woods,  chemicals,  leather  goods 
knitting  machines,  jewellery,  cigars  and  cigarettes.  The  work  of 
Hindu  widows  in  the  weavino-  of  silk  and  oold  cloth  as  well  as 
lace-making  was  especially  noteworthy.  The  number  of  exhibits 
and  exhibitors  was  large,  but  the  number  of  exhibits  from  Assam 
might  have  been  much  greater  and  at  least  as  representative  as 
those  from  Eastern  Bengal. 

The  Offg.  Director  of  Agriculture  wishes  to  put  on  record 
the  good  work  done  by  the  following  gentlemen  :  —  Babu  Chandra 
Kanta  Sen  for  work  in  connection  with  the  desiofningf  and  con- 
struction  of  the  buildings  ;  Babu  Dakshina  Ranjan  Ghose  for 
work  in  connection  with  the  demonstrations  ;  Babu  Upendranath 
Chatterji,  Pleader,  on  whom,  as  secretary  of  the  committee, 
fell  the  heavy  burden  of  correspondence  and  accounts  Mr.  T. 
Emerson,  Deputy  Commissioner  of  Goalpara,  who  was  president 
of  the  exhibition  committee  and  the  orio-inator  and  director  of 
the  whole  scheme,  is  to  be  congratulated  on  its  conspicuous 
success. 

This  exhibition  was  the  second  of  its  kind  which  has  been 
held  in  the  province,  the  first  being  held  at  Jorhat*  in  February 
1908.  It  showed  a  considerable  advance  on  the  latter,  both  in 
point  of  number  and  nature  of  exhibits,  and  was  greatly  superior 
to  it  in  the  matter  of  organization.  Defects  were,  however,  not 
wanting  even  in  this  latest  exhibition,  and  efforts  will  be  made  to 
remedy  them  in  future. 

*  For  an  account  of  this  exhibition  l)y  Mr.  S.  G.  Hart,    i.c.s.,  see   pp.  253 — 2oC,    Vol.  Ill, 
pt.  Ill  (July,  1908)  of  this  Journal.— Ed. 


NOTES. 

Fruit  Trees  on  Grass  and  Cultivated  Land.  — An  ex- 
periment was  begun  in  1902  by  the  experts  of  the  Harper- Adams 
Agricultural  College,  to  test  the  effect  on  growths  of  apple  trees 
grown  on  cultivated  soil.  The  grass  upon  which  the  trees  are 
planted  is  manured  regularly  with  farni-3'ard  and  artificial  manure, 
the  grass  being  mown  and  removed,  while  in  the  cultivated  por- 
tion of  the  soil  artificial  manures  are  used  in  addition  to  farm- 
yard manure,  thus  obtaining  equal  conditions  as  to  manure  for 
the  trees  in  both  plots.  The  difference  in  the  growth  soon  be- 
comes noticeable  and  has  continued  to  be  very  marked.  During 
last  year,  the  growth  averaged  about  14  inches  in  the  trees  on 
o-rass  and  28  inches  in  the  trees  on  cultivated  soil,  the  measure- 
ments  being  taken  at  a  distance  of  4^-  feet  from  the  ground.  In 
1907,  the  experiment  was  modified  by  removing  a  square  of  turf 
from  around  the  stems  of  alternate  trees  on  grass.  A  portion  of 
turf  4  yards  square  was  laid  bare  to  each  alternate  tree  and  kept 
free  from  weeds.  This  again  produced  a  marked  difference,  the 
2-rowth  beino-  much  c^reater  of  the  trees  from  which  the  turf  was 
removed.  This  is  information  which  orchardists  should  note  and 
act  upon — [Mark  Lane  Express,  June  23,  1910.) 

The  subject  of  the  effect  of  grass  on  fruit  trees  is  one  which 
has  engaged  the  attention  of  investigators  in  the  jDast  few  years. 
We  find  experiments  carried  out  in  England,  the  United  States 
and  India,  all  pointing  to  the  same  result,  namely,  very  marked 
inferiority  in  the  trees  grown  on  grassed  land.  In  the  Second 
Bejwrt  on  the  Fimit  Experiments  at  Pusa  (1910),  by  Howard,  we 
find  the  Ibllowing  : — "  In  the  case  of  the  limes,  lemons,  oranges, 
pumelos,  plums,  custard  apples,  loquats,  peaches,  guavas  and  figs. 


374  AGIUCULTURAL    JOUKXAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  IV. 

the  trees  in  the  grassed  plots  are  in  a  pitiable  condition.  Half 
the  trees  in  the  custard  apple  plot  died  in  the  early  part  of  1909, 
and  the  rest  are  now  moribund.  One  lemon  tree  is  dead,  and 
the  rest  of  the  grassed  down  citrus  trees  are  very  unhealthy. 
The  loquats  have  hardly  made  any  growth  during  the  last 
year,  while  the  peaches,  guavas  and  figs,  although  considerabl}" 
checked  and  somewhat  starved  in  appearance,  are  affected  to 
the  least  extent." 


Preparation  of  Beeswax  in  India. — The  beeswax  exported 
from  India  is  the  product  of  three  species  of  Apis,  namely, 
A.  dorsal  a,  Fabr.  ;  A.  iyidica,  Fabr.  ;  and  A.  florea,  Fabr. 
The  wax  deriv^ed  from  each  of  these  is  practically  identical  in 
composition  but  differs  somewhat  from  European  wax,  chiefly 
in  its  lower  acid  value.  The  collection  of  wax  is  carried  on  here 
and  there  throughout  India  and  Burma,  mainly  by  jungle  tribes, 
who  o'ather  it  from  trees  and  rocks.  Besides  entering-  into  a 
number  of  local  industries,  there  is  a  considerable  amount  of 
beeswax  exported  mainly  to  German}^,  the  United  Kingdom, 
France,  Belgium  and  the  Straits  Settlements.  In  prepaiing 
the  wax  the  honey  is  first  removed  by  squeezing  the  comb 
between  the  hands.  It  is  then  washed  in  cold  water  to  further 
remove  honey  or  other  soluble  matter  contained  in  it,  after 
which  it  is  placed  in  a  vessel  half  filled  with  water  and  heated 
over  a  fire.  As  a  rule,  no  attempt  is  made  to  grade  the  wax 
before  melting,  so  that  the  comb  containing  brood,  eggs,  twigs, 
leaves,  grass,  etc.,  is  included  in  the  boiling.  These  impurities 
separate  from  the  wax  when  in  a  melted  condition,  and  are 
removed  by  straining  the  wax  through  cotton  clotli.  On  cooling, 
the  wax  is  made  into  cakes  or  balls.  A  second  melting  is  some- 
times given,  and  turmeric  powder  is  frequently  mixed  with  the 
wax  to  give  it  a  bright  yellow  colour.  In  a  melted  state,  it  is 
poured  into  vessels  containing  a  little  water,  which  serve  as 
moulds. — {Bulletin  of  the  hnpericd  Institute,  Vol.  VIII, 
No.    I,  1910.) 


NOTES.  37  0 

Cultivation  and  Utilisation  of  Soy  Bean. — A  study  is  now- 
being  made  by  the  Reporter  on  Economic  Products  to  the  Gov- 
ernment of  India  of  the  composition  of  soy  beans  of  established 
Indian  races,  with  a  view  to  the  determination  of  the  proportion 
of  oil  which  they  contain  as  compared  with  that  contained  in 
Manchurian  beans.  The  quantity  of  soy  beans  at  present  pro- 
duced in  India  is  not  sufficient  for  the  creation  of  an  expoit  trade, 
but  there  is  ample  evidence  that  the  beans  could  be  grown  exten- 
sively if  desired. 

The  introduction  of  the  soy  bean  into  India  is  of  compara- 
tively recent  date,  and  the  product  is  not  grown  to  an}'  large 
extent  except  among  people  of  Mongolian  races  and  particularly 
in  Burma.  Experiments  on  the  cultivation  of  the  plant  have 
been  carried  out  at  various  times  at  Nagpur,  Lahore,  ^[adras,  at 
several  localities  in  the  Bombay  Presidency  and  at  Saharanpur 
in  the  United  Provinces.  Further  experiments,  however,  are 
required  in  order  to  prove  that  the  crop  would  be  remunerative 
before  it  can  be  safely  recommended  to  the  ryots.  Reference  to 
small  trials  recentl}?-  carried  out  in  the  Central  Provinces  has  been 
made  in  the  annual  report  on  the  agricultural  stations  for 
1908-09. 

Results  of  the  analysis  of  fourteen  samples  grown  from  seed 
of  Japanese  origin  at  the  Manjri  experimental  farm  are  recorded 
in  the  Indian  Trade  Joiwnal  (1909,  Vol.  15,  No.  145),  and  show 
that  the  products  were  of  good  quality  and  usually  contained  a 
satisfactory  proportion  of  oil,  six  of  them  yielding  more  than  *20 
per  cent.  It  is,  therefore,  considered  that  further  efforts  are 
justified  to  establish  soy  bean  cultivation  in  India  as  a  commer- 
cial industry. — (Bulletin    of    thr    Imprri'd  Institute,   Vol.  VIIL 

No.    1,  1910.) 

« 
*  • 

The  Conservation  ok  the   Fertility  of  the  Soil. — In    an 

interesting    paper    published   in    the  Journal,   of   the    Board    or 

Af/riculturc,  London,  for  jMay    1910,  Mr.   A.   D.   Hall,  Director 

of  the  Rothamsted  Experimental  Station,   gives   us  some  good 

ideas    of  how  the    fertility  of  the    land   can    be   conserved.     In 


376  AGRICULTURAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,  IV. 

tracing  changes  in  the  fertility  of  the  soil,  he  confines  himself 
to  noticing  chiefly  those  in  the  amount  of  the  nitrogen  present, 
because,  though  phosphoric  acid,  potash  and  lime  are  important 
factors  of  plant  nutrition,  these  elements  are  not  susceptible  to 
the  gains  and  losses  from  cultivation,  by  which  the  stock  of 
nitrogen  is  so  greatly  affected.  The  processes  which  affect  the 
stock  of  nitrogen  in  the  soil  are  summarised  as  follows  : — 

(1)  The  growth  of  plants  simply  removes  some  of  the 
nitrogen  that  has  reached  an  available  form,  and  if  the  crop  is 
taken  off  at  harvest,  there  is  so  much  direct  loss  to  the  soil. 
As  it  may  also  be  accepted  that  the  plant  itself,  apart  from 
bacterial  action,  neither  converts  any  of  the  combined  nitrogen 
it  obtains  into  gas,  nor  brings  into  combination  any  of  the  free 
nitrogen  of  the  air,  there  is  neither  gain  nor  loss  of  soil 
nitrogen  when  the  growth  of  the  plant  is  returned  to  the 
soil. 

(2)  Various  bacteria  are  capable  of  bringing  atmospheric 
nitroo-en  into  combination,  and  so  increasing  the  stock  of 
soil  nitrogen.  They  either  live  in  symbiosis  with  higher 
plants  {Pseudomonas),  or  exist  free  in  the  soil  {Azotohacter, 
Clostridium). 

(S)  Another  group  of  bacteria  in  the  process  of  breaking- 
down  organic  matter  liberate  the  nitrogen  in  the  free  state  and 
so  reduce  the  stock  of  soil  nitrogen. 

(4)  Natural  drainage  waters  contain  nitrates  which  have 
been  derived  from  the  soil  nitrogen  by  bacterial  oxidation. 

(5)  The  rain  annually  contributes  a  certain  amount  of 
combined  nitrogen  to  the  soil.  The  amount  is  greater  in  the 
proximity  of  towns ;  the  average  amount  at  Rothamsted 
is  3 -84  lbs.  per  acre  per  annum,  and  other  results  would 
show  that  this  is  a  very  representative  figure  for  ordinary 
country  air. 

In  practice  most  of  these  factors  giving  rise  to  gain  or  loss 
are  at  work  together  ;  which  of  them  will  predominate  will 
depend  upon  the  style  of  farming  and  cultivation  the  land 
receives.     Mr.   Hall  gives  three  cases  from    the    long    recorded 


NOTES.  377 

history  of  the  Rothamsted  plots  by  whicli  are  afforded  examples 
of  the  interplay  of  the  various  factors  : — 

A.— In  this  case  we  have  the  simplest  example  of  land 
growing  wheat  continuously  for  a  period  of  28  years  with 
nothing  being  restored  to  the  soil.  The  result  shows  that  the 
amount  removed  by  the  crop,  weeds  and  drainage  is  more  or 
less  equalised  by  the  supply  from  rain  and  the  action  of  bacteria 
(2)  and  (5). 

B. — In  this  case,  the  land  is  very  rich,  200  lbs.  of  nitrogen 
being  added  every  year  as  14  tons  per  acre  of  farm-yard  manure, 
containing  very  large  amounts  of  organic  matter.  The  crop 
is  wholly  removed  as  in  the  previous  case.  Under  these 
conditions,  the  losses  of  nitrogen  are  enormous.  Less  than  one 
quarter  has  been  removed  by  the  crop,  less  than  a-nother  quarter 
remains  in  the  soil,  so  that  more  than  half  has  been  lost  throusrh 
the  agencies  enumerated  above  (3)  and  (4). 

C. — The  case  is  then  taken  where  the  crop  is  not  removed, 
but  the  whole  of  the  veofetation  is  allowed  to  die  down  and  fall 
back  on  the  land.  Here,  there  have  been  very  large  gains  of 
nitrogen  amounting  to  92  lbs.  per  annum  in  one  field  and  41  lbs. 
in  another.  In  the  former,  the  soil  has  a  marked  quantity  of 
calcium  carbonate  which  favours  the  action  of  Azotohacter  and 
the  presence  of  leguminous  weeds  with  which  are  associated 
the  nodule  bacteria,  while  in  the  latter,  lime  and  leguminous 
weeds  were  both  absent.  But  in  both  cases  the  gain  is  attrib- 
uted to  bacteria  owing  to  the  annual  contribution  of  carbonaceous 
matter  which  aids  their  action. 

Mr.  Hall  thus  summarises  the  conditions  which  prevail  in 
practice  : — 

"  In  the  Hrst  place,  it  is  clear  that  the  growth  of  successive 
cereal  crops  which  are  wholly  removed  from  the  land  will  rapidly 
reduce  the  stock  of  nitrogen  originally  in  thf  soil,  not  only  by 
the  amounts  withdrawn  in  the  cro[),  but  also  because  of  the 
oxidising  actions  which  the  cultivation  sets  up  in  the  land. 
Moreover,  the  richer  the  land  to  begin  with,  the  greater  will  be 
the  annual  losses ;  when  the  land  gets  anywhere  near  the  pitch 


378  AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,    IV. 

of  impoverishment,  not  only  is  the  annual  conversion  from 
dormant  into  available  plant  food  small,  but  the  wasteful  oxida- 
tion is  similarly  reduced,  and  the  stock  of  nitrogen  is  only  slowly 
depleted.  If  instead  of  cropping  continuously  with  cereals  a 
more  conservative  system  of  farming  is  introduced,  in  which 
leguminous  crops  become  a  regular  feature  in  the  rotation,  and 
a  certain  amount  of  carbonaceous  matter  is  returned  to  the 
land,  as  by  the  folding  oft'  of  green  crops,  by  sheep,  then  the 
recuperative  agencies  fixing  nitrogen  become  sufficient  to  repair 
the  losses  due  to  the  crops  and  the  waste  by  drainage  and  oxida- 
tion, and  a  moderate  level  of  fertility  may  be  maintained  in- 
definitely  without   the    introduction    of   any    extraneous    source 

of  nitrogen." — (Editor.) 

» 
*  » 

PE-MYiT—Pe-myit  (bean-root)  is  the  Burmese  name  for  the 
plant  and  root  of  the  leguminous  climber,  botanically  known  as  the 
P.9ophocarpu.'<  fetrar/onolohus.  In  India  this  climber  is  grown  for 
its  fruits — long,  four-sided,  curly-winged  pods — which,  under  the 
well-known  epithet  of  "kafri  bean,"  are  cooked  when  tender 
and  eaten  like  beans.  It  is  worthy  of  note  that  its  edible  roots 
are  unknown  and  unused  for  food  in  that  country.  In  Burma, 
however,  it  is  these  that  are  prized,  extensive,  well- tended  fields 
being  annually  placed  under  the  crop  in  many  parts  of  the 
province.  Indeed,  of  the  more  valuable  edible  root-crops  of 
Burma,  pe-myit  is  easily  reckoned  as  chief;  for,  of  all  roots, 
leguminous  or  other,  which  the  Burmese  at  present  raise  for  food, 
pe-myit  alone  is  coveted  most  and  consumed  throughout  the 
country  in  quantity.  It  is  an  interesting  fact  in  the  culture  of 
pe-myit  that  seed  to  establish  the  crop  in  Upper  Burma  is  annual- 
ly imported  to  it  from  the  Shan  States  ;  for  it  is  believed  by  the 
Burmese,  that  seed  locally  matured  is  unable  to  produce  plants 
thrifty  enough  to  yield  edible  roots  in  lucrative  quantities.  The 
Shans,  on  the  other  hand,  believe  that  the  soils,  climates,  expo- 
sures, slopes  and  other  factors  prevailing  within  the  limits  of 
their  States,  militate  against  the  production  of  good  roots  and 
accordingly,  do  not  raise  the  pe-myit  except  in  garden   culture 


XOTKS.  379 

f'oi'  soeil.  W'itli  tlu'iii  tlio  plant  is  a  liaidy  |t<'i('iiiiial  wliicli,  wlioii 
C'oiTPctl}'  ti'aiiied  and  cai-efully  temled,  attains  lo  laiLjo  si/c  and 
hears  seed  in  abundance.  In  Burma,  it  is  an  animal  li<^ld  ei()[). 
lasting  from  seed  to  haivest,  for  only  six  months.  The  seed  is 
sown  in  Auyust-Septenibei-  and  the  roots  dug  up  in  January- 
February.  The  pick  of  the  produce  is  consumed  at  home,  while 
of  the  rest,  a  good  deal  is  exported  to  tlie  Shan  States.  Low- 
ly ing  fields  with  stiff  clayey  soils  undei'  moist  and  fairly  cool 
atmospheres  offer  some  of  the  more  important  natural  conditions 
requisite  for  the  successful  cultivation  of  pe-myit,  and,  though 
it  is  now  a  most  weighty  dictum  that  cattle  manure  is  the  worst 
for  legumes  (pod-bearing  plaiits),  pe-myit  is  known  to  thiivf 
best  only  when  liberally  manured  with  well-rotted  cow-dung. 

At  the  commencement  of  the  rains,  the  field  is  prepai-ed  by 
ploughing  in,  per  acre,  from  40  to  50  cart-loads  of  fine  (tld  cow- 
manure.  In  July  oi'  August,  it  is  cross-ploughed,  hanowed, 
levelled  and  the  surface  made  up  into  long,  nai-row  lidges  with 
furrows  between.  The  ridges,  as  a  rule,  are  a  toot  and-a-half 
wide  and  six  inches  high,  while  the  separating  furrows  are  at  least 
a  foot  wide.  The  ridges  are  stocked  by  sowing  the  seeds  in  holes 
on  them  made  with  the  end  of  a  stick.  The  holes,  which  aio 
about  an  inch  deep,  are  drilled  in  rows  three  inches  apart.  In 
some  fields  every  three  rows  of  the  holes  are  separated  from  every 
other  three  rows  by  a  space  of  about  a  foot  in  width,  so  that  the 
holes  are  grouped  in  rows  of  three.  Only  one  seed  is  usually 
sown  to  the  hole;  it  is  firmly  pressed  down  l\v  the  hand  ..f  thr 
sower.  One  bushel  of  seed  stocks  an  acie  (A'  land.  Unloss  it 
be  showerj'-  weathei*  or  actually  lainy  at  si.wing  tunc  tln^  lield. 
directly  it  shall  have  been  stocked,  is  freely  watcicd  l.y  tlushing 
the  drains  But  when  the  beds  have  been  wet,  the  suiplus  watei-, 
if  an3%  is  carefully  drained  of!"  the  .seed-beds  and  drains.  In  a 
week  from  sowing  them  the  seeds  germinate  when  the  field,  if 
required,  is  watered  again  ;  it  is  thereafter  ke[)t  in  a  moist  condi- 
tion by  a  judicious  method  of  tedious  watering  until  the  pods  get 
ripe  and  tlie  loots  are  maturt\  Excessive  moisture  is  said  to  i)e 
almost  as  fatal  to  the  perfect  success  of  the  crop  as  the  drying 

26 


380  AGRICULTURAL   JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   IV. 

of  the  beds  would  be  from  the  dearth  of  it.  Indeed,  tlie  mainten- 
ance throughout  the  period  of  its  growth,  of  the  crop  in  its 
adequate  moisture-requirement,  presents  the  most  difficult  cul- 
tural feature  in  the  field-cultiv^ation  of  pe-myit  in  Burma.  If 
sown  in  August  and  properly  grown,  the  crop  flowers  in 
November  and  fruits  in  December.  The  pods,  when  young, 
are  cooked  and  eaten,  just  as  they  are  in  India  or  elsewhere  : 
but  the  hard  brown  seed  of  the  mature  pod  is  said  to  be  so 
dangerously  indigestible  that  it  is  not  eaten  like  the  seeds  of 
the  other  Burmese  cultivated  beans.  The  dense-fleshed,  spindle- 
shaped,  tuberous  roots  are  scraped,  packed  in  rice  straw,  and 
boiled  in  pots  of  water  to  which,  as  a  rule,  small  quantities  of 
til-seed  oil  have  been  added.  The  straw  imparts  a  reddish  colour 
to  the  roots,  while  the  oil  is  said  to  loosen  the  skin  and  so  help 
in  their  easy  pealing  when  boiled.  The  boiled  roots  have  a 
somewhat  waxy  consistence,  a  pronounced  bean  odour  and  a  mild 
nutty  taste.  The  price  of  the  fresh  roots  being  Re.  1-4-0  per 
10  viss,  and  the  yield  of  an  acre  from  800  to  1,000  viss,  the  gross 
receipt  amounts  to  from  Rs  100  to  Rs.  125  per  acre.  The  cost  of 
production  including  the  price  of  seed,  tax  on  land,  cultivation  and 
harvesting,  is  said  not  to  exceed  Rs.  35  per  acre  ;  so  that  a  net 
profit  of  from  Rs.  65  to  Rs.  90  is  realised  from  this  area  per 
annum  with  pe-myit.  The  crop  is  a  very  exhausting  one,  so 
that  manure  has  to  be  annuall}^  given  the  soil.  —  a.m.s.   [Ccqntal, 

June  23rd,  1910.) 

* 
*  * 

Agricultural  Research. — The  need  for  widely  extended 
facilities  for  agricultural  research  is  being  more  and  more  recog- 
nised both  by  men  of  science  and  by  our  administrative  author- 
ities. At  the  last  meeting  of  the  Executive  Committee  of  the 
British  Science  Guild  a  memorial  to  the  Prime  Minister  on  the 
subject  of  research  in  agriculture  was  approved.  The  President 
of  the  Board  of  Agriculture  and  Fisheries  has  now  appointed  a 
committee  to  advise  the  Board  as  to  how  Ao-ricultural  Research 
may  be  best  encouraged  and  improved.  Lastly,  a  society  has 
been   incorporated   to  secure  the  development  and  extension    of 


NOTKS.  381 

the  investio-ations  inauofurated  and  endowed  by  the  late  Sii- 
Jolin  Lawes.  These  are  all  excellent  indications  that  a  deter- 
mined and  united  effort  is  to  be  nnade  to  place  agricultural 
practice  upon  a  scientific  basis,  and  to  secure  for  the  British 
farmer  all  the  help  science  is  able  to  provide. 

The  committee  appointed  by  Earl  Carrington  to  advise  the 
Board  of  Agriculture  on  all  scientific  questions  bearing  directly 
on  the  improvement  of  agriculture  will  deal  especially  with  the 
methods  to  be  adopted  :  (a)  for  promoting  Agricultural  Research 
in  Universities  and  other  scientific  Schools  ;  (h)  for  aiding  scientific 
workers  engaged  in  the  study  of  agricultural  problems  ;  and  {<■) 
for  ensuring  that  new  scientific  discoveries  are  utilised  for  the 
benefit  of  the  agriculturist. 

The  committee  will  consist  of  the  Duke  of  Devonshire, 
Lord  Reay,  Sir  Edward  Thorp,  c.b.,  f.r.s.,  Mr.  David  Davies, 
M.P.,  Dr.  J.  J.  Dobbie,  f.r.s.  (Principal  of  the  Government  Labora- 
tories), Professor  J.  B.  Farmer,  f.r.s.,  Dr.  S.  F.  Harmer,  f.r.s. 
(keeper  of  Zoology  at  the  Natural  History  Museum),  Dr.  R. 
Stewart  MacDougall  (technical  adviser  in  Zoology  to  the  Board 
of  Agriculture  and  Fisheries),  Mr.  T.  H.  Middleton  (one  of  the 
Assistant  Secretaries  to  the  Board  of  Agriculture  and  Fisheries), 
Mr.  Spencer  P.  Pickering,  f.r.s.,  Lieut. -Colonel  David  Prain, 
CLE.,  f.r.s.  (Director  of  the  Royal  Botanic  Gardens,  Kew),  Mr. 
H.  S.  Staveley-Hill,  m.p.,  Mr.  Stewart  Stockman  (Chief  Veterinary 
Officer  of  the  Board  of  Agriculture  and  Fisheries),  Dr.  J.  J.  H. 
Teall,  f.r.s.  (Director  of  the  Geological  Survey  and  ^luseum), 
and  Dr.  David  Wilson.  ^Ir.  Middleton  will  act  as  Chairman  of 
the  Committee,  and  one  of  the  Officers  of  the  Litelligence 
Division  of  the  Board  will  act  as  Secretary. 

A  meeting  of  the  Society  for  extending  the  Rothamsted 
Experiments  was  held  at  Rothamsted  on  June  IGth  under  the 
presidency  of  the  J)uke  of  Devonshire.  The  Society  has  been 
incorporated  with  the  object  of  obtaining  additional  funds  for 
the  development  of  the  agricultuial  investigations  which  have 
been  carried  on  so  lono-  under  the  late  Sir  John  Lawes  and 
the   Lawes'   Asfricultural    Trust    which    he   afterwards    founded. 


382  A<!HlcrLTCKAL    JOURNAL    OF    INDIA.  [V,   IV. 

Tlie  iiiiiiipdiate  object  of  tlie  Society  i.s  to  obtain  a  sum  of  £5,000 
in  order  to